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Teorien om Big Bang er den bedste model, vi i øjeblikket har om universets skabelse; men det betyder ikke, at det er den endelige sandhed. Men hvorfor er der stort set enighed om, at universet for 13,7 milliarder år siden blev skabt af en tætpakket klump, der rummede al energi og alt stof? Og eksisterede der noget inden Big Bang? Astrofysikeren Anja C. Andersen formidler teorier og forskningsresultater udogmatisk og letforståeligt.
Der er ikke otte, men milliarder af planeter i Universet, og mange af dem ligger i et lunt smørhul, hvor de potentielt kan huse liv. Den opdagelse er en af de største i den moderne astronomi, og vi er kun lige begyndt at forstå, hvad der egentlig gemmer sig derude i kosmos af bizarre kloder. 'Fjerne kloder' beskriver erkendelsesrejsen, fra Giordano Bruno blev brændt på bålet i år 1600 for sin kætterske idé om uendelig mange planeter – og til konstruktionen af små satellitter, som måske kan besøge de nærmeste af disse exoplaneter og lede efter livstegn på dem. Undervejs møder vi forskerne ved fronten, som kigger hinsides solsystemet og kæmper for at besvare det ultimative spørgsmål: Er vi alene?
Vi vover at forestille os en tid før Big Bang, hvor hele universet var presset sammen til et område mindre end et atom. Og nu kan vi, som Brian Cox og Jeff Forshaw viser, gøre mere end blot at forestille os: Vi kan forstå. Gennem århundreder har den menneskelige trang til at opdage afdækket en utrolig mængde viden. Hvad den afslører for os, gør os åndeløse.UNIVERSEL tager os med på en storslået videnskabelig opdagelsesrejse og afslører undervejs, hvordan vi kan forstå nogle af de mest grundlæggende spørgsmål omkring vores Jord, Sol og solsystem og de stjernefyldte galakser længere væk. Nogle af disse spørgsmål – hvor stort er vores solsystem? Hvor hurtigt udvider rummet sig? - kan besvares fra vores baghave; svarene på andre – hvor stort er universet? Hvad er det lavet af? - trækker på forbløffende informationer, som netop nu indsamles af hold af astronomer, der arbejder i grænselandet af det kendte univers.I centrum af alle disse spørgsmål – fra de tidligste forsøg på at måle tyngdekraften til vores bestræbelser på at forstå, hvad mørkt stof er, og hvad der virkelig skete ved universets fødsel – står den videnskabelige proces. Videnskaben afslører en dybere skønhed, forbinder os med hinanden, med vores verden og med vores univers, og rækker ved at forstå andres banebrydende arbejde ind i det ukendte. Ydermere viser UNIVERSEL os, at hvis vi tør bruge vores forestillingsevne, kan vi alle gøre det.
Der sker hele tiden noget nyt og spændende inden for rumforskningen. I 2022 lykkedes det forskerholdet Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration at optage et billede af det sorte hul i Mælkevejen. James Webb Teleskopet leverer billeder af galakser, der ligger 13 milliarder lysår borte. De opdagelser, som den danske forsker Albert Sneppen har gjort omkring neutronstjerners sammenstød, kan måske bruges til at beregne universets udvidelseshastighed. I ”Det gådefulde univers” giver Danmarks mest anerkendte astrofysiker et overblik over himmelrummet fra Solsystemet og ud til de fjerneste galakser og over universets udvikling fra Big Bang frem til i dag.Universet blev skabt for 13,7 milliarder år siden. Et lysår er ca. 9,5 billioner kilometer, og afstanden til de fjerne kvasarer er 12 milliarder lysår. Når man beskæftiger sig med universet, handler det om svimlende tidshorisonter og afstande; men Anja C. Andersen formår at gøre det uoverskuelige begribeligt. Stor gavebog med fantastisk billedmateriale.
Every night, above our heads, a drama of epic proportions is playing out. Diamond planets, zombie stars, black holes heavier than a billion Suns. The cast of characters is extraordinary, and each one has its own incredible story to tell.
Velkommen til planeternes museum! Her kan du finde en række udstillinger af kosmiske fænomener, fra Solen og Solsystemet til stjernernes livscyklus, Mælkevejen og universet som helhed. Tag en tur gennem museets udstillinger, når som helst du vil – det er altid åbent! Ledsaget af oplysende tekst indeholder kapitlerne smukke illustrationer af en lang række himmellegemer og fænomener i rummet, og du kan lære om alle de fascinerende ting, der får universet til at fungere.
Hvorfor er vores univers, som det er? Hvordan begyndte alting? Hvordan vil det ende? Fysikeren Thomas Hertog granskede disse store spørgsmål sammen med Stephen Hawking og fik derved et helt særligt kendskab til de forbløffende indsigter, som Hawking, trods enorme fysiske udfordringer, arbejdede med sent i livet. Denne yderst velskrevne bog af Hawkings tætteste samarbejdspartner gennem 20 år giver et unikt indblik i et ekstraordinært menneske, hvordan kreative processer fungerer, samt omfanget og begrænsningerne af vores nuværende forståelse af kosmos. Tidens oprindelse er en tankevækkende beretning om videnskaben og de personligheder, der medvirkede i Stephen Hawkings ihærdige forsøg på at forstå kosmos.
Mennesket har altid været optaget af Mars. Planeten kan som én af de eneste ses med det blotte øje fra Jorden, og helt fra Galileis opfindelse af teleskopet i 1600-tallet og frem til nu er det blevet debatteret, om der er eller har været liv på Mars.Mars er afbildet på 70.000 år gamle hulemalerier i Botswana og fascinerer stadig den dag i dag, hvor 600.000 danskere i 2021 fulgte med i live-sendingen af roveren Perseverances landing på Mars.I den rigt illustrerede bog gennemgår Tina Ibsen myterne om den røde planet, Mars-forskningens historie, de unikke geologiske og atmosfæriske forhold på planeten, vores missioner til Mars og den imponerende teknologi, der ligger bag opsendelserne af rumsonder og rovere - og ikke mindst det store spørgsmål: Er der liv på Mars - og kan mennesket bo der engang i fremtiden?I bogen er der interview med tre danske forskere:Morten Bo Madsen, der er lektor på Niels Bohr Instituttet og har deltaget i seks af NASAs Mars-missioner.Jens Frydenvang, der er adjunkt ved Globe Institute på Københavns Universitet og deltager i både Perseverance- og Curiosity-missionerne.Line Drube, der er ph.d. i astrofysik fra Niels Bohr Institutet og har deltaget i Phoenix-Marsmissionen, hvor hun styrede landerens robot-arms kamera fra NASAs kontrolcenter i Tucson."Mars - myter, magi og missioner" er skrevet af astrofysiker Tina Ibsen, kendt fra den populære podcast Rumsnak.
Evacuated Glass Tube Solar Collector as an Air Heater" is a comprehensive book that explores the design, performance, and applications of evacuated glass tube solar collectors for air heating purposes. The book focuses on the analysis, optimization, and practical implementation of these innovative solar heating systems. The book begins by providing an overview of solar thermal energy and the importance of utilizing renewable energy sources for space heating. It introduces the concept of evacuated glass tube solar collectors, which are highly efficient and capable of harnessing solar energy even in challenging weather conditions. Readers will gain a fundamental understanding of the principles and working mechanisms of evacuated glass tube collectors as air heaters. Moving forward, the book delves into the design considerations and engineering aspects of evacuated glass tube solar collectors. It covers topics such as collector configuration, absorber plate design, heat transfer mechanisms, and insulation techniques. The book explores the impact of various design parameters on the thermal performance and efficiency of the collectors. It provides guidelines for optimizing the design and construction of evacuated glass tube solar collectors to maximize heat transfer and energy conversion. Throughout the book, practical aspects of using evacuated glass tube solar collectors as air heaters are addressed. It discusses considerations such as installation, operation, and maintenance of these systems. The book explores the integration of solar air heaters with existing heating systems, such as forced-air systems or radiant floor heating, to provide sustainable and cost-effective heating solutions. It also covers the economic and environmental benefits of using evacuated glass tube collectors for air heating applications. Furthermore, "Evacuated Glass Tube Solar Collector as an Air Heater" examines the performance analysis and simulation techniques for evaluating the thermal performance of these systems. It discusses mathematical modeling, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and experimental methods for assessing heat transfer rates, energy efficiency, and system performance. The book also explores advanced control strategies and automation techniques to optimize the operation of evacuated glass tube solar collectors as air heaters. This book serves as a valuable resource for researchers, engineers, architects, and students in the field of solar energy and sustainable building systems. It combines theoretical knowledge with practical insights, offering guidelines, design principles, and case studies for the effective utilization of evacuated glass tube solar collectors as air heaters. The goal is to provide readers with a comprehensive understanding of the potential and practical implementation of these systems, enabling them to design and implement efficient and environmentally friendly heating solutions.
TiO2 Nanomaterials for Photocatalysis Antibacterials, written by M. Nagalakshmi, is a comprehensive book that delves into the synthesis, characterization, and application of TiO2 nanomaterials in the field of photocatalysis and antibacterials. The book covers a wide range of topics, including the use of TiO2 in solar energy conversion, visible light photocatalysis, and the generation of reactive oxygen species.The author provides an in-depth analysis of the mechanisms involved in TiO2-based photocatalysis and photodegradation, which are essential for water treatment, air pollution control, and self-cleaning surfaces. Furthermore, the book explores the use of TiO2 nanomaterials in biomedical applications, both in vitro and in vivo, for their antibacterial activity and biocompatibility.The book also covers the synthesis of TiO2 nanomaterials, including nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanorods, and nanosheets, as well as their doping and surface modification. The author discusses bandgap engineering, metal nanoparticles, and hybrid materials, including heterojunctions, which are crucial for efficient electron transfer, photocurrent, and charge separation.Moreover, the book examines the use of TiO2 nanomaterials in environmental remediation, such as in the development of nanocomposites for water purification and the use of biocidal surfaces for sterilization. The author also discusses the cytotoxicity of TiO2 nanomaterials and their potential use in cellulose, textiles, coatings, paints, food packaging, and medical devices.Overall, TiO2 Nanomaterials for Photocatalysis Antibacterials is an essential resource for researchers, scientists, and students in the field of materials science, nanotechnology, and biomedical engineering, who are interested in understanding the properties and applications of TiO2 nanomaterials. The book provides a comprehensive overview of TiO2 nanomaterials, their synthesis, characterization, and applications, and it highlights their potential in addressing some of the most pressing challenges in environmental remediation and antibacterial applications.
Majesty of Nature: An Introductory Look Humans have always had a soft spot for the natural world. For generations, its majestic grandeur and breathtaking beauty have moved writers, artists, and thinkers. The natural world's breathtaking scenery, rich ecosystems, and intricate patterns have permanently etched themselves into the human psyche. This introductory section will investigate the meaning of "Nature's Majesty," its significance, and the ways in which it has shaped human thought and culture across time. Just what is the majesty of nature? Nature's Majesty is a word that expresses the profound sense of awe, wonder, and respect we feel when we contemplate the natural world in all its splendor. Whether it's the towering mountains and immense oceans or the complex microcosms within a single drop of water, everything in the natural world deserves to be recognized for its grandeur and magnificence. The Majesty of Nature celebrates the innate elegance, intricacy, and balance that permeate the very fabric of our planet. The intricate workings of the natural world, the delicate balance of ecosystems, the diversity of life, and the durability of our planet are all aspects of Nature that contribute to the idea of Nature's Majesty, which goes well beyond picturesque landscapes and beautiful vistas. It embraces both the obvious and the hidden beauties of nature, from the iridescent wings of a butterfly to the cosmic dance of stars in the night sky.
Porphyrin Sensitizers for Solar Cells" by Jonnadula V S Krishna is a comprehensive guide to the applications of porphyrin-based dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The book covers the various aspects of porphyrin sensitizers and their potential use in solar cells, including their synthesis, characterization, and performance in solar cells. The book begins with an introduction to the principles of solar energy conversion and an overview of different types of solar cells. It then focuses on the design and synthesis of porphyrin sensitizers, including their electronic and photophysical properties. The author also discusses various techniques for characterizing porphyrin sensitizers, such as UV-vis absorption, fluorescence, and electrochemical methods. The book then delves into the performance of porphyrin sensitizers in solar cells, including their efficiency, stability, and compatibility with different types of electrolytes. The author also explores the various factors that can affect the performance of porphyrin-based solar cells, such as the nature of the sensitizers, the thickness of the dye layer, and the composition of the electrolyte. Overall, "Porphyrin Sensitizers for Solar Cells" is an essential resource for researchers and engineers working in the field of solar energy conversion, as well as for graduate students and advanced undergraduates in chemistry, materials science, and physics. The book provides a thorough and up-to-date overview of the latest research on porphyrin sensitizers, making it an invaluable reference for anyone interested in this exciting field.
Multi-messenger science has a long history in solar astronomy, as direct measures of "in-situ" particles emanating from the Sun, like the solar wind, have long been used alongside remote observations to shape our understanding of the heliosphere. Still, the recent advent of several major observational facilities, such as Parker Solar Probe, Solar Orbiter, and the Inouye Solar Telescope, among many others, is now heralding an exciting new era of scientific opportunities within multi-messenger solar physics. This volume collects the proceedings of IAU Symposium 372 held during the XXXIst IAU General Assembly in Busan, Republic of Korea. Its main goal is to highlight how these facilities can address many of the pressing questions facing contemporary solar physics, with a special emphasis on their coordinated operation and the resulting synergies. Graduate students and researchers in solar physics will benefit from the many new results presented within.
Winds form an integral part of astronomy - from regulating rotation of stars through enriching galaxies with fresh materials. Outflowing winds persist during the entire lives of stars and play a key role in shaping the exoplanet demographics we observe. In massive stars, their winds are a vital ingredient of their evolution, from the main sequence to the pre-supernova stage, determining black hole masses as measured from gravitational waves. In the case of low-mass stars, their winds dictate rotational evolution, which affect angular momentum distribution within the stellar interior and thus the generation of magnetic fields. In the case of planets, winds take the form of atmospheric escape, which can strongly affect their atmospheric evolution. IAU Symposium 370 brings together researchers on winds of exoplanets and stars, including the solar wind, to share insights into the physics and modelling tools used by these different communities.
NASA's Mars 2020 mission successfully landed the Perseverance rover in Jezero crater on February 18, 2021.This book provides the definitive pre-landing documentation of the Mars 2020 mission, its scientific payload elements, and its exploration area.The chapters in this volume include detailed descriptions of: The Perseverance mission, and its relationship to a possible Mars Sample Return campaign; The geology of the mission's exploration environment in Jezero crater; and The purpose, design and operation of all seven instruments aboard the rover (Mastcam-Z, SHERLOC, RIMFAX, Supercam, MOXIE, PIXL, and MEDA) as well as the engineering cameras and the Mars helicopter Ingenuity. NASA's ambitious Mars 2020 mission extends a long arc of Martian exploration by seeking evidence that life may once have existed on Mars, and by preparing a collection of samples for possible return to Earth by a future mission. Mars 2020 will also enable future exploration by characterizing modern weather conditions and by demonstrating new technologies.Previously published in Space Science Reviews in the Topical Collection "The Mars 2020 Mission"
A series of increasingly capable spacecraft were sent to explore the inner planets Venus and Mercury. The history of that planetary exploration is traced in this book along with the evolution of sophisticated spacecraft that unveiled long-sought secrets of the planets. The spacecraft were ingenious and reflected the best efforts of talented people working with the available technology of the day. Additionally, this book showcases engineering involved in those capable machines.A consecutive series of 34 planetary spacecraft, which span the time period 1961 to 2021, are described. This includes the unsuccessful missions of several early spacecraft that paved the way for a better understanding of Venus¿ hostile environments. This book will describe many successful spacecraft sent to Venus by the Soviet Union and many successful spacecraft sent to Venus and to Mercury by the United States.The recent exploration of Venus by the European Space Agency¿s Venus Express and the Japanese spacecraft Akatsuki can also be found in this book.The author draws on over 50 years of experience on aircraft and spacecraft systems to tell the story of these planetary spacecraft. The spacecraft experience includes being the technical lead for the landing radars on the Surveyor and Apollo lunar landers as well as providing analyses for the rendezvous radar for the Space Shuttle. Practical engineering experience is augmented by Master¿s degrees in electrical engineering, physics, and business administration.
There is a huge gulf between the real physics of space travel and the way it is commonly portrayed in movies and TV shows. That¿s not because space physics is difficult or obscure ¿ most of the details were understood by the end of the 18th century ¿ but because it can often be bafflingly counter-intuitive for a general audience. The purpose of this book isn¿t to criticize or debunk popular sci-fi depictions, which can be very entertaining, but to focus on how space physics really works. This is done with the aid of numerous practical illustrations taken from the works of serious science fiction authors ¿ from Jules Verne and Arthur C. Clarke to Larry Niven and Andy Weir ¿ who have taken positive pleasure in getting their scientific facts right.
From earthquakes to the northern lights and tsunamis to glacier movement, the author explains thousands of phenomena in the world around us. All of this is done using language that is simple and understandable, and at the same time this book does not try to deceive the reader, as materials of this nature often do, but uses exact physical formulas where they are needed.This book serves as an invaluable reference for physics teachers and should inspire high school students to study physics. Many of them will very likely be able to understand that riveting events and phenomena lie behind those very same formulas that just yesterday seemed so boring.This is an excellent and unique way of easily submerging oneself into the world of science and a non-stop intellectual challenge that lures the reader in much more than any game of chess.Sir Andre Geim, 2010 Nobel Prize Laureate in PhysicsThere are plenty of high school students who continue to find science interesting today. Dmitry Livanov¿s book, which is both useful and held in high regard, is written precisely with these young people in mind.This book can be used by teachers who want to expand the narrow scope of subject material in their classes and enable students to broaden their perspective about how to apply the laws of physics in order to understand such a complex natural object as planet Earth. This book will be of interest to high school students and graduates of high schools, specialized high schools and preparatory schools who want to test their understanding of physics, astronomy and geography. This book strengthens the foundation of scientific knowledge in today¿s world, which repeatedly tests the strength of the collective body of science.Evgeniy Yamburg,Member of the Russian Academy of EducationPrincipal, School #109, Moscow Dmitry Livanov was able to write a book that is interesting both for those who are just beginning to become familiar with physics, and for those who for various reasons have forgotten much of what they knew at one time. He succeeded in doing this because he himself knows and loves physics and because physics¿as the most important part of human culture¿is interesting to him.I hope that readers of this book will not only recognize the usefulness and importance of physics, but also appreciate its beauty and allure.Andrey Furchenko,Doctor of Physics and Mathematics,Aide to the President of the Russian Federation
This book provides a comprehensive overview of NASA's ICON space mission. Written before ICON's launch, the papers contain the most complete description of the ICON flight instruments and preflight operation plans.In addition to the technology and engineering, the volume describes ICON's scientific mission to investigate how lower atmospheric tropospheric dynamics affect the high altitude ionosphere, and why special emphasis was placed on understanding how neutral winds affect the ionospheric dynamics. This book helps researchers better understand ICON's workings and why ionospheric behavior is so important to technically advanced societies, as systems based on satellite communications and GPS rely on the propagation of radio waves through the ionosphere. Previously published in Space Science Reviews in the Topical Collection "The Ionospheric Connection Explorer (ICON) mission"
Earth has limited material and energy resources, while these resources are virtually unlimited in space. It is only a matter of time, before planetary resources are mined and used in-situ to sustain human and robotic exploration or returned to Earth for commercial gain. This book covers a number of aspects related to space resources. In particular, subjects related to mission concepts, exploration approaches, mining and extraction technologies, commercial potential, and regulatory aspects of space resources are covered in detail. This book is therefore a good resource for readers who seek background and deeper understanding of space resources related activities.
How planets form is one of the long-standing questions in astrophysics. In particular, formation scenarios of planetesimals which are kilometer-sized bodies and a precursor of planets are still unclear and under debate although some promising mechanisms have been proposed.This book highlight disk instabilities that have the potential to explain the origin of planetesimals. Using linear analyses and numerical simulations, it addresses how a disk evolves through the development of instabilities, and also presents a new instability driven by dust coagulation. As a result, the simulation demonstrates a scenario of planetesimal formation: A successive development of multiple instabilities triggers planetesimal formation in resulting dusty rings.
This book provides a complete overview of the development of cosmic ray physics, with historical and educational considerations, from early evidence of the existence of extraterrestrial radiation up to the most recent applications of cosmic ray muons in different aspects of daily life.Many of the original results that contributed to the study of cosmic radiation are presented and discussed, accompanied by bibliographic references, numerous in-depth appendices, about 200 illustrations and a large chapter dedicated to the overall impact of cosmic rays.The book includes sections on, among other topics: the debate on the corpuscular or radiative nature of cosmic radiation; the development of early techniques for detecting cosmic particles; the properties and composition of primary and secondary radiation; and the interaction of cosmic muons in matter and a long list of their recent applications, ranging from the muon tomography techniques to the investigation of the stability of civil buildings. The book is addressed to a wide audience, and thus, while it is used for introductory cosmic ray physics courses at the bachelor's or master's level, high school students and teachers involved in educational projects around cosmic rays also benefit from its many historical and educational aspects.
This book presents an easy-to-use tool for time series analysis and allows the user to concentrate upon studying time series properties rather than upon how to calculate the necessary estimates. The two attached programs provide, in one run of the program, a time and frequency domain description of scalar or multivariate time series approximated with a sequence of autoregressive models of increasing orders. The optimal orders are chosen by five order selection criteria. The results for scalar time series include time domain stochastic difference equations, spectral density estimates, predictability properties, and a forecast of scalar time series based upon the Kolmogorov-Wiener theory. For the bivariate and trivariate time series, the results contain a time domain description with multivariate stochastic difference equations, statistical predictability criterion, and information for calculating feedback and Granger causality properties in the bivariate case. The frequency domain information includes spectral densities, ordinary, multiple, and partial coherence functions, ordinary and multiple coherent spectra, gain, phase, and time lag factors. The programs seem to be unique and using them does not require professional knowledge of theory of random processes. The book contains many examples including three from engineering.
Following on from Part 1, which was highly acclaimed by the space community, this peer-viewed book provides detailed insights into how space and popular culture intersect across a broad spectrum of areas, including cinema, music, art, arcade games, cartoons, comics, and advertisements. This is a pertinent topic since the use of space themes differs in different cultural contexts, and these themes can be used to explore various aspects of the human condition and provide a context for social commentary on politically sensitive issues. With the use of space imagery evolving over the past sixty years of the space age, this topic is ripe for in-depth exploration. Covering a wide array of relevant and timely topics, the book examines the intersections between space and popular culture, and offers accounts of space and its effect on culture, language, and storytelling from the southern regions of the world.
This book is a collection of contributions covering the major subjects in numerical simulation of space and astrophysical plasma. It introduces the different approaches and methods to model plasma, the necessary computational codes, and applications in the field. The book is rooted in the previous work Space Plasma Simulation (Springer, 2003) and includes the latest developments. It is divided into three parts and all chapters start with an introduction motivating the topic and its use in research and ends with a discussion of its applications. The chapters of the first part contain tutorials of the different basic approaches needed to perform space plasma simulations. This part is particularly useful for graduate students to master the subject. The second part presents more advanced materials for students and researchers who already work with pre-existing codes but want to implement the recent progresses made in the field. The last part of the book discusses developments in the area for researchers who are actively working on advanced simulation approaches like higher order schemes and artificial intelligence, agent-based technologies for multiscale and multi-dimensional systems, which represent the recent innovative contributions made in space plasma research.
This book addresses the problems of Geocosmos and provides a snapshot of the current research in a broad area of Earth Sciences carried out in Russia and elsewhere.The themes covered include solar physics, physics of magnetosphere, ionosphere and atmosphere, solar-terrestrial coupling links, seismology, geoelectricity, paleomagnetism and rock magnetism, as well as cross-disciplinary studies.The proceedings are carefully edited, providing a panoramic outlook of a broad area of Earth Sciences. The readership includes colleague researchers, students and early career scientists. The proceedings will help the readers to look at their research fields from various points of view.Problems of Geocosmos conferences are held by Earth Physics Department, St. Petersburg University bi-annually since 1994. It is the largest forum of this kind in Russia/former Soviet Union attracting up to 200 researchers in Earth and magnetospheric physics.