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This volume details aspects and applications of interfacing capillary electrophoresis (CE) with mass spectrometry (MS). Chapters guide readers through approaches based on different types of CE-MS interfaces such as (nano)sheath liquid, porous tip, and liquid junction, as well as various capillary coatings, and a broad range of applications including several top-down and bottom-up proteomic approaches. Additionally, a list of analyte targets was provided consisting of amphetamines, antibiotics, carbohydrates (including glycosaminoglycans and glycopeptides), enantiomers, extracellular matrix metabolites, monoclonal antibodies, and nanoparticles, and therefore covers numerous fields of applications such as pharmaceutical, biomedical, food, agrochemical, and environmental analysis. Written in the format of the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series, each chapter includes an introduction to the topic, lists necessary materials and reagents, includes tips on troubleshooting and known pitfalls, and step-by-step, readily reproducible protocols. Authoritative and cutting-edge, Capillary Electrophoresis-Mass Spectrometry: Methods and Protocols aims to provide highly valuable information for both beginners and experts in the field be it students, technical staff, and scientists.
This book highlights the theories and applications of quantum acoustical imaging which can be considered as a part of quantum technology. It starts with the theories and background principles of this new field in depth.The examples of some present forms of available acoustical imaging which can be considered as quantum acoustical imaging are given such as ultrasonics in the terahertz range with the use of optical transducers for producing terahertz ultrasound and the theory of sound amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (SASER) and principles based on terahertz ultrasound. The SASER transducer is described, followed by the applications of SASER.Other examples of quantum acoustical imaging are the atomic force acoustic microscope (AFAM) and the ultrasonic force microscope. The author's personal inventions of quantum acoustical imaging are a system based on phonons entanglement based on the quantum property of phonons entanglement and the quantum ultrasound diffraction tomography system.The advantage of quantum acoustical imaging is the defeat of the classical Rayleigh image resolution limit. An unique feature of this book is that it has gone in depth into the quantum theories of acoustical imaging such as phonons entanglement,,superposition principle and the application of transport theory.Quantum microphones and quantum transducers are also introduced with a final chapter on quantum image processing.
This book illustrates the significance of various optical spectroscopy and microscopy techniques, including absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy for deciphering the nature of biological molecules. The content of this book chiefly focuses on (1) the principle, theory, and instrumentation used in different optical spectroscopy techniques, and (2) the application of these techniques in exploring the nature of different biomolecules (e.g., proteins, nucleic acids, enzymes, and carbohydrates). It emphasizes the structural, conformational and dynamic, and kinetic including the changes in biomolecules under a range of conditions. In closing, the book summarizes recent advances in the field of optical spectroscopic and microscopic techniques.
This book presents commonly applied characterization techniques in material science, their brief history and origins, mechanism of operation, advantages and disadvantages, their biosensing applications, and troubleshooting for each technique, while addressing the challenges researchers face when working with these techniques. The book dedicates its focus to identifying physicochemical and electrochemical nature of materials including analyses of morphology, mass spectrometry, and topography, as well as the characterization of elemental, structural, thermal, wettability, electrochemical, and chromatography properties. Additionally, the main features and benefits of using coupled characterization techniques are discussed in this book.
This book describes the history of and recent developments in cobaltite and the spin-crossover (SC) phenomena. It offers readers an overview of essential research conducted on cobaltite and introduces them to the fundamentals of condensed matter physics research.The book consists of two parts. The first part reviews SC phenomena, covering the fundamental physics of SC phenomena and basic material properties of cobaltite. The second part focuses on recent topics in SC cobaltite, including the optical and dynamical features of cobaltite, thin material fabrication, and thermoelectric properties. The comprehensive coverage and clearly structured topics will especially appeal to newcomers to the field of state-of-the-art research on cobaltite and SC physics.
PHEMT devices and their incorporation into advanced monolithic integrated circuits is the enabling technology for modern microwave/millimeter wave system applications. Although still in its infancy, PHEMT MIMIC technology is already finding applications in both military and commercial systems, including radar, communication and automotive technologies. The successful team in a globally competitive market is one in which the solid-state scientist, circuit designer, system engineer and technical manager are cognizant of those considerations and requirements that influence each other's function. This book provides the reader with a comprehensive review of PHEMT technology, including materials, fabrication and processing, device physics, CAD tools and modelling, monolithic integrated circuit technology and applications. Readers with a broad range of specialities in one or more of the areas of materials, processing, device physics, circuit design, system design and marketing will be introduced quickly to important basic concepts and techniques. The specialist who has specific PHEMT experience will benefit from the broad range of topics covered and the open discussion of practical issues. Finally, the publication offers an additional benefit, in that it presents a broad scope to both the researcher and manager, both of whom must be aware and educated to remain relevant in an ever-expanding technology base.
This book features selected papers presented at the 20th International Conference on Near Infrared Spectroscopy. It discusses the latest progress in the field of near infrared spectroscopy from around the globe, including the advances in instrumentation, spectral interpretation and Chemometrics. In addition, it presents potential trends for near infrared spectroscopy in the next decade and highlights developments in process analytical technology, chemical imaging and deep learning. It can be used as a reference book for researchers and application personnel engaged in spectroscopy technology, Chemometrics, analytical instruments, on-site rapid or on-line analysis, process control and other fields. It will also be useful for undergraduates and postgraduates studying these topics.
This book offers historical and state-of-the-art molecular spectroscopy methods and applications in dynamic compression science, aimed at the upcoming generation in physical sciences involved in studies of materials at extremes. It begins with addressing the motivation for probing shock compressed molecular materials with spectroscopy and then reviews historical developments and the basics of the various spectroscopic methods that have been utilized. Introductory chapters are devoted to fundamentals of molecular spectroscopy, overviews of dynamic compression technologies, and diagnostics used to quantify the shock compression state during spectroscopy experiments. Subsequent chapters describe all the molecular spectroscopic methods used in shock compression research to date, including theory, experimental details for application to shocked materials, and difficulties that can be encountered. Each of these chapters also includes a section comparing static compression results. The last chapter offers an outlook for the future, which leads the next-generation readers to tackling persistent problems.
This book provides insight into the underlying basic theories and concepts in X-ray, light, and neutron scattering. The three scattering principles are systematically presented, together with a unified description based on elastic scattering of electromagnetic waves and the Schrodinger wave from matter. These explanations are presented with an introduction of their common Born approximation using a consistent set of symbols and terminology and with step-by-step derivations of equations. This book emphasizes the combined applications of these three scattering methods, wherever and whenever possible, as a very powerful methodology for characterization of internal structures of soft matters in the length scale ranging from subnanometers to a few 10 micron meters. These applications include explorations for evolution of hierarchically self-organized internal structures of a variety of soft matters, including cells, under diverse environmental conditions.This book will not only be an excellent resource for graduate students and academic researchers who analyze structures of soft matters and polymers, but it will also be useful for researchers in industries.
This book focuses on the modern development of techniques for analysis of the hierarchical structure of polymers from both the experimental and theoretical points of view. Starting with molecular and crystal symmetry, the author explains fundamental and professional methods, such as wide- and small-angle X-ray scattering, neutron diffraction, electron diffraction, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, NMR, and synchrotron radiation. In addition, the author explains another indispensable method, computer simulation, which includes energy calculation, lattice dynamics, molecular dynamics, and quantum chemistry. These various methods are described in a systematic way so that the reader can utilize them for the purpose of 3D structure analysis of polymers. Not only such analytical knowledge but also the preparation techniques of samples necessary for these measurements and the methods of analyzing the experimental data collected in this way are given in a concrete manner. Examples are offered to help master the principles of how to clarify the static structures and dynamic structural changes in the phase transitions of various kinds of crystalline polymers that are revealed by these novel methods. The examples are quite useful for readers who want to apply these techniques in finding practical solutions to concrete problems that are encountered in their own research. The principal audience for this book is made up of young professional researchers including those working in industry, but it can also be used as an excellent reference for graduate-level students.This book is the first volume of a two-volume set with Structural Science of Crystalline Polymers: A Microscopically Viewed Structure-Property Relationship being the second volume by the same author.
Goerg Michler summarizes the large field of electron microscopy and clearly presents the different techniques. The author clearly describes the possible applications of microscopy and the requirements for specimen preparation. He illustrates the descriptions with picture examples from practice.The Author:Prof. Dr. rer. nat. habil. Goerg H. Michler was head of the Institute for Materials Science at Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, is honorary chairman of the Institute for Polymer Materials e.V. and chairman of the Heinz Bethge Foundation for Applied Electron Microscopy.
This thesis makes significant advances towards an understanding of superconductivity in the cuprate family of unconventional, high-temperature superconductors. Even though the high-temperature superconductors were discovered over 35 years ago, there is not yet a general consensus on an acceptable theory of superconductivity in these materials. One of the early proposals suggested that collective magnetic excitations of the conduction electrons could lead them to form pairs, which in turn condense to form the superconducting state at a critical temperature Tc. Quantitative calculations of Tc using experimental data were, however, not available to verify the applicability of this magnetic mechanism. In this thesis, the author constructed an angle-resolved photoemission apparatus that could provide sufficiently accurate data of the electronic excitation spectra of samples in the normal state, data which was furthermore unusually devoid of any surface contamination. The author also applied the Bethe-Salpeter method to his uncommonly pristine and precise normal state data, and was able to predict the approximate superconducting transition temperatures of different samples. This rare combination of experiment with sophisticated theoretical calculations leads to the conclusion that antiferromagnetic correlations are a viable candidate for the pairing interaction in the cuprate superconductors.