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PHEMT devices and their incorporation into advanced monolithic integrated circuits is the enabling technology for modern microwave/millimeter wave system applications. Although still in its infancy, PHEMT MIMIC technology is already finding applications in both military and commercial systems, including radar, communication and automotive technologies. The successful team in a globally competitive market is one in which the solid-state scientist, circuit designer, system engineer and technical manager are cognizant of those considerations and requirements that influence each other's function. This book provides the reader with a comprehensive review of PHEMT technology, including materials, fabrication and processing, device physics, CAD tools and modelling, monolithic integrated circuit technology and applications. Readers with a broad range of specialities in one or more of the areas of materials, processing, device physics, circuit design, system design and marketing will be introduced quickly to important basic concepts and techniques. The specialist who has specific PHEMT experience will benefit from the broad range of topics covered and the open discussion of practical issues. Finally, the publication offers an additional benefit, in that it presents a broad scope to both the researcher and manager, both of whom must be aware and educated to remain relevant in an ever-expanding technology base.
Ongoing developments in nanofabrication technology and the availability of novel materials have led to the emergence and evolution of new topics for mesoscopic research, including scanning-tunnelling microscopic studies of few-atom metallic clusters, discrete energy level spectroscopy, the prediction of Kondo-type physics in the transport properties of quantum dots, time dependent effects, and the properties of interacting systems, e.g. of Luttinger liquids. The overall understanding of each of these areas is still incomplete; nevertheless, with the foundations laid by studies in the more traditional systems there is no doubt that these new areas will advance mesoscopic electron transport to a new phenomenological level, both experimentally and theoretically. Mesoscopic Electron Transport highlights selected areas in the field, provides a comprehensive review of such systems, and also serves as an introduction to the new and developing areas of mesoscopic electron transport.
This book compiles historical notes and a review of the work of the author and his associates on shock compression of condensed matter (SCCM). The work includes such topics as foundational aspects of SCCM, thermodynamics, thermodynamics of defects, and plasticity as they relate to shock compression, shock-induced phase transition, and shock compaction. Also included are synthesis of refractory and hard ceramic compounds such as Ni aluminides, SiC and diamonds, method of characteristics, discrete element methods, the shock compression process at the grain scale, and modeling shock-to-detonation transition in high explosives.The book tells the story of how the author's view of shock physics came to be where it is now. and analytically discusses how the author's appreciation of shock waves has evolved in time. It offers a personal but pedagogical perspective on SCCM for young scientists and engineers who are starting their careers in the field. For experts it offers materials to nudge them reflect on their own stories, with the hope of planting a seed of motivation to write them down to be published.
This book includes the synthesis, analysis and characterization of nanomaterials that are an important ingredient in nanotechnologies. Nanomaterials contain nanoparticles, smaller than 100 nanometers in at least one dimension. Nanomaterials are coming into use in health care, electronics, cosmetics and other areas. Their physical and chemical properties differ from those of bulk materials. This needs to cover health risks to workers and potential risks to environment. This is currently done on a case-by-case basis, but risk assessment methods need to be kept up to date as the use of nanomaterials expands, especially as they find their way into consumer products. This book covers the basics to advanced applications of nanomaterials and provides a useful resource for researchers and professionals in the field.
This book offers historical and state-of-the-art molecular spectroscopy methods and applications in dynamic compression science, aimed at the upcoming generation in physical sciences involved in studies of materials at extremes. It begins with addressing the motivation for probing shock compressed molecular materials with spectroscopy and then reviews historical developments and the basics of the various spectroscopic methods that have been utilized. Introductory chapters are devoted to fundamentals of molecular spectroscopy, overviews of dynamic compression technologies, and diagnostics used to quantify the shock compression state during spectroscopy experiments. Subsequent chapters describe all the molecular spectroscopic methods used in shock compression research to date, including theory, experimental details for application to shocked materials, and difficulties that can be encountered. Each of these chapters also includes a section comparing static compression results. The last chapter offers an outlook for the future, which leads the next-generation readers to tackling persistent problems.
This book offers an interdisciplinary theoretical approach based on non-equilibrium statistical thermodynamics and control theory for mathematically modeling shock-induced out-of-equilibrium processes in condensed matter. The book comprises two parts. The first half of the book establishes the theoretical approach, reviewing fundamentals of non-equilibrium statistical thermodynamics and control theory of adaptive systems. The latter half applies the presented approach to a problem on shock-induced plane wave propagation in condensed matter. The result successfully reproduces the observed feature of waveform propagation in experiments, which conventional continuous mechanics cannot access. Further, the consequent stress-strain relationships derived with relaxation and inertia effect in elastic-plastic transition determines material properties in transient regimes.
This book presents experimental studies on emergent transport and magneto-optical properties in three-dimensional topological insulators with two-dimensional Dirac fermions on their surfaces. Designing magnetic heterostructures utilizing a cutting-edge growth technique (molecular beam epitaxy) stabilizes and manifests new quantization phenomena, as confirmed by low-temperature electrical transport and time-domain terahertz magneto-optical measurements. Starting with a review of the theoretical background and recent experimental advances in topological insulators in terms of a novel magneto-electric coupling, the author subsequently explores their magnetic quantum properties and reveals topological phase transitions between quantum anomalous Hall insulator and trivial insulator phases; a new topological phase (the axion insulator); and a half-integer quantum Hall state associated with the quantum parity anomaly. Furthermore, the author shows how these quantum phases can be significantly stabilized via magnetic modulation doping and proximity coupling with a normal ferromagnetic insulator. These findings provide a basis for future technologies such as ultra-low energy consumption electronic devices and fault-tolerant topological quantum computers.
This book highlights recent advances in quantum control technologies with regard to hybrid quantum systems. It addresses the following topics: phonon engineering based on phononic crystals, carbon-based nano materials like graphene and nanotubes, Terahertz light technology for single-molecule and quantum dots, nuclear-spin-based metrology for semiconductor quantum systems, quantum anomalous Hall effect in magnetic topological insulators, chiral three-dimensional photonic crystals, and bio-inspired magnonic systems. Each topic, as a component in the framework of hybrid quantum systems, is concisely presented by experts at the forefront of the field. Accordingly, the book offers a valuable asset, and will help readers find advanced technologies and materials suitable for their purposes.
This book presents an overview of the science of superconducting materials. It covers the fundamentals and theories of superconductivity. Subjects of special interest involving mechanisms of high temperature superconductors, tunneling, transport properties, magnetic properties, critical states, vortex dynamics, etc. are present in the book. It assists as a fundamental resource on the developed methodologies and techniques involved in the synthesis, processing, and characterization of superconducting materials. The book covers numerous classes of superconducting materials including fullerenes, borides, pnictides or iron-based chalcogen superconductors ides, alloys and cuprate oxides. Their crystal structures and properties are described. Thereafter, the book focuses on the progress of the applications of superconducting materials into superconducting magnets, fusion reactors, and accelerators and other superconducting magnets. The applications also cover recent progress in superconducting wires, power generators, powerful energy storage devices, sensitive magnetometers, RF and microwave filters, fast fault current limiters, fast digital circuits, transport vehicles, and medical applications.
This book includes problems based on the material in the course of physical kinetics for the students of general and applied physics. It contains 60 problems with detailed solutions. The comments to the problems reflect the connection with the problems and methods of modern physical kinetics. A brief introduction gives the necessary information for solving and understanding the problems. The book is proposed for students and postgraduates studying the theoretical physics. The book is used as a supplement to the textbooks published on physical kinetics. The purpose of the book is to help students in training the practical skills and mastering the basic elements of physical kinetics. To understand the subject matter, it is sufficient to know the traditional courses of theoretical physics.
This book provides readers with a detailed overview of second- and third-order nonlinearities in various nanostructures, as well as their potential applications. Interest in the field of nonlinear optics has grown exponentially in recent years and, as a result, there is increasing research on novel nonlinear phenomena and the development of nonlinear photonic devices. Thus, such a book serves as a comprehensive guide for researchers in the field and those seeking to become familiar with it.This text focuses on the nonlinear properties of nanostructured systems that arise as a result of optical wave mixing. The authors present a review of nonlinear optical processes on the nanoscale and provide theoretical descriptions for second and third-order optical nonlinearities in nanostructures such as carbon allotropes, metallic nanostructures, semiconductors, nanocrystals, and complex geometries. Here, the characterization and potential applications of these nanomaterials are also discussed. The factors that determine the nonlinear susceptibility in these systems are identified as well as the influence of physical mechanisms emerging from resonance and off-resonance excitations. In addition, the authors detail the effects driven by important phenomena such as quantum confinement, localized surface plasmon resonance, Fano resonances, bound states, and the Purcell effect on specific nanostructured systems. Readers are provided with a groundwork for future research as well as new perspectives in this growing field.
Non-collinear spin textures have attracted significant attention due to their topological nature, emergent electromagnetic properties, and potential spintronic and magnonic device applications. This book explores the physical properties of distinct spin textures in D2d compounds. The main goals of the work are (a) discovering new spin textures in D2d Heusler compounds and studying their detailed properties to enrich the field of non-collinear magnetism (b) optimizing the nano-track geometry and generating isolated and single chains of nano-objects that will establish new hallmarks for technological applications (c) studying the stability of spin textures with magnetic fields and temperatures and finding a way to observe the striking behavior of spin textures near the specimen edges. The first few chapters provide a brief overview of spin textures such as Bloch and Neel skyrmions. In the experimental methods section, the author shows how to identify the single-crystalline grains of a polycrystalline sample, how to make single-crystalline thin specimens and nano-tracks, and then provides explicit descriptions of different imaging techniques performed on a transmission electron microscope. This part will be valuable for beginners wishing to conduct research in experimental nano-magnetism and transmission electron microscope imaging. The core results of the book are presented in four chapters, describing the discovery of several new and unanticipated spin textures, namely square-shaped antiskyrmions, elliptical Bloch skyrmions, fractional antiskyrmions, fractional Bloch skyrmions and elongated (anti)skyrmions in a single D2d Heusler compound. It is shown that these textures can be understood by a combination of dipole-dipole interactions and a chiral vector exchange that makes it possible to stabilize various spin textures even in the same compound. The D2d compounds are the first non-centrosymmetric systems shown to host several co-existing non-collinear spin textures.
This book presents the structure formation and dynamics of animate and inanimate matter on the nanometre scale. This is a new interdisciplinary field known as Meso-Bio-Nano (MBN) science that lies at the intersection of physics, chemistry, biology and material science. Special attention in the book is devoted to investigations of the structure, properties and dynamics of complex MBN systems by means of photonic, electronic, heavy particle and atomic collisions. This includes problems of fusion and fission, fragmentation, surfaces and interfaces, reactivity, nanoscale phase and morphological transitions, irradiation-driven transformations of complex molecular systems, collective electron excitations, radiation damage and biodamage, channeling phenomena and many more. Emphasis in the book is placed on the theoretical and computational physics research advances in these areas and related state-of-the-art experiments. Particular attention in the book is devoted to the utilization of advanced computational techniques and high-performance computing in studies of the dynamics of systems.
This book presents a complementary perspective to Schrodinger theory of electrons in an electromagnetic field, one that does not appear in any text on quantum mechanics. The perspective, derived from Schrodinger theory, is that of the individual electron in the sea of electrons via its temporal and stationary-state equations of motion - the 'Quantal Newtonian' Second and First Laws. The Laws are in terms of 'classical' fields experienced by each electron, the sources of the fields being quantum-mechanical expectation values of Hermitian operators taken with respect to the wave function. Each electron experiences the external field, and internal fields representative of properties of the system, and a field descriptive of its response. The energies are obtained in terms of the fields. The 'Quantal Newtonian' Laws lead to physical insights, and new properties of the electronic system are revealed. New mathematical understandings of Schrodinger theory emerge which show the equation to be intrinsically self-consistent. Another complimentary perspective to Schrdinger theory is its manifestation as a local effective potential theory described via Quantal Density Functional theory. This description too is in terms of 'classical' fields and quantal sources. The theory provides a rigorous physical explanation of the mapping from the interacting system to the local potential theory equivalent.The complementary perspective to stationary ground state Schrdinger theory founded in the theorems of Hohenberg and Kohn, their extension to the presence of a magnetic field and to the temporal domain - Modern Density Functional Theory -- is also described. The new perspectives are elucidated by application to analytically solvable interacting systems. These solutions and other relevant wave function properties are derived.
Since its advent, nanotechnologies are considered key enabling technologies that take advantage of a wide array of nanomaterials (NMs) for biomedical and industrial applications generating significant societal and economic benefits. However, such innovation increases human exposure to these substances through inhalation, ingestion or dermal contact raising public health concerns. Furthermore, the NMs' specific physicochemical properties, that confer them unique beneficial characteristics, can also elicit nano-bio interactions leading to toxicity and concerns for public health. In addition, such properties can be affected by the surrounding matrix, particularly when incorporated in complex matrices such as food products, leading to secondary features potentially more relevant than primary characteristics for determining their toxicological outcome. These nano specific issues raise the question of whether the NMs may produce adverse outcomes that are not accounted for when using conventional toxicological approaches to assess their safety.Such uncertainties about the safety of NMs for human health and the environment may hamper a faster and more widespread exploration of their potentials. In response, the NMs definition has evolved, and nanotoxicology has developed towards new and more integrative approach methods to support regulatory and policy actions.This book provides a perspective on recent developments in the synthesis, application, and characterization of NMs and the related nanotechnologies, focusing on nanotoxicology for their accurate safety assessment early in the product development stage. The use of complex in vitro models, including multicellular systems and organoids, and "e;omics-based"e; approaches, such as transcriptomics or epigenomics, have greatly contributed to an in-depth understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms behind some NMs toxicity. Such mechanistic knowledge is equally addressed in this book and has set the basis for a predictive nanotoxicology approach building on adverse outcome pathways. In addition, considering the knowledge provided by the above-mentioned approaches, insights into risk assessment, standardization, and regulation of NMs are also included.Incorporating adequate nanosafety assessment early in the life-cycle of NMs will allow the implementation of the safe and sustainable-by-design paradigm enabling safety to keep pace with innovation.Chapters 10 and 15 are available open access under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License via link.springer.com.