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This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the Calculus of Variations and its use in modelling mechanics and physics problems. Presenting a geometric approach to the subject, it progressively guides the reader through this very active branch of mathematics, accompanying key statements with a huge variety of exercises, some of them solved. Stressing the need to overcome limitations of the initial point of view, and emphasising the interconnectivity of various branches of mathematics (algebra, analysis and geometry), the book includes some advanced material to challenge the most motivated students. Systematic, short historical notes provide details on the subject's odyssey, and how new tools have been developed over the last two centuries. This English translation updates a set of notes for a course first given at the Ecole polytechnique in 1987. It will be accessible to graduate students and advanced undergraduates.
This new edition has been thoroughly revised, expanded and contain some updates function of the novel results and shift of scientific interest in the topics. The book has a Foreword by Jerry L. Bona and Hongqiu Chen. The book is an introduction to nonlinear waves and soliton theory in the special environment of compact spaces such a closed curves and surfaces and other domain contours. It assumes familiarity with basic soliton theory and nonlinear dynamical systems.The first part of the book introduces the mathematical concept required for treating the manifolds considered, providing relevant notions from topology and differential geometry. An introduction to the theory of motion of curves and surfaces - as part of the emerging field of contour dynamics - is given.The second and third parts discuss the modeling of various physical solitons on compact systems, such as filaments, loops and drops made of almost incompressible materials thereby intersecting with a large number of physical disciplines from hydrodynamics to compact object astrophysics.This book is intended for graduate students and researchers in mathematics, physics and engineering.
This volume is devoted to various aspects of Alexandrov Geometry for those wishing to get a detailed picture of the advances in the field. It contains enhanced versions of the lecture notes of the two mini-courses plus those of one research talk given at CIMAT.Peter Petersen's part aims at presenting various rigidity results about Alexandrov spaces in a way that facilitates the understanding by a larger audience of geometers of some of the current research in the subject. They contain a brief overview of the fundamental aspects of the theory of Alexandrov spaces with lower curvature bounds, as well as the aforementioned rigidity results with complete proofs.The text from Fernando Galaz-Garcia's minicourse was completed in collaboration with Jesus Nunez-Zimbron. It presents an up-to-date and panoramic view of the topology and geometry of 3-dimensional Alexandrov spaces, including the classification of positively and non-negatively curved spaces and the geometrization theorem. They also present Lie group actions and their topological and equivariant classifications as well as a brief account of results on collapsing Alexandrov spaces.Jesus Nunez-Zimbron's contribution surveys two recent developments in the understanding of the topological and geometric rigidity of singular spaces with curvature bounded below.
Schemes in algebraic geometry can have singular points, whereas differential geometers typically focus on manifolds which are nonsingular. However, there is a class of schemes, 'C∞-schemes', which allow differential geometers to study a huge range of singular spaces, including 'infinitesimals' and infinite-dimensional spaces. These are applied in synthetic differential geometry, and derived differential geometry, the study of 'derived manifolds'. Differential geometers also study manifolds with corners. The cube is a 3-dimensional manifold with corners, with boundary the six square faces. This book introduces 'C∞-schemes with corners', singular spaces in differential geometry with good notions of boundary and corners. They can be used to define 'derived manifolds with corners' and 'derived orbifolds with corners'. These have applications to major areas of symplectic geometry involving moduli spaces of J-holomorphic curves. This work will be a welcome source of information and inspiration for graduate students and researchers working in differential or algebraic geometry.
This volume collects papers based on talks given at the conference "e;Geometrias'19: Polyhedra and Beyond"e;, held in the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Porto between September 5-7, 2019 in Portugal. These papers explore the conference's theme from an interdisciplinary standpoint, all the while emphasizing the relevance of polyhedral geometry in contemporary academic research and professional practice. They also investigate how this topic connects to mathematics, art, architecture, computer science, and the science of representation. Polyhedra and Beyond will help inspire scholars, researchers, professionals, and students of any of these disciplines to develop a more thorough understanding of polyhedra.
This textbook serves as an introduction to modern differential geometry at a level accessible to advanced undergraduate and master's students. It places special emphasis on motivation and understanding, while developing a solid intuition for the more abstract concepts. In contrast to graduate level references, the text relies on a minimal set of prerequisites: a solid grounding in linear algebra and multivariable calculus, and ideally a course on ordinary differential equations. Manifolds are introduced intrinsically in terms of coordinate patches glued by transition functions. The theory is presented as a natural continuation of multivariable calculus; the role of point-set topology is kept to a minimum. Questions sprinkled throughout the text engage students in active learning, and encourage classroom participation. Answers to these questions are provided at the end of the book, thus making it ideal for independent study. Material is further reinforced with homework problems ranging from straightforward to challenging. The book contains more material than can be covered in a single semester, and detailed suggestions for instructors are provided in the Preface.
This book contains an up-to-date survey and self-contained chapters on complex slant submanifolds and geometry, authored by internationally renowned researchers. The book discusses a wide range of topics, including slant surfaces, slant submersions, nearly Kaehler, locally conformal Kaehler, and quaternion Kaehler manifolds. It provides several classification results of minimal slant surfaces, quasi-minimal slant surfaces, slant surfaces with parallel mean curvature vector, pseudo-umbilical slant surfaces, and biharmonic and quasi biharmonic slant surfaces in Lorentzian complex space forms. Furthermore, this book includes new results on slant submanifolds of para-Hermitian manifolds. This book also includes recent results on slant lightlike submanifolds of indefinite Hermitian manifolds, which are of extensive use in general theory of relativity and potential applications in radiation and electromagnetic fields. Various open problems and conjectures on slant surfaces in complex space forms are also included in the book. It presents detailed information on the most recent advances in the area, making it valuable for scientists, educators and graduate students.
The goal of this monograph is to answer the question, is it possible to solve the dynamics problem inside the configuration space instead of the phase space? By introducing a proper class of vector field ¿ the Cartesian vector field ¿ given in a Riemann space, the authors explore the connections between the first order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) associated to the Cartesian vector field in the configuration space of a given mechanical system and its dynamics. The result is a new perspective for studying the dynamics of mechanical systems, which allows the authors to present new cases of integrability for the Suslov and Veselova problem; establish the relation between the Cartesian vector field and the integrability of the geodesic flow in a special class of homogeneous surfaces; discuss the importance of the Nambu bracket in the study of first order ODEs; and offer a solution of the inverse problem in celestial mechanics.
This monograph considers the analytical and geometrical questions emerging from the study of thin elastic films that exhibit residual stress at free equilibria. It provides the comprehensive account, the details and background on the most recent results in the combined research perspective on the classical themes: in Differential Geometry ¿ that of isometrically embedding a shape with a given metric in an ambient space of possibly different dimension, and in Calculus of Variations ¿ that of minimizing non-convex energy functionals parametrized by a quantity in whose limit the functionals become degenerate.Prestressed thin films are present in many contexts and applications, such as: growing tissues, plastically strained sheets, engineered swelling or shrinking gels, petals and leaves of flowers, or atomically thin graphene layers. While the related questions about the physical basis for shape formation lie at the intersection of biology, chemistry and physics, fundamentally they are of the analytical and geometrical character, and can be tackled using the techniques of the dimension reduction, laid out in this book.The text will appeal to mathematicians and graduate students working in the fields of Analysis, Calculus of Variations, Partial Differential Equations, and Applied Math. It will also be of interest to researchers and graduate students in Engineering (especially fields related to Solid Mechanics and Materials Science), who would like to gain the modern mathematical insight and learn the necessary tools.
This book deals with an original contribution to the hypothetical missing link unifying the two fundamental branches of physics born in the twentieth century, General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. Namely, the book is devoted to a review of a "covariant approach" to Quantum Mechanics, along with several improvements and new results with respect to the previous related literature. The first part of the book deals with a covariant formulation of Galilean Classical Mechanics, which stands as a suitable background for covariant Quantum Mechanics. The second part deals with an introduction to covariant Quantum Mechanics. Further, in order to show how the presented covariant approach works in the framework of standard Classical Mechanics and standard Quantum Mechanics, the third part provides a detailed analysis of the standard Galilean space-time, along with three dynamical classical and quantum examples. The appendix accounts for several non-standard mathematical methods widely used in the body of the book.
This volume guides early-career researchers through recent breakthroughs in mathematics and physics as related to general relativity. Chapters are based on courses and lectures given at the July 2019 Domoschool, International Alpine School in Mathematics and Physics, held in Domodossola, Italy, which was titled ¿Einstein Equations: Physical and Mathematical Aspects of General Relativity¿. Structured in two parts, the first features four courses from prominent experts on topics such as local energy in general relativity, geometry and analysis in black hole spacetimes, and antimatter gravity. The second part features a variety of papers based on talks given at the summer school, including topics like:Quantum ergosphereGeneral relativistic Poynting-Robertson effect modellingNumerical relativityLength-contraction in curved spacetimeClassicality from an inhomogeneous universeEinstein Equations: Local Energy, Self-Force, and Fields in General Relativity will be a valuable resource for students and researchers in mathematics and physicists interested in exploring how their disciplines connect to general relativity.
This book consists of contributions from the participants of the Abel Symposium 2019 held in Ålesund, Norway. It was centered about applications of the ideas of symmetry and invariance, including equivalence and deformation theory of geometric structures, classification of differential invariants and invariant differential operators, integrability analysis of equations of mathematical physics, progress in parabolic geometry and mathematical aspects of general relativity.The chapters are written by leading international researchers, and consist of both survey and research articles. The book gives the reader an insight into the current research in differential geometry and Lie theory, as well as applications of these topics, in particular to general relativity and string theory.
Targeted to graduate students of mathematics, this book discusses major topics like the Lie group in the study of smooth manifolds. It is said that mathematics can be learned by solving problems and not only by just reading it. To serve this purpose, this book contains a sufficient number of examples and exercises after each section in every chapter. Some of the exercises are routine ones for the general understanding of topics. The book also contains hints to difficult exercises. Answers to all exercises are given at the end of each section. It also provides proofs of all theorems in a lucid manner. The only pre-requisites are good working knowledge of point-set topology and linear algebra.
This book, the first in a three-volume set, explains general relativity using the mathematical tool of differential geometry. The book consists of ten chapters, the first five of which introduce differential geometry, which is widely applicable even outside the field of relativity. Chapter 6 analyzes special relativity using geometric language. In turn, the last four chapters introduce readers to the fundamentals of general relativity. Intended for beginners, this volume includes numerous exercises and worked-out example in each chapter to facilitate the learning experience. Chiefly written for graduate-level courses, the book¿s content will also benefit upper-level undergraduate students, and can be used as a reference guide for practicing theoretical physicists.
This book consists of five chapters presenting problems of current research in mathematics, with its history and development, current state, and possible future direction. Four of the chapters are expository in nature while one is based more directly on research. All deal with important areas of mathematics, however, such as algebraic geometry, topology, partial differential equations, Riemannian geometry, and harmonic analysis. This book is addressed to researchers who are interested in those subject areas. Young-Hoon Kiem discusses classical enumerative geometry before string theory and improvements after string theory as well as some recent advances in quantum singularity theory, Donaldson-Thomas theory for Calabi-Yau 4-folds, and Vafa-Witten invariants. Dongho Chae discusses the finite-time singularity problem for three-dimensional incompressible Euler equations. He presents Kato's classical local well-posedness results, Beale-Kato-Majda's blow-up criterion, and recent studies on the singularity problem for the 2D Boussinesq equations. Simon Brendle discusses recent developments that have led to a complete classification of all the singularity models in a three-dimensional Riemannian manifold. He gives an alternative proof of the classification of noncollapsed steady gradient Ricci solitons in dimension 3. Hyeonbae Kang reviews some of the developments in the Neumann-Poincare operator (NPO). His topics include visibility and invisibility via polarization tensors, the decay rate of eigenvalues and surface localization of plasmon, singular geometry and the essential spectrum, analysis of stress, and the structure of the elastic NPO.Danny Calegari provides an explicit description of the shift locus as a complex of spaces over a contractible building. He describes the pieces in terms of dynamically extended laminations and of certain explicit "e;discriminant-like"e; ai ne algebraic varieties.
This book furnishes a comprehensive treatment of differential graded Lie algebras, L-infinity algebras, and their use in deformation theory. We believe it is the first textbook devoted to this subject, although the first chapters are also covered in other sources with a different perspective.Deformation theory is an important subject in algebra and algebraic geometry, with an origin that dates back to Kodaira, Spencer, Kuranishi, Gerstenhaber, and Grothendieck. In the last 30 years, a new approach, based on ideas from rational homotopy theory, has made it possible not only to solve long-standing open problems, but also to clarify the general theory and to relate apparently different features. This approach works over a field of characteristic 0, and the central role is played by the notions of differential graded Lie algebra, L-infinity algebra, and Maurer-Cartan equations.The book is written keeping in mind graduate students with a basic knowledge of homological algebra and complex algebraic geometry as utilized, for instance, in the book by K. Kodaira, Complex Manifolds and Deformation of Complex Structures. Although the main applications in this book concern deformation theory of complex manifolds, vector bundles, and holomorphic maps, the underlying algebraic theory also applies to a wider class of deformation problems, and it is a prerequisite for anyone interested in derived deformation theory. Researchers in algebra, algebraic geometry, algebraic topology, deformation theory, and noncommutative geometry are the major targets for the book.
This book contains an up-to-date survey and self-contained chapters on contact slant submanifolds and geometry, authored by internationally renowned researchers. The notion of slant submanifolds was introduced by Prof. B.Y. Chen in 1990, and A. Lotta extended this notion in the framework of contact geometry in 1996. Numerous differential geometers have since obtained interesting results on contact slant submanifolds. The book gathers a wide range of topics such as warped product semi-slant submanifolds, slant submersions, semi-slant I -, hemi-slant I -Riemannian submersions, quasi hemi-slant submanifolds, slant submanifolds of metric f-manifolds, slant lightlike submanifolds, geometric inequalities for slant submanifolds, 3-slant submanifolds, and semi-slant submanifolds of almost paracontact manifolds. The book also includes interesting results on slant curves and magnetic curves, where the latter represents trajectories moving on a Riemannian manifold under the action of magnetic field. It presents detailed information on the most recent advances in the area, making it of much value to scientists, educators and graduate students.
This monograph presents new insights into the perturbation theory of dynamical systems based on the Gromov-Hausdorff distance. In the first part, the authors introduce the notion of Gromov-Hausdorff distance between compact metric spaces, along with the corresponding distance for continuous maps, flows, and group actions on these spaces. They also focus on the stability of certain dynamical objects like shifts, global attractors, and inertial manifolds. Applications to dissipative PDEs, such as the reaction-diffusion and Chafee-Infante equations, are explored in the second part. This text will be of interest to graduates students and researchers working in the areas of topological dynamics and PDEs.
This book studies a category of mathematical objects called Hamiltonians, which are dependent on both time and momenta. The authors address the development of the distinguished geometrization on dual 1-jet spaces for time-dependent Hamiltonians, in contrast with the time-independent variant on cotangent bundles. Two parts are presented to include both geometrical theory and the applicative models: Part One: Time-dependent Hamilton Geometry and Part Two: Applications to Dynamical Systems, Economy and Theoretical Physics. The authors present 1-jet spaces and their duals as appropriate fundamental ambient mathematical spaces used to model classical and quantum field theories. In addition, the authors present dual jet Hamilton geometry as a distinct metrical approach to various interdisciplinary problems.
Over the course of his distinguished career, Claude Viterbo has made a number of groundbreaking contributions in the development of symplectic geometry/topology and Hamiltonian dynamics. The chapters in this volume - compiled on the occasion of his 60th birthday - are written by distinguished mathematicians and pay tribute to his many significant and lasting achievements.
This proceedings volume gathers selected, revised papers presented at the X International Meeting on Lorentzian Geometry (GeLoCor 2021), virtually held at the University of Cordoba, Spain, on February 1-5, 2021. It includes surveys describing the state-of-the-art in specific areas, and a selection of the most relevant results presented at the conference. Taken together, the papers offer an invaluable introduction to key topics discussed at the conference and an overview of the main techniques in use today.This volume also gathers extended revisions of key studies in this field. Bringing new results and examples, these unique contributions offer new perspectives to the original problems and, in most cases, extend and reinforce the robustness of previous findings.Hosted every two years since 2001, the International Meeting on Lorentzian Geometry has become one of the main events bringing together the leading experts on Lorentzian geometry. In this volume, the reader will find studies on spatial and null hypersurfaces, low regularity in general relativity, conformal structures, Lorentz-Finsler spacetimes, and more.Given its scope, the book will be of interest to both young and experienced mathematicians and physicists whose research involves general relativity and semi-Riemannian geometry.
This text is an enhanced, English version of the Russian edition, published in early 2021 and is appropriate for an introductory course in geometric control theory. The concise presentation provides an accessible treatment of the subject for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in theoretical and applied mathematics, as well as to experts in classic control theory for whom geometric methods may be introduced. Theory is accompanied by characteristic examples such as stopping a train, motion of mobile robot, Euler elasticae, Dido's problem, and rolling of the sphere on the plane. Quick foundations to some recent topics of interest like control on Lie groups and sub-Riemannian geometry are included. Prerequisites include only a basic knowledge of calculus, linear algebra, and ODEs; preliminary knowledge of control theory is not assumed. The applications problems-oriented approach discusses core subjects and encourages the reader to solve related challenges independently. Highly-motivated readers can acquire working knowledge of geometric control techniques and progress to studying control problems and more comprehensive books on their own. Selected sections provide exercises to assist in deeper understanding of the material.Controllability and optimal control problems are considered for nonlinear nonholonomic systems on smooth manifolds, in particular, on Lie groups. For the controllability problem, the following questions are considered: controllability of linear systems, local controllability of nonlinear systems, Nagano-Sussmann Orbit theorem, Rashevskii-Chow theorem, Krener's theorem. For the optimal control problem, Filippov's theorem is stated, invariant formulation of Pontryagin maximum principle on manifolds is given, second-order optimality conditions are discussed, and the sub-Riemannian problem is studied in detail. Pontryagin maximum principle is proved for sub-Riemannian problems, solution to the sub-Riemannian problems on the Heisenberg group, the group of motions of the plane, and the Engel group is described.
This book describes about unlike usual differential dynamics common in mathematical physics, heterogenesis is based on the assemblage of differential constraints that are different from point to point. The construction of differential assemblages will be introduced in the present study from the mathematical point of view, outlining the heterogeneity of the differential constraints and of the associated phase spaces, that are continuously changing in space and time. If homogeneous constraints well describe a form of swarm intelligence or crowd behaviour, it reduces dynamics to automatisms, by excluding any form of imaginative and creative aspect. With this study we aim to problematize the procedure of homogeneization that is dominant in life and social science and to outline the dynamical heterogeneity of life and its affective, semiotic, social, historical aspects. Particularly, the use of sub-Riemannian geometry instead of Riemannian one allows to introduce disjointed and autonomous areas in the virtual plane. Our purpose is to free up the dynamic becoming from any form of unitary and totalizing symmetry and to develop forms, action, thought by means of proliferation, juxtaposition, and disjunction devices. After stating the concept of differential heterogenesis with the language of contemporary mathematics, we will face the problem of the emergence of the semiotic function, recalling the limitation of classical approaches (Hjelmslev, Saussure, Husserl) and proposing a possible genesis of it from the heterogenetic flow previously defined. We consider the conditions under which this process can be polarized to constitute different planes of Content (C) and Expression (E), each one equipped with its own formed substances. A possible (but not unique) process of polarization is constructed by means of spectral analysis, that is introduced to individuate E/C planes and their evolution. The heterogenetic flow, solution of differential assemblages, gives rise to forms that are projected onto the planes, offering a first referring system for the flow, that constitutes a first degree of semiosis.
This volume originated in talks given in Cortona at the conference "e;Geometric aspects of harmonic analysis"e; held in honor of the 70th birthday of Fulvio Ricci. It presents timely syntheses of several major fields of mathematics as well as original research articles contributed by some of the finest mathematicians working in these areas. The subjects dealt with are topics of current interest in closely interrelated areas of Fourier analysis, singular integral operators, oscillatory integral operators, partial differential equations, multilinear harmonic analysis, and several complex variables.The work is addressed to researchers in the field.
This book contains a self-consistent treatment of a geometric averaging technique, induced by the Ricci flow, that allows comparing a given (generalized) Einstein initial data set with another distinct Einstein initial data set, both supported on a given closed n-dimensional manifold. This is a case study where two vibrant areas of research in geometric analysis, Ricci flow and Einstein constraints theory, interact in a quite remarkable way. The interaction is of great relevance for applications in relativistic cosmology, allowing a mathematically rigorous approach to the initial data set averaging problem, at least when data sets are given on a closed space-like hypersurface. The book does not assume an a priori knowledge of Ricci flow theory, and considerable space is left for introducing the necessary techniques. These introductory parts gently evolve to a detailed discussion of the more advanced results concerning a Fourier-mode expansion and a sophisticated heat kernel representation of the Ricci flow, both of which are of independent interest in Ricci flow theory. This work is intended for advanced students in mathematical physics and researchers alike.