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Bogen handler om den meget spændende Lambert W funktion.Den har været ret overset i mange år, men har på det seneste, opnået stor anvendelse i mange forskellige naturvidenskabelige sammenhænge.Der er ikke tidligere udgivet noget på dansk om funktionen, og kun en enkelt bog på engelsk.Denne bog er primært til brug for selvstudium og undervisning, og fokuserer primært på funktionens anvendelse til at løse algebraiske ligninger som ellers er uløselige.Læseren får mulighed for at lave sin egen Lambert W lommeregner i Excel, og får stillet mange algebraiske opgaver. Løsninger til disse findes sidst i bogen.Også komplekse løsninger bliver vist.
Abstract algebra is the study of algebraic structures like groups, rings and fields. This book provides an account of the theoretical foundations including applications to Galois Theory, Algebraic Geometry and Representation Theory. It implements the pedagogic approach to conveying algebra from the perspective of rings. The 3 rd edition provides a revised and extended versions of the chapters on Algebraic Cryptography and Geometric Group Theory.
This textbook provides an introduction to fundamental concepts of algebra at upper undergraduate to graduate level, covering the theory of rings, fields and modules, as well as the representation theory of finite groups.Throughout the book, the exposition relies on universal constructions, making systematic use of quotients and category theory ¿ whose language is introduced in the first chapter. The book is divided into four parts. Parts I and II cover foundations of rings and modules, field theory and generalities on finite group representations, insisting on rings of polynomials and their ideals. Part III culminates in the structure theory of finitely generated modules over Dedekind domains and its applications to abelian groups, linear maps, and foundations of algebraic number theory. Part IV is an extensive study of linear representations of finite groups over fields of characteristic zero, including graded representations and graded characters as well as a final chapter on the Drinfeld¿Lusztig double of a group algebra, appearing for the first time in a textbook at this level.Based on over twenty years of teaching various aspects of algebra, mainly at the École Normale Supérieure (Paris) and at Peking University, the book reflects the audiences of the author's courses. In particular, foundations of abstract algebra, like linear algebra and elementary group theory, are assumed of the reader. Each of the of four parts can be used for a course ¿ with a little ad hoc complement on the language of categories. Thanks to its rich choice of topics, the book can also serve students as a reference throughout their studies, from undergraduate to advanced graduate level.
This text offers a unique balance of theory and a variety of standard and new applications along with solved technology-aided problems. The book includes the fundamental mathematical theory, as well as a wide range of applications, numerical methods, projects, and technology-assisted problems and solutions in Maple, Mathematica, and MATLAB. Some of the applications are new, some are unique, and some are discussed in an essay. There is a variety of exercises which include True/False questions, questions that require proofs, and questions that require computations. The goal is to provide the student with is a solid foundation of the mathematical theory and an appreciation of some of the important real-life applications. Emphasis is given on geometry, matrix transformations, orthogonality, and least-squares. Designed for maximum flexibility, it is written for a one-semester/two semester course at the sophomore or junior level for students of mathematics or science.
"This collection of four short courses looks at group representations, graph spectra, statistical optimality, and symbolic dynamics, highlighting their common roots in linear algebra. Aimed at researchers and beginning Ph.D. students, it includes copious exercises, notes, and references, leading the reader from the basics to high-level applications"--
The finite generation theorem is a major achievement of modern algebraic geometry. Based on the minimal model theory, it states that the canonical ring of an algebraic variety defined over a field of characteristic zero is a finitely generated graded ring. This graduate-level text is the first to explain this proof. It covers the progress on the minimal model theory over the last 30 years, culminating in the landmark paper on finite generation by Birkar-Cascini-Hacon-McKernan. Building up to this proof, the author presents important results and techniques that are now part of the standard toolbox of birational geometry, including Mori's bend and break method, vanishing theorems, positivity theorems and Siu's analysis on multiplier ideal sheaves. Assuming only the basics in algebraic geometry, the text keeps prerequisites to a minimum with self-contained explanations of terminology and theorems.
This Special Issue brings together the latest advancements across various facets of viscous and viscoelastic fluid flows. Encompassing a spectrum of contributions, the topics span from innovative numerical methods and sophisticated mathematical modeling to cutting-edge experimental research. In addition to providing insights into the current state of research in these domains, the issue aims to foster a comprehensive understanding of the intricate dynamics and behaviors exhibited by viscous and viscoelastic fluids.
In the realm of complex decision making, characterized by inherent incompleteness and uncertainty, the foundational work of Lotfi A. Zadeh on fuzzy set theory has been instrumental. The efficacy of classical fuzzy sets in addressing vagueness has prompted an exploration of various extensions, each catering to the intricacies of real-world decision-making problems. This reprint delves into an array of advanced fuzzy theories, including type-2 fuzzy sets, hesitant fuzzy sets, multivalued fuzzy sets, cubic sets, intuitionistic fuzzy sets, Pythagorean fuzzy sets, spherical fuzzy sets, neutrosophic sets, and more. The richness of these extensions reflects the dynamism of fuzzy theories in diverse decision-making applications.
Das Werk bietet eine klare, didaktische Herangehensweise in die Themen der linearen Algebra. Beginnend mit Mengen, Gruppen, Ringen und Körpern stellt der Autor nachfolgend Vektorräume, Matrizen, Permutationen und Eigenwerte verständlich vor und führt dabei motivierend an das Lösen von Gleichungsaufgaben heran. Aufgrund der zahlreichen Beispiele und Übungsaufgaben ist es sowohl vorlesungsbegleitend als auch zum Selbststudium optimal geeignet. Das letzte Kapitel"Gleichförmige Bewegungen in der Ebene" ist etwas Ungewöhnliches, Besonderes, das man übelichweise nicht in Lehrbüchern zur linearen Algebra findet. Es soll ein Beispiel dafür geben, was man mit verhältnismäßig einfacher Vektorrechnung schon alles anfangen kann. Das Ziel dieses Lehrbuchs ist nicht nur in die lineare Algebra einzuführen, sondern auch einen fundierten Einstieg in die Mathematik und ihre Denkweise zu bieten.
Autonomous vehicles are increasingly prevalent, navigating both structured urban roads and challenging offroad scenes. At the core of these vehicles lie the planning and control modules, which are crucial for demonstrating the intelligence inherent in an autonomous driving system. The planning module is responsible for devising an open-loop trajectory, taking into account a variety of environmental restrictions, task-related demands, and vehicle-kinematics-related constraints, while the control module ensures adherence to this trajectory in a closed-loop manner. This adherence is vital in a range of conditions, including diverse weather scenarios, different driving situations, and in response to potential disturbances such as mechanical failures or cyber threats. In certain contexts, these modules are collectively referred to as 'control', with the planning component considered an open-loop controller. This Special Issue focuses on the latest research trends in planning and control methods for autonomous driving. It comprises 11 papers that cover a broad spectrum of applications, including occlusion-aware motion planning in warehouses, control strategies for articulated vehicles, cooperative trajectory planning for autonomous forklifts, and tracking control for underwater vehicles in the face of disturbances and uncertainties. These contributions collectively underscore the diverse and evolving nature of autonomous vehicle technology.
This textbook provides a first introduction to category theory, a powerful framework and tool for understanding mathematical structures. Designed for students with no previous knowledge of the subject, this book offers a gentle approach to mastering its fundamental principles.Unlike traditional category theory books, which can often be overwhelming for beginners, this book has been carefully crafted to offer a clear and concise introduction to the subject. It covers all the essential topics, including categories, functors, natural transformations, duality, equivalence, (co)limits, and adjunctions. Abundant fully-worked examples guide readers in understanding the core concepts, while complete proofs and instructive exercises reinforce comprehension and promote self-study. The author also provides background material and references, making the book suitable for those with a basic understanding of groups, rings, modules, topological spaces, and set theory.Based on the author's course at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel, the book is perfectly suited for classroom use in a first introductory course in category theory. Its clear and concise style, coupled with its detailed coverage of key concepts, makes it equally suited for self-study.
This volume celebrates the 100th birthday of Professor Chen-Ning Frank Yang (Nobel 1957), one of the giants of modern science and a living legend. Starting with reminiscences of Yang's time at the research centre for theoretical physics at Stonybrook (now named C. N. Yang Institute) by his successor Peter van Nieuwenhuizen, the book is a collection of articles by world-renowned mathematicians and theoretical physicists. This emphasizes the Dialogue Between Physics and Mathematics that has been a central theme of Professor Yang's contributions to contemporary science. Fittingly, the contributions to this volume range from experimental physics to pure mathematics, via mathematical physics. On the physics side, the contributions are from Sir Anthony Leggett (Nobel 2003), Jian-Wei Pan (Willis E. Lamb Award 2018), Alexander Polyakov (Breakthrough Prize 2013), Gerard 't Hooft (Nobel 1999), Frank Wilczek (Nobel 2004), Qikun Xue (Fritz London Prize 2020), and Zhongxian Zhao (Bernd T. Matthias Prize 2015), covering an array of topics from superconductivity to the foundations of quantum mechanics. In mathematical physics there are contributions by Sir Roger Penrose (Nobel 2022) and Edward Witten (Fields Medal 1990) on quantum twistors and quantum field theory, respectively. On the mathematics side, the contributions by Vladimir Drinfeld (Fields Medal 1990), Louis Kauffman (Wiener Gold Medal 2014), and Yuri Manin (Cantor Medal 2002) offer novel ideas from knot theory to arithmetic geometry.Inspired by the original ideas of C. N. Yang, this unique collection of papers b masters of physics and mathematics provides, at the highest level, contemporary research directions for graduate students and experts alike.
This book offers an up-to-date, comprehensive account of determinantal rings and varieties, presenting a multitude of methods used in their study, with tools from combinatorics, algebra, representation theory and geometry.After a concise introduction to Grobner and Sagbi bases, determinantal ideals are studied via the standard monomial theory and the straightening law. This opens the door for representation theoretic methods, such as the Robinson-Schensted-Knuth correspondence, which provide a description of the Grobner bases of determinantal ideals, yielding homological and enumerative theorems on determinantal rings. Sagbi bases then lead to the introduction of toric methods. In positive characteristic, the Frobenius functor is used to study properties of singularities, such as F-regularity and F-rationality. Castelnuovo-Mumford regularity, an important complexity measure in commutative algebra and algebraic geometry, is introduced in the general setting of a Noetherian base ring and then applied to powers and products of ideals. The remainder of the book focuses on algebraic geometry, where general vanishing results for the cohomology of line bundles on flag varieties are presented and used to obtain asymptotic values of the regularity of symbolic powers of determinantal ideals. In characteristic zero, the Borel-Weil-Bott theorem provides sharper results for GL-invariant ideals. The book concludes with a computation of cohomology with support in determinantal ideals and a survey of their free resolutions.Determinants, Grobner Bases and Cohomology provides a unique reference for the theory of determinantal ideals and varieties, as well as an introduction to the beautiful mathematics developed in their study. Accessible to graduate students with basic grounding in commutative algebra and algebraic geometry, it can be used alongside general texts to illustrate the theory with a particularly interesting and important class of varieties.
A pattern language to cover from a small debugging trace to a distributed log with billions of messages from hundreds of computers, thousands of components, threads, and processes.
WE DELVE DEEP INTO THE SCIENCE AND INTER-RELATIONSHIPS OF FOUR FAMOUS MATHEMATICAL CONSTANTS: EULER'S NUMBER, e, THE LUDOLPHINE CONSTANT, ( pi ), PYTHAGORAS' CONSTANT AND THE RATIO OF PHIDIAS ( phi ). ALONG THE WAY WE ASSESS THE USEFULNESS OF DIVERSE METHODS OF COMPUTING THESE NUMBERS, TECHNIQUES DATING FROM THE BRONZE AGE TO THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY. FROM THE EARLIEST DAYS OF VISIBLE LIFE TO OUR OWN TIMES, TINY ANIMALS HAVE PLOWED AND BURROWED THE DEEP SEA FLOOR IN SYSTEMATIC, GEOMETRICAL PATHS. THEY OFTEN SEEMED TO HAVE CONFORMED TO THE MATHEMATICS OF OUR FAMOUS NUMBERS! CAN THIS REALLY BE TRUE? WE CONSIDER THE EVIDENCE. THIS SECOND EDITION, CORRECTED AND EXTENDED, IS PROFUSELY ILLUSTRATED AND HAS ORIGINAL RESEARCH, ALGEBRAIC DERIVATIONS, FULL ACADEMIC REFERENCES, AND A COMPREHENSIVE INDEX. "FOUR FAMOUS NUMBERS" WILL APPEAL TO ENTHUSIASTS, UNDERGRADUATES AND TEACHERS IN HIGHER EDUCATION.
The famous problems of squaring the circle, doubling the cube and trisecting an angle captured the imagination of both professional and amateur mathematicians for over two thousand years. Despite the enormous effort and ingenious attempts by these men and women, the problems would not yield to purely geometrical methods. It was only the development. of abstract algebra in the nineteenth century which enabled mathematicians to arrive at the surprising conclusion that these constructions are not possible. In this book we develop enough abstract algebra to prove that these constructions are impossible. Our approach introduces all the relevant concepts about fields in a way which is more concrete than usual and which avoids the use of quotient structures (and even of the Euclidean algorithm for finding the greatest common divisor of two polynomials). Having the geometrical questions as a specific goal provides motivation for the introduction of the algebraic concepts and we have found that students respond very favourably. We have used this text to teach second-year students at La Trobe University over a period of many years, each time refining the material in the light of student performance.
This book gives an intuitive and hands-on introduction to Topological Data Analysis (TDA). Covering a wide range of topics at levels of sophistication varying from elementary (matrix algebra) to esoteric (Grothendieck spectral sequence), it offers a mirror of data science aimed at a general mathematical audience. The required algebraic background is developed in detail. The first third of the book reviews several core areas of mathematics, beginning with basic linear algebra and applications to data fitting and web search algorithms, followed by quick primers on algebra and topology. The middle third introduces algebraic topology, along with applications to sensor networks and voter ranking. The last third covers key contemporary tools in TDA: persistent and multiparameter persistent homology. Also included is a user's guide to derived functors and spectral sequences (useful but somewhat technical tools which have recently found applications in TDA), and an appendix illustrating a number of software packages used in the field. Based on a course given as part of a masters degree in statistics, the book is appropriate for graduate students.
This book is the first to present a comprehensive investigation of the technical features of the metainferential logics developed in the last years, with their most relevant results and applications. It provides some new paths to define and investigate metainferential logics and offers a thorough study of the semantics and the proof-theories of this new and exciting variety of families of logics.This volume examines the hierarchies of metainferential logics and gives a general and systematic theory of them, and of the truth theories based on these logics. This book puts forward the prospects for truth-theories based on the metainferential logics of the TS/ST hierarchy and argues for its promise noting that each of these logics can be safely expanded with a transparent truth predicate. It also goes onto to explore new developments in three fields related to logics ¿ namely metainferential logics built by means of the Weak Kleene schema and combining them with logics defined through the Strong Kleene schema, proof-theoretic presentations, and those with a with a global or an absolutely global validity standard, instead of a local one. This book is of interest to scholars in formal logic.
This book develops integral identities, mostly involving multidimensional functions and infinite limits of integration, whose evaluations are intractable by common means. It exposes a methodology based on the multivariate power substitution and its variants, assisted by the software tool Mathematica. The approaches introduced comprise the generalized method of exhaustion, the multivariate power substitution and its variants, and the use of permutation symmetry to evaluate definite integrals, which are very important both in their own right, and as necessary intermediate steps towards more involved computation.A key tenet is that such approaches work best when applied to integrals having certain characteristics as a starting point. Most integrals, if used as a starting point, will lead to no result at all, or will lead to a known result. However, there is a special class of integrals (i.e., innovative integrals) which, if used as a starting point for such approaches, will lead to new and useful results, and can also enable the reader to generate many other new results that are not in the book.The reader will find a myriad of novel approaches for evaluating integrals, with a focus on tools such as Mathematica as a means of obtaining useful results, and also checking whether they are already known. Results presented involve the gamma function, the hypergeometric functions, the complementary error function, the exponential integral function, the Riemann zeta function, and others that will be introduced as they arise. The book concludes with selected engineering applications, e.g., involving wave propagation, antenna theory, non-Gaussian and weighted Gaussian distributions, and other areas.The intended audience comprises junior and senior sciences majors planning to continue in the pure and applied sciences at the graduate level, graduate students in mathematics and the sciences, and junior and established researchers in mathematical physics, engineering, and mathematics. Indeed, the pedagogical inclination of the exposition will have students work out, understand, and efficiently use multidimensional integrals from first principles.
Die 3., ergänzte Auflage stellt auf breiter fachlicher Ebene einfache elementare zahlentheoretische Inhalte vor sowie Stoffkomplexe aus der analytischen und algebraischen Zahlentheorie. Das Lehrbuch bietet auf überschaubaren mathematischen Niveau einen leicht verständlichen Einstieg in ausgewählte Themen der Zahlentheorie und beschreibt aktuelle Forschungsergebnisse zum RSA-Algorithmus. Sämtliche Kapitel enthalten umfassende Beispiele, Übungsaufgaben mit Lösungen und ausführlich durchgerechnete Beweise, so dass es sich sehr gut zur Prüfungsvorbereitung eignet.
This Special Issue includes 14 contributions, with 2 review contributions and 12 research contributions. The review contributions provide a survey with an overview of the state of the art in detecting and projecting cyber-attack scenarios, and the review of a specific application area, the safety of autonomous haulage systems in the mining environment related to both cybersecurity and communication. 10 research contributions are addressing the area of advanced services for intrusion detection systems: (a) the use of different machine learning models depending on the specific scenarios and datasets; (b) the use of deep learning techniques for the detection of zero-day attacks; (c) a proposal of an integrated scalable framework aimed at efficiently detecting anomalous events on large amounts of unlabeled data logs; (d) a spatiotemporal characterization of cyber-attacks for detecting such attacks; (e) a two-stage intrusion detection system for industrial control networks; (f) a chatbot for detecting online sex offenders, based on an artificial conversational entity (ACE); and (g) an open-source platform for manipulating both streaming and archived network flow data in real time. This Special Issue also contains two protection-related research contributions, including: (a) a countermeasure for on-off web defacement attacks and (b) the evaluation of multi-path routing as a protection feature against network attacks and failures.
This book is dedicated to V.A. Yankov's seminal contributions to the theory of propositional logics. His papers, published in the 1960s, are highly cited even today. The Yankov characteristic formulas have become a very useful tool in propositional, modal and algebraic logic.The papers contributed to this book provide the new results on different generalizations and applications of characteristic formulas in propositional, modal and algebraic logics. In particular, an exposition of Yankov's results and their applications in algebraic logic, the theory of admissible rules and refutation systems is included in the book. In addition, the reader can find the studies on splitting and join-splitting in intermediate propositional logics that are based on Yankov-type formulas which are closely related to canonical formulas, and the study of properties of predicate extensions of non-classical propositional logics.The book also contains an exposition of Yankov's revolutionary approach to constructive proof theory. The editors also include Yankov's contributions to history and philosophy of mathematics and foundations of mathematics, as well as an examination of his original interpretation of history of Greek philosophy and mathematics.
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