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This book enables readers to become familiar with passive and active realizations of the impedances and important filter transfer functions (TFs). Firstly, time, s, and frequency domain analysis of the R-L, R-C, and R-L-C circuits are discussed. Then, active realizations of the impedances and TFs using different active devices are introduced. Readers will benefit from an example-driven approach to topics such as operational amplifiers, current followers, voltage followers, unity gain inverting amplifiers, negative impedance converters, first-generation current conveyors, second-generation current conveyors, third-generation current conveyors, differential voltage current conveyors, etc. will be introduced, which will be accompanied with a number of examples. Non-ideal gain effects on the performance of the active circuits are also demonstrated.
This new edition has been thoroughly revised, expanded and contain some updates function of the novel results and shift of scientific interest in the topics. The book has a Foreword by Jerry L. Bona and Hongqiu Chen. The book is an introduction to nonlinear waves and soliton theory in the special environment of compact spaces such a closed curves and surfaces and other domain contours. It assumes familiarity with basic soliton theory and nonlinear dynamical systems.The first part of the book introduces the mathematical concept required for treating the manifolds considered, providing relevant notions from topology and differential geometry. An introduction to the theory of motion of curves and surfaces - as part of the emerging field of contour dynamics - is given.The second and third parts discuss the modeling of various physical solitons on compact systems, such as filaments, loops and drops made of almost incompressible materials thereby intersecting with a large number of physical disciplines from hydrodynamics to compact object astrophysics.This book is intended for graduate students and researchers in mathematics, physics and engineering.
The thesis presents a systematic study of the Mpemba effect in a colloidal system with a micron-sized particle diffusing in a water bath. While the Mpemba effect, where a system's thermal relaxation time is a non-monotonic function of the initial temperature, has been observed in water since Aristotle's era, the underlying mechanism of the effect is still unknown. Recent studies indicate that the effect is not limited to water and has been studied both experimentally and numerically in a wide variety of systems. By carefully designing a double-well potential using feedback-based optical tweezers, the author demonstrates that an initially hot system can sometimes cool faster than an initially warm system. The author also presents the first observation in any system of another counterintuitive effect-the inverse Mpemba effect-where the colder of the two samples reaches the thermal equilibrium at a hot temperature first. The results for both the observations agree with theoretical predictions based on the Fokker-Planck equation. The experiments reveal that, for carefully chosen conditions, a strong version of both of the effects are observed where a system can relax to the bath temperature exponentially faster than under typical conditions.
This book provides a comprehensive overview on the recent significant advancements of conductive polymers and their composites in terms of conductive mechanism, fabrication strategies, important properties, and various promising applications. The corresponding knowledge was systematically compiled in the logical order and demonstrated as seven chapters. The special structure, influencing factors of the conductivity, the charge carrier transport model, the wettability and classical categories of the conductive polymers are narrated. Both conventional and novel strategies undertaken to fabricate the conductive polymers are introduced, as provided the overall master of the progress. In comparison with the bulk counterpart, nanostructured conductive polymers with different dimensions such as nanospheres, nano-networks, nanotubes and nanowire arrays are produced through distinct methods, thus presenting unique and distinct performance endowed by the nanometer scale. The combination of conductive polymers with other functional materials results in a number of the composites with improved properties by synergistic effect. The superior performance of conductive polymers and their composites greatly facilitates their development toward various important applications in the advanced and sophisticated fields such as biological utilization, energy storage and sensors. Due to their excellent biocompatibility, conductive polymers and their composites stand out to be useful in the biological field including tissue engineering, drug delivery and artificial muscle. To meet the urgent demand of the energy storage, conductive polymers and their composites play an important role in the devices including supercapacitors, solar cells and fuel cells. Finally, development of conductive polymers and their composites in the modern industry is greatly enhanced by their applications in smart sensors such as conductometric sensors, gravimetric sensors, optical sensors, chemical sensors and biosensors. This book has significant value for researchers, graduate students, and engineers carrying out the fundamental research or industrial production of conductive polymers and their composites.
This book presents peer reviewed articles from The International Conference on Metallurgical Engineering and Centenary Celebration (METCENT 2023), held at Indian Institute of Technology (BHU) Varanasi, India from the 26-28th of October 2023. It covers wide areas of metallurgical and materials science, highlighting recent advancements in these areas, including but not limited to Advanced Steels, Computational Material Science, Recent Ferrous/Non-Ferrous Metallurgy Processes, Green Iron and Steel Making Technologies and others. METCENT 2023 provides a unique opportunity to all the Metallurgists, Materials Scientists, Academicians and Industry experts to share their experiences on this special occasion.
This book highlights developments in the field of solar cells. The chapters in this book address a wide range of topics including the spectrum of light received by solar cell devices, the basic functioning of a solar cell, and the evolution of solar cell technology during the last 50 years. It places particular emphasis on silicon solar cells, CIGS-based solar cells, organic solar cells, perovskite solar cells and hybrid solar cells. The book describes in detail the fabrication processes employed for different categories of solar cells. It also provides the characterization techniques utilized in this sector to evaluate the performance of solar cells and the scope of this domain in the future. Overall, it presents the essential theoretical and practical concepts of solar cells in an easy-to-understand manner.
This book provides readers with a detailed overview of second- and third-order nonlinearities in various nanostructures, as well as their potential applications. Interest in the field of nonlinear optics has grown exponentially in recent years and, as a result, there is increasing research on novel nonlinear phenomena and the development of nonlinear photonic devices. Thus, such a book serves as a comprehensive guide for researchers in the field and those seeking to become familiar with it.This text focuses on the nonlinear properties of nanostructured systems that arise as a result of optical wave mixing. The authors present a review of nonlinear optical processes on the nanoscale and provide theoretical descriptions for second and third-order optical nonlinearities in nanostructures such as carbon allotropes, metallic nanostructures, semiconductors, nanocrystals, and complex geometries. Here, the characterization and potential applications of these nanomaterials are also discussed. The factors that determine the nonlinear susceptibility in these systems are identified as well as the influence of physical mechanisms emerging from resonance and off-resonance excitations. In addition, the authors detail the effects driven by important phenomena such as quantum confinement, localized surface plasmon resonance, Fano resonances, bound states, and the Purcell effect on specific nanostructured systems. Readers are provided with a groundwork for future research as well as new perspectives in this growing field.
This book covers the flux pinning mechanisms and properties and the electromagnetic phenomena caused by the flux pinning common for metallic, high-Tc and MgB2 superconductors. The condensation energy interaction known for normal precipitates or grain boundaries and the kinetic energy interaction proposed for artificial Nb pins in Nb-Ti, etc., are introduced for the pinning mechanism. Summation theories to derive the critical current density are discussed in detail. Irreversible magnetization and AC loss caused by the flux pinning are also discussed. The loss originally stems from the ohmic dissipation of normal electrons in the normal core driven by the electric field induced by the flux motion.The influence of the flux pinning on the vortex phase diagram in high Tc superconductors is discussed, and the dependencies of the irreversibility field are also described on other quantities such as anisotropy of superconductor, specimen size and electric field strength. Recent developments of critical current properties in various high-Tc superconductors and MgB2 are introduced.The 3rd edition has been thoroughly updated, with a new chapter on critical state model. The mechanism of irreversible properties is discussed in detail. The author provides calculations of pinning loss by the equation of motion of flux lines in the pinning potential and hysteresis loss. The readers will learn why the resultant loss is of hysteresis type in spite of such mechanism. This book aims for graduate students and researchers studying superconductivity as well as engineers working in electric utility industry.
This book provides information on the characteristics, strategies and applications of layered materials. It sheds light on layerdness-dependent properties of Van der Waals solids for potential applications. The properties of various layered materials prepared using different experimental strategies are described. Further, the first-principles calculations are given to devise a strategy to investigate layeredness in materials. The structural, thermal, mechanical, lattice vibronic, electronic, optical and carrier transport characteristics of the layered materials are elaborated in detail. This book provides an updated source of information on layered materials for students, researchers, and professionals.
"Unstable Nature" is a popular science book offering a journey through the concept of instability in modern science with a focus on physics.
This book highlights the significance and usefulness of nanomaterials for the development of sensing devices and their real-life applications. The book also addresses various means of synthesizing functional materials, e.g., hydrothermal deposition process, electrospinning, Ostwald ripening, sputtering heterogeneous deposition, liquid-phase preparation, the vapor deposition approach, and aerosol flame synthesis. It presents an informative overview of the role of functional materials in the development of advanced sensor devices at the nanoscale and discusses the applications of functional materials in different forms prepared by diverse techniques in the field of optoelectronics and biomedical devices. Major features, such as type of advanced functional, fabrication methods, applications, tasks, benefits and restrictions, and saleable features, are presented in this book. Advanced functional materials for sensing have much wider applications and have an enormous impact on our environment.
This book highlights some aspects of processing, microstructure, and properties of materials in fibrous form, or from fibers, with wide applications for textile-oriented and technically oriented advanced products. Emphasis is placed on the physical and chemical nature of the processes, describing the behavior and properties of the investigated materials. The chapters describing the state and expected trends in selected areas summarize not only the published works but also the original results and the critical evaluation and generalization of basic knowledge. In addition to the preparation of materials with new effects, attention is focused on the development of new testing principles, the construction of special devices, and metrological aspects. Research activities cover all types of fibers with a clear shift toward synthetic and specialty fibers for non-clothing applications. This is in line with the current development trend in the field of high-performance fibers, mainly for use as reinforcement in various composite materials and functional fibers for smart textiles. The area of fibrous materials covered in this book is indeed very large. Compressing the basic available information in a reasonable space was therefore a difficult task. The goal in writing this book was to provide a broad area of different results so that the book is suitable for anyone who is generally interested in fibrous materials and their applications for various purposes.
This book presents the potential of the Monte Carlo (MC) technique to solve mathematical and physical problems of great complexity. This book focusses on the study of the electron-solid interaction (transport MC) and presents some physical problems related to the transport of hot electrons in solid targets using transport MC. The numerical and theoretical results are validated through a comparison with experimental results. The author also addresses methodological aspects. In particular, systematic comparisons among different calculation schemes are presented. Different expressions for the calculation of cross sections and/or stopping power and different simulation methods are described and discussed.
This book provides information on thermal energy storage systems incorporating phase change materials (PCMs) which are widely preferred owing to their immense energy storage capacity. The thermal energy storage (TES) potential of PCMs has been deeply explored for a wide range of applications, including solar/electrothermal energy storage, waste heat storage, and utilization, building energy-saving, and thermal regulations. The inherent shortcomings like leakage during phase transition and poor thermal conductivity hamper their extensive usage. Nevertheless, it has been addressed by their shape stabilization with porous materials and dispersing highly conductive nanoparticles. Nanoparticles suspended in traditional phase change materials enhance the thermal conductivity. The addition of these nanoparticles to the conventional PCM enhances the storage. In this book, the history of Nano Enhanced Phase Change Materials (NEPCM), preparation techniques, properties, theoretical modeling and correlations, and the effect of all these factors on the potential applications such as: solar energy, electronics cooling, heat exchangers, building, battery thermal management, thermal energy storage are discussed in detail. Future challenges and future work scope have been included. The information from this book can enable the readers to come up with novel techniques, resolve existing research limitations, and come up with novel NEPCM, that can be implemented for various applications.
This book deals with the discovery and explanation of the quantum Hall effect and its fundamental principles. It is meant for undergraduate and graduate students of physics, engineering, and applied sciences studying condensed matter physics. Doctoral students and researchers of this subject will also find it equally useful. It begins with a historical overview of this effect wherein the experiment and the physical systems are described. It progresses to cover discrete symmetries like inversion symmetry, time reversal symmetry, particle-hole symmetry, and chiral symmetry. It also examines how the Hamiltonian transforms under such symmetry operations. Two 1D models, namely the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model and a Kitaev chain with superconducting correlations, are discussed too. Then, the quantum Hall effect in graphene is explained. Further, the spin Hall effect is studied which may have prospects of using graphene as spintronic devices. The book ends with a brief review on fractional quantum Hall effect.
Many materials can be modeled either as discrete systems or as continua, depending on the scale. At intermediate scales it is necessary to understand the transition from discrete to continuous models and variational methods have proved successful in this task, especially for systems, both stochastic and deterministic, that depend on lattice energies. This is the first systematic and unified presentation of research in the area over the last 20 years. The authors begin with a very general and flexible compactness and representation result, complemented by a thorough exploration of problems for ferromagnetic energies with applications ranging from optimal design to quasicrystals and percolation. This leads to a treatment of frustrated systems, and infinite-dimensional systems with diffuse interfaces. Each topic is presented with examples, proofs and applications. Written by leading experts, it is suitable as a graduate course text as well as being an invaluable reference for researchers.
"Provides a broad and accessible introduction to quantum field theory and the Standard Model of particle physics, adopting a distinctive pedagogical approach with clear intuitive explanations to complement the mathematical exposition. Includes topics of current research both within and beyond the Standard Model"--
This book presents a complementary perspective to Schrodinger theory of electrons in an electromagnetic field, one that does not appear in any text on quantum mechanics. The perspective, derived from Schrodinger theory, is that of the individual electron in the sea of electrons via its temporal and stationary-state equations of motion - the 'Quantal Newtonian' Second and First Laws. The Laws are in terms of 'classical' fields experienced by each electron, the sources of the fields being quantum-mechanical expectation values of Hermitian operators taken with respect to the wave function. Each electron experiences the external field, and internal fields representative of properties of the system, and a field descriptive of its response. The energies are obtained in terms of the fields. The 'Quantal Newtonian' Laws lead to physical insights, and new properties of the electronic system are revealed. New mathematical understandings of Schrodinger theory emerge which show the equation to be intrinsically self-consistent. Another complimentary perspective to Schrdinger theory is its manifestation as a local effective potential theory described via Quantal Density Functional theory. This description too is in terms of 'classical' fields and quantal sources. The theory provides a rigorous physical explanation of the mapping from the interacting system to the local potential theory equivalent.The complementary perspective to stationary ground state Schrdinger theory founded in the theorems of Hohenberg and Kohn, their extension to the presence of a magnetic field and to the temporal domain - Modern Density Functional Theory -- is also described. The new perspectives are elucidated by application to analytically solvable interacting systems. These solutions and other relevant wave function properties are derived.
Lignin, found in the cell walls of trees and plants, is the second-most naturally abundant biopolymer. It is composed of alkyl-aromatic polymer units. This book describes the composition and structure of lignin, strategies for its chemical modification, and studies of biopolymer lignin. It also discusses the synthesis and characterization of lignin, methods for degradation, applications in various materials, and prospects for further development. Other topics covered include the role of lignin in thermosetting and thermoplastic materials and its technical and economic potential for generating green biofuel as an energy source for industrial plants and in the manufacture of fine chemicals.
Advances in Heat Transfer, Volume 56, presents the latest in a serial that highlights new advances in the field, with this updated volume presenting interesting chapters written by an international board of authors.
Solid State Physics, Volume 74, the latest release in this serial that highlights new advances in the field, presents interesting chapters written by an international board of authors.
Digital Technologies in Movement Disorders, Volume Five updates on the latest advances in new technologies for the care of common conditions, including Parkinson¿s disease and other diseases. The book has been organized in four differentiated sections with chapters that cover an Introduction, key concepts, and overview of digital solutions, Applications of AI in MD, Digital Biomarkers in MD, Sensors basic concepts for the MD specialist, Wearable systems in MD, Quantitative gait analysis, The challenges and opportunities of remote evaluation in MD, Telemedicine in MD, ePROs, eCOA and other digital health solutions, HIFU, Telerrehabilition and other therapeutical applications of technology, and more.
The laws of nature encompass the small, the large, the few, and the many. In this book, we are concerned with classical (i.e., not quantum) many-body systems, which refers to any microscopic or macroscopic system that contains a large number of interacting entities. The nearest-neighbor Ising model, originally developed in 1920 by Wilhelm Lenz, forms a cornerstone in our theoretical understanding of collective effects in classical many-body systems and is to date a paradigm in statistical physics.Despite its elegant and simplistic description, exact analytical results in dimensions equal and larger than two are difficult to obtain. Therefore, much work has been done to construct methods that allow for approximate, yet accurate, analytical solutions. One of these methods is the Bethe-Guggenheim approximation, originally developed independently by Hans Bethe and Edward Guggenheim in 1935. This approximation goes beyond the well-known mean field approximation and explicitly accounts for pair correlations between the spins in the Ising model.In this book, we embark on a journey to exploit the full capacity of the Bethe-Guggenheim approximation, in non-uniform and non-equilibrium settings. Throughout we unveil the non-trivial and a priori non-intuitive effects of pair correlations in the classical nearest-neighbor Ising model, which are taken into account in the Bethe-Guggenheim approximation and neglected in the mean field approximation.