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The present sixth volume of ISSI Space Sciences Series is the outcome of the most ambitious study project of ISSI hitherto, that on 'Source and Loss Processes of Magnetospheric Plasma'. The goal has been to produce a fully integrated book on the subject, which gives an authoritative overview of all aspects of the topic in a well organized form, useful and readable both for active researchers in the field and for young scientists who are starting their research in space physics. In order to represent the full diversity of experience and perspective that exists in the science community, some 50 leading scientists from allover the world were invited to participate in the project and contribute to the text. With the scientific competence well in hand, the dominating problem in producing the book has been to achieve a degree of consistency in style, nomenclature, notations and format, as well as good cross referencing. To what degree we have succeeded in reaching our goal of delivering a volume that will be useful to the community in both its comprehensiveness and readability remains to be decided by the readers. The book is the outcome of a three year long process. In December 1995 the study project on 'Source and Loss Processes of Magnetospheric Plasma' was se- lected by ISSI after consultations with several groups of senior representatives of the space physics community.
This book provides an in-depth review of all aspects of space weather. Written by world-leading experts, these sixteen review papers cover everything from space weather's origin on the Sun and its propagation in interplanetary space to its impact on the Earth and other solar system bodies. The history of space weather and even events with anthropogenic origin are also covered. Thus, the volume serves as both a comprehensive reference for researchers and a starting point for graduate students.Originally published in Space Science Reviews in the Topical Collection "The Scientific Foundation of Space Weather"
This volume takes an interdisciplinary approach to the evolution of terrestrial planets, addressing the topic from the perspectives of planetary sciences, geochemistry, geophysics and biology, and solar and astrophysics.The review papers analyze the chemical, isotopic and elemental evolution of the early Solar System, with specific emphasis on Venus, Earth, and Mars. They discuss how these factors contribute to our understanding of accretion timescales, volatile delivery, the origin of the Moon and the evolution of atmospheres and water inventories of terrestrial planets. Also explored are plate tectonic formation, the origin of nitrogen atmospheres and the prospects for exoplanet habitability.The papers are forward-looking as well, considering the importance of future space missions for understanding terrestrial planet evolution in the Solar System and beyond. Overall, this volume shall be useful for academic and professional audiences across a range of scientific disciplines.Previously published in Space Science Reviews in the Topical Collection "Reading Terrestrial Planet Evolution in Isotopes and Element Measurements"
The outcome of this endeavor is an interdisciplinary compendium with a unified perspective on cosmic dust science. Originally published in Space Science Reviews in the Topical Collection "Cosmic Dust from the Laboratory to the Stars"
The review papers in this volume provide an in-depth examination of complex astrophysical phenomena of star formation via multi-wavelength observations and modeling. Among the fundamental issues discussed in the book are: The role of gravity and magnetized turbulence in the formation and evolution of molecular cloudsThe stellar feedback (supernovae, HII regions, winds, cosmic rays) in regulating star formation The origin of the stellar initial mass function and its universality across various environments Jets, magnetic fields and high energy particles in stellar clustersThe origin of the first stars and black holesThe goal of these papers is to review the major processes governing star formation and to investigate how they are interlinked. In doing so, they provide an in-depth look at the tremendous theoretical and observational progress that has been made in the recent past and also outline future perspectives.Previously published in Space Science Reviews in the Topical Collection "Star Formation¿
This volume discusses the evolutionary paths linking planets and their atmospheres to their origin within circumstellar disks. Dust accretion within disks generates planet cores, while gas accretion on these cores leads to the diversity of their fluid envelopes.
Clusters of galaxies are large assemblies of galaxies, hot gas and dark matter bound together by gravity.
This contributed volume arose from the idea of assembling scientists from space research and ground development, time transfer techniques and radio science missions, the time-frequency community, and both the geodesy-geophysics and solar system exploration communities.
This book features a comprehensive series of the overview articles on all relevant aspects of forest structure estimation from space and related fields. The overview articles in this book discuss the importance of the derived products for earth system science and policy, the latest earth observation system and techniques, aspects of ground data collection for contextualisation and validation and the consistent generation of estimates from multiple data stream.Previously published in Surveys in Geophysics, Volume 40, Issue 4, 2019The chapters ¿Aspects of Forest Biomass in the Earth System: Its Role and Major Unknowns¿, ¿The Role and Need for Space-Based Forest Biomass-Related Measurements in Environmental Management and Policy¿, ¿Recent Advances in Forest Observation with Visual Interpretation of Very High-Resolution Imagery¿, ¿Species Matter: Wood Density Influences Tropical Forest Biomass at Multiple Scales¿, ¿Innovations in Ground and Airborne Technologies as Reference and for Training and Validation: Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS)¿, ¿New Opportunities for Forest Remote Sensing Through Ultra-High-Density Drone Lidar¿, ¿The Importance of Consistent Global Forest Aboveground Biomass Product Validation¿, and ¿A Joint ESA-NASA Multi-mission Algorithm and Analysis Platform (MAAP) for Biomass, NISAR, and GEDI¿ are available as open access articles under a CC BY 4.0 license at link.springer.com
This topical volume reviews a comprehensive set of problems raised by the use of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) as cosmological probes, as they were addressed and debated during the ISSI-Beijing workshop "Gamma Ray Bursts: A Tool to Explore the Young Universe," which took place from April 13 to 17, 2015, in Beijing. The invited authors represent both the GRB community stricto sensu and the community studying high-redshift galaxies and star formation history. The chapters of the book elucidate the connection between GRBs and the deep universe, stimulating thoughts on how to develop worldwide synergies between high-redshift GRB studies and surveys of the deep universe. Originally published in Space Science Reviews, Volume 202, Issue 1-4, December 2016
This volume presents a broad overview of the requirements, capabilities, challenges and future directions of spaceborne imaging spectroscopy to explore the Earth¿s surface for a range of application domains. These include mine exploration, soil mapping, vegetation monitoring, mapping of pollution and hazardous materials, inland and coastal water monitoring, urban applications and others. Imaging spectroscopy, also often termed hyperspectral remote sensing, for terrestrial Earth observation dates back to the 1980s, when the first spectrometers observing in the visible to shortwave infrared wavelength range were deployed on airborne platforms. From the end of the 1990s onwards, spaceborne hyperspectral missions have demonstrated the capability to provide information on the composition and biochemical and physical characteristics of the Earth¿s surface. Today, several hyperspectral spaceborne missions are under development to be launched within the next few years. It can be expected that future global and frequent coverage of the Earth¿s surface with spaceborne imaging spectroscopy data will bring a major advance in the information depth that future Earth system models and monitoring service developments can be based on. Previously published in Surveys in Geophysics, Volume 40, Issue 3, 2019The chapters "Imaging Spectrometry of Inland and Coastal Waters: State of the Art, Achievements and Perspectives", "Imaging Spectroscopy for the Detection, Assessment and Monitoring of Natural and Anthropogenic Hazards", "Assessing Vegetation Function with Imaging Spectroscopy", "Spaceborne Imaging Spectroscopy for Sustainable Agriculture: Contributions and Challenges" are available as open access articles under a CC BY 4.0 license at link.springer.com.
This volume provides an in-depth review of all aspects of solar magnetic fields. Written by world-leading experts, these thirteen papers cover all regions of the subject from the solar interior, photosphere, chromosphere, active regions, and corona out to the solar wind.
Clusters of galaxies are large assemblies of galaxies, hot gas and dark matter bound together by gravity.
Relativistic objects in astrophysics present a diverse set of phenomena and cover vast ranges of time scales and spatial scales, but their descriptions rely on a similar backbone: production of a relativistic outflow in a central compact object and dissipation of the outflow at large radii, accompanied by acceleration of particles up to very high energies and production of secondary non-thermal electromagnetic radiation. This book provides a timely and comprehensive review of the main physical processes involved in the formation and dissipation of relativistic outflows. It will be particularly useful to postgraduate students and researchers active in various areas of astrophysics and space science¿. Originally published in Space Science Reviews, Volume 207, Issue 1-4, July 2017
This volume provides a comprehensive view on the different sources of the geomagnetic field both in the Earth's interior and from the field's interaction with the terrestrial atmosphere and the solar wind.
This volume reviews both historical and current studies of desert whirlwinds called dust devils on Earth and Mars.
Thus, the volume will benefit researchers spanning a wide range of expertise, including theorists, observers, and modelers working on a large variety of spatial scales. Originally published in Space Science Reviews in the Topical Collection "Astronomical Distance Determination in the Space Age"
The articles republished in this book survey and summarize recent research in helioseismology as well as studies of the interior structure, dynamics and magnetism of the solar interior that are being tested and refined using the helioseismic results.Helioseismology has in the last few decades become a highly productive technique for studying the Sun's interior from observations of the vibrations of its surface. The vibrations are manifestations of resonant modes of the Sun that are continuously excited by turbulent motions in the Sun's convection zone, and a plethora of data have been obtained from dedicated ground-based and space-based observing systems.The book will be of particular interest to researchers and graduate students in the fields of helioseismology, solar interior dynamics and the solar dynamo. It will also be of interest to researchers in solar physics, solar activity, stellar physics, astrophysical fluid dynamics and asteroseismology.Originally published in Space Science Reviews, Volume 196, Issue 1-4, December 2015
This volume presents the most recent results of global mean sea level variations over the satellite altimetry era (starting in the early 1990s) and associated contributions, such as glaciers and ice sheets mass loss, ocean thermal expansion, and land water storage changes.
This volume extends the ISSI series on magnetic fields in the Universe into the domain of what are by far the strongest fields in the Universe, and stronger than any field that could be produced on Earth.
Basic processes in cosmic plasmas starting fromelectric currents and the helicity concept governing the dynamics of magnetic structures in planet magnetospheres,stellar winds, and relativistic plasma outflows like pulsar wind nebulae andActive Galactic Nuclei jets are covered.