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How planets form is one of the long-standing questions in astrophysics. In particular, formation scenarios of planetesimals which are kilometer-sized bodies and a precursor of planets are still unclear and under debate although some promising mechanisms have been proposed.This book highlight disk instabilities that have the potential to explain the origin of planetesimals. Using linear analyses and numerical simulations, it addresses how a disk evolves through the development of instabilities, and also presents a new instability driven by dust coagulation. As a result, the simulation demonstrates a scenario of planetesimal formation: A successive development of multiple instabilities triggers planetesimal formation in resulting dusty rings.
In this book, computational optical phase imaging techniques are presented along with Matlab codes that allow the reader to run their own simulations and gain a thorough understanding of the current state-of-the-art. The book focuses on modern applications of computational optical phase imaging in engineering measurements and biomedical imaging. Additionally, it discusses the future of computational optical phase imaging, especially in terms of system miniaturization and deep learning-based phase retrieval.
The book serves as a primary textbook of partial differential equations (PDEs), with due attention to their importance to various physical and engineering phenomena. The book focuses on maintaining a balance between the mathematical expressions used and the significance they hold in the context of some physical problem. The book has wider outreach as it covers topics relevant to many different applications of ordinary differential equations (ODEs), PDEs, Fourier series, integral transforms, and applications. It also discusses applications of analytical and geometric methods to solve some fundamental PDE models of physical phenomena such as transport of mass, momentum, and energy.As far as possible, historical notes are added for most important developments in science and engineering. Both the presentation and treatment of topics are fashioned to meet the expectations of interested readers working in any branch of science and technology. Senior undergraduates in mathematics and engineering are the targeted student readership, and the topical focus with applications to real-world examples will promote higher-level mathematical understanding for undergraduates in sciences and engineering.
This book focuses on the dynamic complexity of neural, genetic networks, and reaction diffusion systems. The author shows that all robust attractors can be realized in dynamics of such systems. In particular, a positive solution of the Ruelle-Takens hypothesis for on chaos existence for large class of reaction-diffusion systems is given. The book considers viability problems for such systems - viability under extreme random perturbations - and discusses an interesting hypothesis of M. Gromov and A. Carbone on biological evolution. There appears a connection with the Kolmogorov complexity theory. As applications, transcription-factors-microRNA networks are considered, patterning in biology, a new approach to estimate the computational power of neural and genetic networks, social and economical networks, and a connection with the hard combinatorial problems.
The study of quantum disorder has generated considerable research activity in mathematics and physics over past 40 years. While single-particle models have been extensively studied at a rigorous mathematical level, little was known about systems of several interacting particles, let alone systems with positive spatial particle density. Creating a consistent theory of disorder in multi-particle quantum systems is an important and challenging problem that largely remains open. Multi-scale Analysis for Random Quantum Systems with Interaction presents the progress that had been recently achieved in this area. The main focus of the book is on a rigorous derivation of the multi-particle localization in a strong random external potential field. To make the presentation accessible to a wider audience, the authors restrict attention to a relatively simple tight-binding Anderson model on a cubic lattice Zd. This book includes the following cutting-edge features: an introduction to the state-of-the-art single-particle localization theory an extensive discussion of relevant technical aspects of the localization theorya thorough comparison of the multi-particle model with its single-particle counterpart a self-contained rigorous derivation of both spectral and dynamical localization in the multi-particle tight-binding Anderson model. Required mathematical background for the book includes a knowledge of functional calculus, spectral theory (essentially reduced to the case of finite matrices) and basic probability theory. This is an excellent text for a year-long graduate course or seminar in mathematical physics. It also can serve as a standard reference for specialists.
This book highlights the review of articles in theoretical physics by the students of Professor K. Babu Joseph, as a Festschrift for his 80th Birthday. This book is divided into four sections based on the contributions of Babu Joseph and his students. The four sections are Cosmology, High Energy Physics, Mathematical Physics and Non-linear Dynamics and its applications.
This book comprises the proceedings of the Conference and Exhibition on Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE 2020). The contents of the volume encompass a vast spectrum from Conventional to Advanced NDE including novel methods, instrumentation, sensors, procedures, and data analytics as applied to all industry segments for quality control, periodic maintenance, life estimation, structural integrity and related areas. This book will be a useful reference for students, researchers and practitioners.
Before you lies the proceedings oft he NATO Advanced Study Institute/Newton Institute Workshop ¿Confinement, duality and non perturbative aspects of QCD¿. The school covered the most important techniques to study Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) andconfinement, fromlattice gauge theory, through Wilson¿s renormalisation group, to electromagnetic duality. The organisingcommittee existed of: Ian Drummond (DAMTP, Cambridge), Mikhail Shifman (Minneapolis), Peter West (King¿s, London), and Pierrevan Baal (Leiden), who acted as director oft he school. This summer school was the concluding activity ofa six month programme on ¿Non perturbative Aspects of Qua ntum Field Theory¿ taking place at the Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences in Ca mbridge, UK,whic h started in January 1997, organised by David Olive, Pierre van Baal, and Peter West. A large number ofthe lecturers also participated in the programme and a few programme participants were asked to present a seminar at the school. Not contained in these proceedings are the seminars by Peter Landshoff (DAMTP, Cambridge) on ¿The Pomeron¿ and Ludwig Faddeev (Steklov Math. Inst. , St. Petersburg) on ¿Knot like solitons in 3+1 dimen sional field theory¿. In additiont o the lectures and seminars there were two poster sessions at which participants presented their work. Authors and titles ofthese posters are listed on a separate page. These pro ceedings address the longstanding question of understanding how quarks are confined w ithin subnuclear particles.
This book introduces the reader to the field of jet substructure, starting from the basic considerations for capturing decays of boosted particles in individual jets, to explaining state-of-the-art techniques. Jet substructure methods have become ubiquitous in data analyses at the LHC, with diverse applications stemming from the abundance of jets in proton-proton collisions, the presence of pileup and multiple interactions, and the need to reconstruct and identify decays of highly-Lorentz boosted particles. The last decade has seen a vast increase in our knowledge of all aspects of the field, with a proliferation of new jet substructure algorithms, calculations and measurements which are presented in this book. Recent developments and algorithms are described and put into the larger experimental context. Their usefulness and application are shown in many demonstrative examples and the phenomenological and experimental effects influencing their performance are discussed. A comprehensive overview is given of measurements and searches for new phenomena performed by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations. This book shows the impressive versatility of jet substructure methods at the LHC.
This book provides a comprehensive analysis of time-fixed terminal rendezvous around the Earth using chemical propulsion.The book has two main objectives. The first is to derive the mathematics of relative motion in near-circular orbit when subjected to perturbations emanating from the oblateness of the Earth, third-body gravity, and atmospheric drag. The mathematics are suitable for quick trajectory prediction and the creation of computer codes and efficient software to solve impulsive maneuvers and fly rendezvous missions.The second objective of this book is to show how the relative motion theory is applied to the exact precision-integrated, long-duration, time-fixed terminal rendezvous problem around the oblate Earth for the general elliptic orbit case.The contents are both theoretical and applied, with long-lasting value for aerospace engineers, trajectory designers, professors of orbital mechanics, and students at the graduate level and above.
This book includes problems based on the material in the course of physical kinetics for the students of general and applied physics. It contains 60 problems with detailed solutions. The comments to the problems reflect the connection with the problems and methods of modern physical kinetics. A brief introduction gives the necessary information for solving and understanding the problems. The book is proposed for students and postgraduates studying the theoretical physics. The book is used as a supplement to the textbooks published on physical kinetics. The purpose of the book is to help students in training the practical skills and mastering the basic elements of physical kinetics. To understand the subject matter, it is sufficient to know the traditional courses of theoretical physics.
This book contains select invited chapters on the latest research in numerical fluid dynamics and applications. The book aims at discussing the state-of-the-art developments and improvements in numerical fluid dynamics. All the chapters are presented for approximating and simulating how these methods and computations interact with different topics such as shock waves, non-equilibrium single and two-phase flows, elastic human-airway, and global climate. In addition to the fundamental research involving novel types of mathematical sciences, the book presents theoretical and numerical developments in fluid dynamics. The contributions by well-established global experts in fluid dynamics have brought different features of numerical fluid dynamics in a single book. The book serves as a useful resource for high-impact advances involving computational fluid dynamics, including recent developments in mathematical modelling, numerical methods such as finite volume, finite difference and finite element, symbolic computations, and open numerical programs such as OpenFOAM software. The book addresses interdisciplinary topics in industrial mathematics that lie at the forefront of research into new types of mathematical sciences, including theory and applications. This book will be beneficial to industrial and academic researchers, as well as graduate students, working in the fields of natural and engineering sciences. The book will provide the reader highly successful materials and necessary research in the field of fluid dynamics.
This book presents peer-reviewed articles and recent advances on the potential applications of Science and Mathematics for future technologies, from the 7th International Conference on the Applications of Science and Mathematics (SCIEMATHIC 2021), held in Malaysia. It provides an insight about the leading trends in sustainable Science and Technology. The world is looking for sustainable solutions to problems more than ever. The synergistic approach of mathematicians, scientists and engineers has undeniable importance for future technologies. With this viewpoint, SCIEMATHIC 2021 has the theme "e;Quest for Sustainable Science and Mathematics for Future Technologies"e;. The conference brings together physicists, mathematicians, statisticians and data scientists, providing a platform to find sustainable solutions to major problems around us. The works presented here are suitable for professionals and researchers globally in making the world a better and sustainable place.
This textbook gradually introduces the reader to several topics related to black hole physics with a didactic approach. It starts with the most basic black hole solution, the Schwarzschild metric, and discusses the basic classical properties of black hole solutions as seen by different probes. Then it reviews various theorems about black hole properties as solutions to Einstein gravity coupled to matter fields, conserved charges associated with black holes, and laws of black hole thermodynamics. Next, it elucidates semiclassical and quantum aspects of black holes, which are relevant in ongoing and future research. The book is enriched with many exercises and solutions to assist in the learning.The textbook is designed for physics graduate students who want to start their research career in the field of black holes; postdocs who recently changed their research focus towards black holes and want to get up-to-date on recent and current research topics; advanced researchers intending to teach (or learn) basic and advanced aspects of black hole physics and the associated mathematical tools. Besides general relativity, the reader needs to be familiar with standard undergraduate physics, like thermodynamics, quantum mechanics, and statistical mechanics. Moreover, familiarity with basic quantum field theory in Minkowski space is assumed. The book covers the rest of the needed background material in the main text or the appendices.
This book studies a category of mathematical objects called Hamiltonians, which are dependent on both time and momenta. The authors address the development of the distinguished geometrization on dual 1-jet spaces for time-dependent Hamiltonians, in contrast with the time-independent variant on cotangent bundles. Two parts are presented to include both geometrical theory and the applicative models: Part One: Time-dependent Hamilton Geometry and Part Two: Applications to Dynamical Systems, Economy and Theoretical Physics. The authors present 1-jet spaces and their duals as appropriate fundamental ambient mathematical spaces used to model classical and quantum field theories. In addition, the authors present dual jet Hamilton geometry as a distinct metrical approach to various interdisciplinary problems.
This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the Calculus of Variations and its use in modelling mechanics and physics problems. Presenting a geometric approach to the subject, it progressively guides the reader through this very active branch of mathematics, accompanying key statements with a huge variety of exercises, some of them solved. Stressing the need to overcome limitations of the initial point of view, and emphasising the interconnectivity of various branches of mathematics (algebra, analysis and geometry), the book includes some advanced material to challenge the most motivated students. Systematic, short historical notes provide details on the subject's odyssey, and how new tools have been developed over the last two centuries. This English translation updates a set of notes for a course first given at the Ecole polytechnique in 1987. It will be accessible to graduate students and advanced undergraduates.
This textbook provides a thorough overview of mathematical physics, highlighting classical topics as well as recent developments. Readers will be introduced to a variety of methods that reflect current trends in research, including the Bergman kernel approach for solving boundary value and spectral problems for PDEs with variable coefficients. With its careful treatment of the fundamentals as well as coverage of topics not often encountered in textbooks, this will be an ideal text for both introductory and more specialized courses.The first five chapters present standard material, including the classification of PDEs, an introduction to boundary value and initial value problems, and an introduction to the Fourier method of separation of variables. More advanced material and specialized treatments follow, including practical methods for solving direct and inverse Sturm-Liouville problems; the theory of parabolic equations, harmonic functions, potential theory, integral equations and the method of non-orthogonal series.Methods of Mathematical Physics is ideal for undergraduate students and can serve as a textbook for a regular course in equations of mathematical physics as well as for more advanced courses on selected topics.
The NUMISHEET conference series is the most significant international conference on the area of the numerical simulation of sheet metal forming processes. It gathers the most prominent experts in numerical methods in sheet forming processes and is an outstanding forum for the exchange of ideas and for the discussion of technologies related to sheet metal forming processes. Topics covered in this volume include but are not limited to the following: Materials Modeling and Experimental Testing MethodsFriction and ContactFormability, Necking, and FractureInstabilities and Surface DefectsFracture and DamageNumerical MethodsSpringbackIncremental Sheet FormingRoll FormingInnovative Forming MethodsProduct and Process Design and Optimization
Pedagogical insights gained through 30 years of teaching applied mathematics led the author to write this set of student oriented books. Topics such as complex analysis, matrix theory, vector and tensor analysis, Fourier analysis, integral transforms, ordinary and partial differential equations are presented in a discursive style that is readable and easy to follow. Numerous clearly stated, completely worked out examples together with carefully selected problem sets with answers are used to enhance students' understanding and manipulative skill. The goal is to make students comfortable and confident in using advanced mathematical tools in junior, senior, and beginning graduate courses.
This proceedings volume gathers selected, revised papers presented at the X International Meeting on Lorentzian Geometry (GeLoCor 2021), virtually held at the University of Cordoba, Spain, on February 1-5, 2021. It includes surveys describing the state-of-the-art in specific areas, and a selection of the most relevant results presented at the conference. Taken together, the papers offer an invaluable introduction to key topics discussed at the conference and an overview of the main techniques in use today.This volume also gathers extended revisions of key studies in this field. Bringing new results and examples, these unique contributions offer new perspectives to the original problems and, in most cases, extend and reinforce the robustness of previous findings.Hosted every two years since 2001, the International Meeting on Lorentzian Geometry has become one of the main events bringing together the leading experts on Lorentzian geometry. In this volume, the reader will find studies on spatial and null hypersurfaces, low regularity in general relativity, conformal structures, Lorentz-Finsler spacetimes, and more.Given its scope, the book will be of interest to both young and experienced mathematicians and physicists whose research involves general relativity and semi-Riemannian geometry.
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