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This book includes the synthesis, analysis and characterization of nanomaterials that are an important ingredient in nanotechnologies. Nanomaterials contain nanoparticles, smaller than 100 nanometers in at least one dimension. Nanomaterials are coming into use in health care, electronics, cosmetics and other areas. Their physical and chemical properties differ from those of bulk materials. This needs to cover health risks to workers and potential risks to environment. This is currently done on a case-by-case basis, but risk assessment methods need to be kept up to date as the use of nanomaterials expands, especially as they find their way into consumer products. This book covers the basics to advanced applications of nanomaterials and provides a useful resource for researchers and professionals in the field.
This book presents the latest theoretical studies giving new predictions and interpretations on the quantum correlation in molecular dynamics induced by ultrashort laser pulses. The author quantifies the amount of correlation in terms of entanglement by employing methods developed in quantum information science, in particular applied to the photoionization of a hydrogen molecule. It is also revealed that the photoelectron-ion correlation affects the vibrational dynamics of the molecular ion and induces the attosecond-level time delay in the molecular vibration. Furthermore, the book also presents how molecular vibration can couple to photons in a plasmoic nanocavity.Physicists and chemists interested in the ultrafast molecular dynamics would be the most relevant readers. They can learn how we can employ the quantum-information-science tools to understand the correlation in the molecular dynamics and why we should consider the correlation between the photoelectron and the molecular ion to describe the ion's dynamics. They can also learn how to treat a molecule coupled to photons in a nanocavity. All the topics are related to the state-of-the-art experiments, and so, it is important to publish these results to enhance the understanding and to induce new experiments to confirm the theory presented.
The book gives a detailed description of optical wireless communication (OWC), including optical laser communication, visible light communication, ultraviolet communication, underwater optical communication and future communication technologies. To achieve an integration between theory and practice, the book avoids tedious mathematical deductions and includes theoretical materials as exercises. Most of the exercises are originated from published journal articles. These exercises will aid the readers in understanding the basic concept and methods and evaluating their knowledge acquisition in the field of OWC. The book is structured into Ten chapters that covers main aspects of OWC:- Optical wireless communication system- Coherent optical communication- Modulation, demodulation, and coding- Atmospheric channel, channel estimation, and channel equalization- White LED communication- Underwater laser communication- Ultraviolet communication- Acquisition, aiming, and tracking technology- Partially coherent optical transmission- Optical communication in the futureThe book is a suitable reference for undergraduate or postgraduate students majored in communication engineering, electronic information engineering or computer science, as well as the engineers and technicians in related fields.
This book highlights the rapidly emerging field of solution-processed halide perovskite lasers. These amazing materials not only possess exceptional photovoltaic properties, but are also outstanding optical gain media. Halide perovskites are the latest member of solution-processed optical gain media, joining organics and traditional semiconductor colloidal quantum dots. Amplified spontaneous emission and lasing have been demonstrated in various halide perovskite configurations and nanostructures with wavelengths tunable over the visible and infrared wavelengths (400-1000 nm).This book provides comprehensive information on perovskite lasing, starting with some fundamentals of lasers and their basic operating principles. Unambiguous methods for identifying lasing light emission are presented, while the basic optoelectronic properties of perovskite materials are also discussed, with an emphasis on their photophysics, using ultrafast optical spectroscopy techniques. The viability of perovskites as a gain media within a suitable resonator, as well as the characterization methods for optical gain, are highlighted. The book closes with a discussion on the remaining challenges (such as electrical driven lasing and material stabilities) that need to be tackled, and the future of this new family of lasers.
This book presents select proceedings of the International Conference on Futuristic Communication and Network Technologies (CFCNT 2020) conducted at Vellore Institute of Technology, Chennai. It covers various domains in communication engineering and networking technologies. This volume comprises of recent research in areas like optical communication, optical networks, optics and optical computing, emerging trends in photonics, MEMS and sensors, active and passive RF components and devices, antenna systems and applications, RF devices and antennas for microwave emerging technologies, wireless communication for future networks, signal and image processing, machine learning/AI for networks, internet of intelligent things, network security and blockchain technologies. This book will be useful for researchers, professionals, and engineers working in the core areas of electronics and communication.
This volume builds upon the successful book Lanthanide Luminescence published in the Springer Series on Fluorescence in 2011. Since its publication, the field of lanthanide spectroscopy and the areas in which the light emission properties of the f-elements are used have experienced substantial advances. The luminescence properties of lanthanide ions make them unique candidates for a myriad of optical applications. This book highlights and reviews the latest research in areas ranging from luminescence thermometry to imaging, sensing and photonic applications of these fascinating elements. Each chapter provides a comprehensive introduction to a specific area of application of lanthanide luminescence and extensively reviews seminal papers and current research literature. Given its interdisciplinary scope, the book appeals to scientists and advanced students in physics, chemistry and materials science interested in compounds and materials with optical properties.
This book provides readers with a detailed overview of second- and third-order nonlinearities in various nanostructures, as well as their potential applications. Interest in the field of nonlinear optics has grown exponentially in recent years and, as a result, there is increasing research on novel nonlinear phenomena and the development of nonlinear photonic devices. Thus, such a book serves as a comprehensive guide for researchers in the field and those seeking to become familiar with it.This text focuses on the nonlinear properties of nanostructured systems that arise as a result of optical wave mixing. The authors present a review of nonlinear optical processes on the nanoscale and provide theoretical descriptions for second and third-order optical nonlinearities in nanostructures such as carbon allotropes, metallic nanostructures, semiconductors, nanocrystals, and complex geometries. Here, the characterization and potential applications of these nanomaterials are also discussed. The factors that determine the nonlinear susceptibility in these systems are identified as well as the influence of physical mechanisms emerging from resonance and off-resonance excitations. In addition, the authors detail the effects driven by important phenomena such as quantum confinement, localized surface plasmon resonance, Fano resonances, bound states, and the Purcell effect on specific nanostructured systems. Readers are provided with a groundwork for future research as well as new perspectives in this growing field.
This book comprises a detailed consideration of novel approaches developed in the field of frequency conversion of laser sources in laser-induced plasmas during the last few years. The aim of the book is to support researchers and other readers in their development in the area of high-order nonlinear spectroscopy. Particularly, the advanced studies of nanoparticles and quantum dots for the formation of new sources of radiation in different short-wavelength spectral ranges show the ways to further implement the specific features of small-sized species in a relatively new field of study-laser ablation induced high-order harmonics generation spectroscopy.Researchers involved in the development of new methods of frequency conversion will benefit from finding the most recent advances in this field. Undergraduate students will discover interesting information about recent findings in plasma harmonic research. Additionally, the usefulness of the book will be demonstrated by the potential applications of the new knowledge developed during recent years for ultrafast pulse generation using the proposed schemes of plasma-light interaction. Thus, the audience may also include those researchers involved in state-of-the-art developments in attophysics. Additionally, any professionals interested in the application of the advanced techniques for material science will also benefit from updating their knowledge of new methods of material studies using high-order nonlinear spectroscopy.
This book presents posits a solution to the current limitations in global connectivity by introducing a global laser/optical communication system using constellation satellites, UAVs, HAPs and Balloons. The author outlines how this will help to satisfy the tremendous increasing demand for data exchange and information between end-users worldwide including in remote locations. The book provides both fundamentals and the advanced technology development in establishing worldwide communication and global connectivity using, (I) All-Optical technology, and (ii) Laser/Optical Communication Constellation Satellites (of different types, sizes and at different orbits), UAVs, HAPs (High Altitude Platforms) and Balloons. The book discusses step-by-step methods to develop a satellite backbone in order to interconnect a number of ground nodes clustered within a few SD-WAN (software-defined networking) in a wide area network (WAN) around the world in order to provide a fully-meshed communication network. This book pertains to anyone in optical communications, telecommunications, and system engineers, as well as technical managers in the aerospace industry and the graduate students, and researchers in academia and research laboratory.Proposed a solution to the limitations in global connectivity through a global laser/optical communication system using constellation satellites, UAVs, HAPs and Balloons;Provides both fundamentals and the advanced technology development in establishing global communication connectivity using optical technology and communication constellation satellites;Includes in-depth coverage of the basics of laser/optical communication constellation satellites.
This book describes a simple yet innovative method for performing Raman spectroscopy of samples submerged under liquid nitrogen. While Raman spectroscopy has proven to be a powerful tool for the characterization of the structure of matter in the gaseous, liquid, and solid phases, one major difficulty in its application has been laser damage to the material under investigation, especially for biological samples. This book demonstrates how immersion of the sample in liquid nitrogen protects the sample from thermal degradation and oxidation at high incident laser power and allows improvements in sensitivity and spectral resolution over room-temperature Raman spectroscopy, leading to the so-called RUN (Raman Spectroscopy Under liquid Nitrogen) technique. Cooling to liquid nitrogen temperature also allows the selection of the lowest energy molecular conformation for molecules which may have many low energy conformers. In addition, the presence of liquid nitrogen over a roughened surface improves the sensitivity of Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS), enabling the closely related SERSUN (Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Under liquid Nitrogen) technique. This book starts with the theoretical and experimental basics of Raman and polarized Raman spectroscopy, before moving on to detailed descriptions of RUN and SERSUN. Room temperature and RUN spectra are provided for over fifty molecules.
This book presents select, recent developments in nonlinear and complex systems reported at the 1st Online Conference on Nonlinear Dynamics and Complexity, held on November 23-25, 2020. It provides an exchange recent developments, discoveries, and progresses in Nonlinear Dynamics and Complexity. The collection presents fundamental and frontier theories and techniques for modern science and technology, stimulates more research interest for exploration of nonlinear science and complexity; and passes along new knowledge and insight to the next generation of engineers and technologists in a range of fields.
This book includes contributions about mathematics, physics, philosophy of science, economics and finance and resulted from the Summer School "e;Complexity and Emergence: Ideas, Methods, with a Special Attention to Economics and Finance"e; held in Lake Como School of Advanced Studies, on 22-27 July 2018.The aim of the book is to provide useful instruments from the theory of complex systems, both on the theoretical level and the methodological ones, profiting from knowledge and insights from leading experts of different communities. It moves from the volume editors' conviction that to achieve progress in understanding socio-economical as well as ecological problems of our complex word such preparation is needed, together with a critical reconsideration of our basic scientific and economical approach.The potential readers are primarily master and doctorate students of mathematics, information sciences, theoretical physics and economics, as well as research workers in those areas, who want to enlarge their spectrum of knowledge towards the area of complexity and emergence. Since ideas and methods of the theory of complex systems also apply to other areas (from engineering and architecture to biology and medicine, e.g.), students and research workers from those areas will also profit from this book.
This book describes a unique combination of quantum chemical methods for calculating the basic physical properties of luminescent materials, or phosphors. These solid inorganic materials containing an optically active dopant are key players in several major fields of societal interest, including energy-efficient lighting, solar cells, and medical imaging. The novel ab initio methods described in this book are especially designed to target the crowded and complex electronic excited states of lanthanide activators in inorganic solids. The book is well suited to both new and experienced researchers alike and appeals to a broad range of theoretical and experimental backgrounds. The material presented enables an adept understanding of elaborate calculations, which, in tandem with experiments, give essential insight into difficult luminescence problems and quandaries, thus fully preparing the reader for an educated search for new functional luminescent materials
This contributed volume presents recent developments in nonlinear dynamics applied to engineering. Specifically, the authors address stability and bifurcation in large-scale, complex rotor dynamic systems; periodic motions and their bifurcations in nonlinear circuit systems, fault diagnosis of complex engineering systems with nonlinear approaches, singularities in fluid-machinery and bifurcation analysis, nonlinear behaviors in rotor dynamic system with multi-mistuned blades, mode localization induced by mistuning in impellers with periodical and cyclic symmetry, and nonlinear behaviors in fluid-structure interaction and their control. These new results will maximize reader understand on the recent progress in nonlinear dynamics applied to large-scale, engineering systems in general and nonlinear rotors and impellers in particular.
This atlas provides a detailed overview of the novel technique of ex vivo confocal microscopy for rapid imaging of excised tissues in dermatological practice. It features an extensive collection of ex vivo images acquired from normal skin structures and from a variety of neoplastic lesions (benign and malignant) and inflammatory lesions. Each chapter contains several image types of a particular disorder, including gray-scale, digital purple-pink images (DHE) and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) correlations to assist the acquisition of diagnostic skills. Guidance on how to use techniques for tissue preparation, staining, handling and image acquisition are also provided enabling the reader to develop confidence in integrating this technique into their day-to-day practices. Furthermore, this atlas also provides an update on the ongoing latest advances in the field. Cutaneous Atlas of Ex Vivo Confocal Microscopy covers how to apply these techniques into dermatological practice, especially in Mohs surgery for the evaluation of keratinocytic neoplasm and in dermatopathology for rapid evaluation of varied skin lesions. It is therefore a valuable resource for trainee, residents, practicing dermatologists and dermatopathologists who are seeking a resource to assist in developing their knowledge and skills of utilizing these methodologies.