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Teorien om Big Bang er den bedste model, vi i øjeblikket har om universets skabelse; men det betyder ikke, at det er den endelige sandhed. Men hvorfor er der stort set enighed om, at universet for 13,7 milliarder år siden blev skabt af en tætpakket klump, der rummede al energi og alt stof? Og eksisterede der noget inden Big Bang? Astrofysikeren Anja C. Andersen formidler teorier og forskningsresultater udogmatisk og letforståeligt.
Flot plakat ca. 70 x 100 cm
Der er ikke otte, men milliarder af planeter i Universet, og mange af dem ligger i et lunt smørhul, hvor de potentielt kan huse liv. Den opdagelse er en af de største i den moderne astronomi, og vi er kun lige begyndt at forstå, hvad der egentlig gemmer sig derude i kosmos af bizarre kloder. 'Fjerne kloder' beskriver erkendelsesrejsen, fra Giordano Bruno blev brændt på bålet i år 1600 for sin kætterske idé om uendelig mange planeter – og til konstruktionen af små satellitter, som måske kan besøge de nærmeste af disse exoplaneter og lede efter livstegn på dem. Undervejs møder vi forskerne ved fronten, som kigger hinsides solsystemet og kæmper for at besvare det ultimative spørgsmål: Er vi alene?
Vi vover at forestille os en tid før Big Bang, hvor hele universet var presset sammen til et område mindre end et atom. Og nu kan vi, som Brian Cox og Jeff Forshaw viser, gøre mere end blot at forestille os: Vi kan forstå. Gennem århundreder har den menneskelige trang til at opdage afdækket en utrolig mængde viden. Hvad den afslører for os, gør os åndeløse.UNIVERSEL tager os med på en storslået videnskabelig opdagelsesrejse og afslører undervejs, hvordan vi kan forstå nogle af de mest grundlæggende spørgsmål omkring vores Jord, Sol og solsystem og de stjernefyldte galakser længere væk. Nogle af disse spørgsmål – hvor stort er vores solsystem? Hvor hurtigt udvider rummet sig? - kan besvares fra vores baghave; svarene på andre – hvor stort er universet? Hvad er det lavet af? - trækker på forbløffende informationer, som netop nu indsamles af hold af astronomer, der arbejder i grænselandet af det kendte univers.I centrum af alle disse spørgsmål – fra de tidligste forsøg på at måle tyngdekraften til vores bestræbelser på at forstå, hvad mørkt stof er, og hvad der virkelig skete ved universets fødsel – står den videnskabelige proces. Videnskaben afslører en dybere skønhed, forbinder os med hinanden, med vores verden og med vores univers, og rækker ved at forstå andres banebrydende arbejde ind i det ukendte. Ydermere viser UNIVERSEL os, at hvis vi tør bruge vores forestillingsevne, kan vi alle gøre det.
Danmarks mest anerkendte astrofysiker giver et overblik over himmelrummet fra Solsystemet og ud til de fjerneste galakser og over universets udvikling fra Big Bang frem til i dag.Universet blev skabt for 13,7 milliarder år siden. Et lysår er ca. 9,5 billioner km, og afstanden til de fjerne kvasarer er 12 milliarder lysår. Når man beskæftiger sig med universet, handler det om svimlende tidshorisonter og afstande; men Anja C. Andersen formår at gøre det uoverskuelige begribeligt.Stor gavebog med fantastisk billedmateriale.
Planetarium er en utrolig smuk bog fuld af fantastiske illustrationer af stjerner og planeter, Solen og meget andet. Det er en bog, der kan betage både store og små læsere, og som byder på endeløs læring om rummet, planeterne, rumforskning og de store spørgsmål om, hvad rummet er for en utrolig størrelse.
This book develops the statistical mechanics of the formation of gravitating cosmogonical bodies in the investigation of our solar system and other exoplanetary systems. The first part of the text acquaints the reader with the developing statistical theory of gravitating cosmogonical body formation. Within the framework of this theory, the models and evolution equations of the statistical mechanics are proposed, while well-known problems of gravitational condensation of infinite distributed cosmic substances are solved on the basis of the proposed statistical model of spheroidal bodies. The second section of the book details theoretical and practical approaches to investigating the solar system and other exoplanetary systems. In particular, it considers a new universal stellar law (USL) for extrasolar planetary systems connecting the temperature, the size and the mass of each star. Within the framework of the developed statistical theory, a new law (generalizing the famous law of O. Schmidt) for the distribution of planetary in the solar system is also provided.
Meteorites are fascinating cosmic visitors. Using accessible language, this book documents the history of mineralogy and meteorite research, summarizes the mineralogical characteristics of the myriad varieties of meteorites, and explains the mineralogical characteristics of Solar System bodies visited by spacecraft. Some of these bodies contain minerals that do not occur naturally on Earth or in meteorites. The book explains how to recognize different phases under the microscope and in back-scattered electron images. It summarizes the major ways in which meteoritic minerals form - from condensation in the expanding atmospheres of dying stars to crystallization in deep-seated magmas, from flash-melting in the solar nebula to weathering in the terrestrial environment. Containing spectacular back-scattered electron images, colour photographs of meteorite minerals, and with an accompanying online list of meteorite minerals, this book provides a useful resource for meteorite researchers, terrestrial mineralogists, cosmochemists and planetary scientists, as well as graduate students in these fields
From deep ocean trenches and the geographical poles to outer space, organisms can be found living in remarkably extreme conditions. This book provides a captivating account of these systems and their extraordinary inhabitants, 'extremophiles'. A diverse, multidisciplinary group of experts discuss responses and adaptations to change; biodiversity, bioenergetic processes, and biotic and abiotic interactions; polar environments; and life and habitability, including searching for biosignatures in the extraterrestrial environment. The editors emphasize that understanding these systems is important for increasing our knowledge and utilizing their potential, but this remains an understudied area. Given the threat to these environments and their biota caused by climate change and human impact, this timely book also addresses the urgency to document these systems. It will help graduate students and researchers in conservation, marine biology, evolutionary biology, environmental change and astrobiology better understand how life exists in these environments and their susceptibility or resilience to change.
Cosmochemistry is a rapidly evolving field of planetary science and the second edition of this classic text reflects the exciting discoveries made over the past decade from new spacecraft missions. Topics covered include the synthesis of elements in stars, behaviour of elements and isotopes in the early solar nebula and planetary bodies, and compositions of extra-terrestrial materials. Radioisotope chronology of the early Solar System is also discussed, as well as geochemical exploration of planets by spacecraft, and cosmochemical constraints on the formation of solar systems. Thoroughly updated throughout, this new edition features significantly expanded coverage of chemical fractionation and isotopic analyses; focus boxes covering basic definitions and essential background material on mineralogy, organic chemistry and quantitative topics; and a comprehensive glossary. An appendix of analytical techniques and end-of-chapter review questions, with solutions available at www.cambridge.org/cosmochemistry2e, also contribute to making this the ideal teaching resource for courses on the Solar System's composition as well as a valuable reference for early career researchers.
Black holes, once considered to be of purely theoretical interest, play an important role in observational astronomy and a range of astrophysical phenomena. This volume is based on a meeting held at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which explored the many aspects of black hole astrophysics. Written by world experts in areas of stellar-mass, intermediate-mass and supermassive black holes, these review papers provide an up-to-date overview of developments in this field. Topics discussed range from black hole entropy and the fate of information to supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies, and from the possibility of producing black holes in collider experiments to the measurements of black hole spins. This is an invaluable resource for researchers currently working in the field, and for graduate students interested in this active and growing area of research.
Planet formation studies uniquely benefit from three disciplines: astronomical observations of extrasolar planet-forming disks, analysis of material from the early Solar System, and laboratory astrophysics experiments. Pre-planetary solids, fine dust, and chondritic components are central elements linking these studies. This book is the first comprehensive overview of planet formation, in which astronomers, cosmochemists, and laboratory astrophysicists jointly discuss the latest insights from the Spitzer and Hubble space telescopes, new interferometers, space missions including Stardust and Deep Impact, and laboratory techniques. Following the evolution of solids from their genesis through protoplanetary disks to rocky planets, the book discusses in detail how the latest results from these disciplines fit into a coherent picture. This volume provides a clear introduction and valuable reference for students and researchers in astronomy, cosmochemistry, laboratory astrophysics, and planetary sciences.
This book acknowledges the importance of identifying the most crucial science to be performed by the superb Hubble Telescope. With this goal in mind, the book presents a review of some of the most important open questions in astronomy. World experts examine topics ranging from extrasolar planets and star formation to supermassive black holes and the reionization of the universe. Special emphasis is placed on what astronomical observations should be carried out during the next few years to enable breakthroughs in our understanding of a complex and dynamic universe. In particular, the reviewers attempt to identify those topics to which the Hubble Space Telescope can uniquely contribute. The special emphasis on future research makes this book an essential resource for both professional researchers and graduate students in astronomy and astrophysics.
Phenomenal new observations from Earth-based telescopes and Mars-based orbiters, landers, and rovers have dramatically advanced our understanding of the past environments on Mars. These include the first global-scale infrared and reflectance spectroscopic maps of the surface, leading to the discovery of key minerals indicative of specific past climate conditions; the discovery of large reservoirs of subsurface water ice; and the detailed in situ roving investigations of three new landing sites. This an important, new overview of the compositional and mineralogic properties of Mars since the last major study published in 1992. An exciting resource for all researchers and students in planetary science, astronomy, space exploration, planetary geology, and planetary geochemistry where specialized terms are explained to be easily understood by all who are just entering the field.
Several major breakthroughs have helped contribute to the emerging field of astrobiology. Focusing on these developments, this fascinating book explores some of the most important problems in this field. It examines how planetary systems formed, and how water and the biomolecules necessary for life were produced. It then focuses on how life may have originated and evolved on Earth. Building on these two themes, the final section takes the reader on a search for life elsewhere in the Solar System. It presents the latest results of missions to Mars and Titan, and explores the possibilities of life in the ice-covered ocean of Europa. This interdisciplinary book is an enjoyable overview of this exciting field for students and researchers in astrophysics, planetary science, geosciences, biochemistry, and evolutionary biology. Colour versions of some of the figures are available at www.cambridge.org/9780521875486.
How do planetary scientists analyze and interpret data from laboratory, telescopic, and spacecraft observations of planetary surfaces? What elements, minerals, and volatiles are found on the surfaces of our Solar System's planets, moons, asteroids, and comets? This comprehensive volume answers these topical questions by providing an overview of the theory and techniques of remote compositional analysis of planetary surfaces. Bringing together eminent researchers in Solar System exploration, it describes state-of-the-art results from spectroscopic, mineralogical, and geochemical techniques used to analyze the surfaces of planets, moons, and small bodies. The book introduces the methodology and theoretical background of each technique, and presents the latest advances in space exploration, telescopic and laboratory instrumentation, and major new work in theoretical studies. This engaging volume provides a comprehensive reference on planetary surface composition and mineralogy for advanced students, researchers, and professional scientists.
Processes governing the evolution of planetesimals are critical to understanding how rocky planets are formed, how water is delivered to them, the origin of planetary atmospheres, how cores and magnetic dynamos develop, and ultimately, which planets have the potential to be habitable. Theoretical advances and new data from asteroid and meteorite observations, coupled with spacecraft missions such as Rosetta and Dawn, have led to major advances in this field over the last decade. This transdisciplinary volume presents an authoritative overview of the latest in our understanding of the processes of planet formation. Combining meteorite, asteroid and icy body observations with theory and modelling of accretion and orbital dynamics, this text also provides insights into the exoplanetary system and the search for habitable worlds. This is an essential reference for those interested in planetary formation, solar system dynamics, exoplanets and planetary habitability.
Seismology is a highly effective tool for investigating the internal structure of the Earth. Similar techniques have also successfully been used to study other planetary bodies (planetary seismology), the Sun (helioseismology), and other stars (asteroseismology). Despite obvious differences between stars and planetary bodies, these disciplines share many similarities and together form a coherent field of scientific research. This unique book takes a transdisciplinary approach to seismology and seismic imaging, reviewing the most recent developments in these extraterrestrial contexts. With contributions from leading scientists, this timely volume systematically outlines the techniques used in observation, data processing, and modelling for asteroseismology, helioseismology, and planetary seismology, drawing comparisons with seismic methods used in geophysics. Important recent discoveries in each discipline are presented. With an emphasis on transcending the traditional boundaries of astronomy, solar, planetary and Earth sciences, this novel book is an invaluable resource and reference for undergraduates, postgraduates and academics.
Titan, the largest of Saturn's moons, shares remarkable similarities with Earth. Its thick atmosphere is composed primarily of nitrogen; it features the most complex organic chemistry known outside of Earth and, uniquely, hosts an analog to Earth's hydrological cycle, with methane forming clouds, rain and seas. Using the latest data from the ongoing Cassini-Huygens missions, laboratory measurements and numerical simulations, this comprehensive reference examines the physical processes that shape Titan's fascinating atmospheric structure and chemistry, weather, climate, circulation and surface geology. The text also surveys leading theories about Titan's origin and evolution, and assesses their implications for understanding the formation of other complex planetary bodies. Written by an international team of specialists, chapters offer detailed, comparative treatments of Titan's known properties and discuss the latest frontiers in the Cassini-Huygens mission, offering students and researchers of planetary science, geology, astronomy and space physics an insightful reference and guide.
Observations from the first spacecraft to orbit the planet Mercury have transformed our understanding of the origin and evolution of rocky planets. This volume is the definitive resource about Mercury for planetary scientists, from students to senior researchers. Topics treated in depth include Mercury's chemical composition; the structure of its crust, lithosphere, mantle, and core; Mercury's modern and ancient magnetic field; Mercury's geology, including the planet's major geological units and their surface chemistry and mineralogy, its spectral reflectance characteristics, its craters and cratering history, its tectonic features and deformational history, its volcanic features and magmatic history, its distinctive hollows, and the frozen ices in its polar deposits; Mercury's exosphere and magnetosphere and the processes that govern their dynamics and their interaction with the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field; the formation and large-scale evolution of the planet; and current plans and needed capabilities to explore Mercury further in the future.
The Cassini Orbiter mission, launched in 1997, has provided state-of-the-art information into the origins and workings of Saturn. Drawing from new discoveries and scientific insight from the mission, this book provides a detailed overview of the planet as revealed by Cassini. Chapters by eminent planetary scientists and researchers from across the world comprehensively review the current state of knowledge regarding Saturn's formation, interior, atmosphere, ionosphere, thermosphere and magnetosphere. Specialised chapters discuss the planet's seasonal variability; the circulation of strong zonal winds; the constantly changing polar aurorae; and the Great Storm of 2010-2011, the most powerful convective storm ever witnessed by humankind. Documenting the latest research on the planet, from its formation to how it operates today, this is an essential reference for graduate students, researchers and planetary scientists.
Carbon is one of the most important elements of our planet, and ninety percent of it resides inside Earth's interior. This book summarizes ten years of research by scientists involved in the Deep Carbon Observatory, a global community of 1200 scientists. It is a comprehensive guide to carbon inside Earth, including its quantities, movements, forms, origins, changes over time, and impact on planetary processes. Leading experts from a variety of fields, including geoscience, biology, chemistry, and physics, provide exciting new insights into the interconnected nature of the global carbon cycle, and explain why it matters to the past, present, and future of our planet. With end-of-chapter problems, illustrative infographics, full-color images, and access to online models and datasets, it is a valuable reference for graduate students, researchers, and professional scientists interested in carbon cycling and Earth system science. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
In recent decades, great progress has been made in our understanding of zonal jets across many subjects - atmospheric science, oceanography, planetary science, geophysical fluid dynamics, plasma physics, magnetohydrodynamics, turbulence theory - but communication between researchers from different fields has been weak or non-existent. Even the terminology in different fields may be so disparate that researchers working on similar problems do not understand each other. This comprehensive, multidisciplinary volume will break cross-disciplinary barriers and aid the advancement of the subject. It presents a state-of-the-art summary of all relevant branches of the physics of zonal jets, from the leading experts. The phenomena and concepts are introduced at a level accessible to beginning graduate students and researchers from different fields. The book also includes a very extensive bibliography.
Planetary rings are among the most intriguing structures of our solar system and have fascinated generations of astronomers. Collating emerging knowledge in the field, this volume reviews our current understanding of ring systems with reference to the rings of Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and more. Written by leading experts, the history of ring research and the basics of ring-particle orbits is followed by a review of the known planetary ring systems. All aspects of ring system science are described in detail, including specific dynamical processes, types of structures, thermal properties and their origins, and investigations using computer simulations and laboratory experiments. The concluding chapters discuss the prospects of future missions to planetary rings, the ways in which ring science informs and is informed by the study of other astrophysical disks, and a perspective on the field's future. Researchers of all levels will benefit from this thorough and engaging presentation.
Ongoing advances in Solar System exploration continue to reveal its splendour and diversity in remarkable detail. This undergraduate-level textbook presents fascinating descriptions and colour images of the bodies in the Solar System, the processes that occur upon and within them, and their origins and evolution. It highlights important concepts and techniques in boxed summaries, while questions and exercises are embedded at appropriate points throughout the text, with full solutions provided. Written and edited by a team of practising planetary scientists, this third edition has been updated to reflect our current knowledge. It is ideal for introductory courses on the subject, and is suitable for self-study. The text is supported by online resources, hosted at www.cambridge.org/solarsystem3, which include selected figures from the book, self-assessment questions and sample tutor assignments, with outlines of suggested answers.
Chondrules are spherical silicate grains which formed from protoplanetary disk material, and as such provide an important record of the conditions of the Solar System in pre-planetary times. Chondrules are a major constituent in chondritic meteorites, however despite being recognised for over 200 years, their origins remain enigmatic. This comprehensive review describes state-of-the-art research into chondrules, bringing together leading cosmochemists and astrophysicists to review the properties of chondrules and their possible formation mechanisms based on careful observations of their chemistry, mineralogy, petrology and isotopic composition. Current and upcoming space missions returning material from chondritic asteroids and cometary bodies has invigorated research in this field, leading to new models and observations, and providing new insight into the conditions and timescales of the solar protoplanetary disk. Presenting the most recent advances, this book is an invaluable reference for researchers and graduate students interested in meteorites, asteroids, planetary accretion and solar system dynamics.
On the centenary of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, this book reviews the state-of-the-art research in geomagnetism, aeronomy and space weather. Written by eminent researchers from these fields, it summarises the advances in research over the past 100 years, and looks ahead to current and emerging studies on Earth's magnetic field. It provides a comprehensive overview of the generation of Earth's magnetic field, its history and its response to external forces. Starting at the centre of the Earth, the reader is taken on a journey from the interior core and mantle, through the upper atmosphere and magnetosphere, before reaching the Sun's atmosphere and corona. The applications of this research are also discussed, particularly the societal impact of solar activity on critical infrastructures in our increasingly technologically dependant society. This book provides a valuable resource and reference to academic researchers and students in geomagnetism and aeronomy.
With over 500 planets now known to exist beyond the Solar System, spacecraft heading for Mars, and the ongoing search for extraterrestrial intelligence, this timely book explores current ideas about the search for life in the Universe. It contains candid interviews with dozens of astronomers, geologists, biologists, and writers about the origin and range of terrestrial life and likely sites for life beyond Earth. The interviewees discuss what we've learnt from the missions to Mars and Titan, talk about the search for Earth clones, describe the surprising diversity of life on Earth, speculate about post-biological evolution, and explore what contact with intelligent aliens will mean to us. Covering topics from astronomy and planetary science to geology and biology, this book will fascinate anyone who has ever wondered 'Are we alone?'