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An expert exposition of the structural and mechanical properties of light alloys and composites, bridging the gap between scientists and industrial engineers in its consideration of advanced light materials, their structure, properties, technology and application. Includes basic problems of alloy constitution and phase transformations. The aluminium alloys are the main topic of the book, consideration being given to their properties, casting technology, thermomechanical treatment and structure. Attention is also given to the magnesium alloys, particularly those having rare earth metal constituents. Both commercial titanium alloys and intermetallic compounds are discussed, as are metallic composites. The latest engineering techniques are discussed in both theoretical and practical terms.
This book offers the readers an opportunity to acquire the concepts of artificial intelligence (AI) enabled sub-THz systems for novel applications in the biomedical field. The readers will also be inspired to contextualize these applications for solving real life problems such as non-invasive glucose monitoring systems, cancer detection and dental imaging. The introductory section of this book focuses on existing technologies for radio frequency and infrared sensing in biomedical applications, and their limited use in sensing applications, as well as the advantages of using THz technology in this context. This is followed by a detailed comparative analysis of THz electronics technology and other conventional electro optic THz setups highlighting the superior efficiency, affordability and portability of electronics-based THz systems. The book also discusses electronic sub-THz measurement systems for different biomedical applications. The chapters elucidate two major applications where sub-THz provides an edge over existing state of the art techniques used for non-invasive measurement of blood glucose levels and intraoperative assessment of tumor margins. There is a detailed articulation of an application of leveraging machine learning for measurement systems for non-invasive glucose concentration measurement. This helps the reader relate to the output in a more user-friendly format and understand the possible use cases in a more lucid manner. The book is intended to help the reader learn how to build tissue phantoms and characterize them at sub-THz frequencies in order to test the measurement systems. Towards the end of the book, a brief introduction to system automation for biomedical imaging is provided as well for quick analysis of the data. The book will empower the reader to understand and appreciate the immense possibilities of using electronic THz systems in the biomedical field, creating gateways for fueling further research in this area.
This book offers historical and state-of-the-art molecular spectroscopy methods and applications in dynamic compression science, aimed at the upcoming generation in physical sciences involved in studies of materials at extremes. It begins with addressing the motivation for probing shock compressed molecular materials with spectroscopy and then reviews historical developments and the basics of the various spectroscopic methods that have been utilized. Introductory chapters are devoted to fundamentals of molecular spectroscopy, overviews of dynamic compression technologies, and diagnostics used to quantify the shock compression state during spectroscopy experiments. Subsequent chapters describe all the molecular spectroscopic methods used in shock compression research to date, including theory, experimental details for application to shocked materials, and difficulties that can be encountered. Each of these chapters also includes a section comparing static compression results. The last chapter offers an outlook for the future, which leads the next-generation readers to tackling persistent problems.
This book focuses on the modern development of techniques for analysis of the hierarchical structure of polymers from both the experimental and theoretical points of view. Starting with molecular and crystal symmetry, the author explains fundamental and professional methods, such as wide- and small-angle X-ray scattering, neutron diffraction, electron diffraction, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, NMR, and synchrotron radiation. In addition, the author explains another indispensable method, computer simulation, which includes energy calculation, lattice dynamics, molecular dynamics, and quantum chemistry. These various methods are described in a systematic way so that the reader can utilize them for the purpose of 3D structure analysis of polymers. Not only such analytical knowledge but also the preparation techniques of samples necessary for these measurements and the methods of analyzing the experimental data collected in this way are given in a concrete manner. Examples are offered to help master the principles of how to clarify the static structures and dynamic structural changes in the phase transitions of various kinds of crystalline polymers that are revealed by these novel methods. The examples are quite useful for readers who want to apply these techniques in finding practical solutions to concrete problems that are encountered in their own research. The principal audience for this book is made up of young professional researchers including those working in industry, but it can also be used as an excellent reference for graduate-level students.This book is the first volume of a two-volume set with Structural Science of Crystalline Polymers: A Microscopically Viewed Structure-Property Relationship being the second volume by the same author.
The book presents Russian experience in researching and developing theoretical and experimental problems of heavy concrete elements and constructions with functionally gradient structure, manufactured by using mechanical and electromagnetic vibrations, and broadly utilized in different areas of industry. Original theoretical, experimental and numerical methods are developed for the analysis and design of the aggregate and local characteristics of vibrated, centrifuged and vibro-centrifuged concrete rings and columns. The promising experimental techniques and results presented in this volume have been supported by Russian patents and used for improvement of reinforced concrete products.
The book covers in particular state-of-the-art scientific research about product quality control and related health and environmental safety topics, including human, animal and plant safety assurance issues. These conference proceedings provide contemporary information on the general theoretical, metrological and practical issues of the production and application of reference materials.Reference materials play an integral role in physical, chemical and related type of measurements, ensuring their uniformity, comparability and the validity of quantitative analysis as well as, as a result, the objectivity of decisions concerning the elimination of technical barriers in commercial and economic, scientific and technical and other spheres of cooperation. The book is intended for researchers and practitioners in the field of chemistry, metrologists, technical physics, as well as for specialists in analytical laboratories, or working for companies and organizations involved in the production, distribution and use of reference materials.
The NUMISHEET conference series is the most significant international conference on the area of the numerical simulation of sheet metal forming processes. It gathers the most prominent experts in numerical methods in sheet forming processes and is an outstanding forum for the exchange of ideas and for the discussion of technologies related to sheet metal forming processes. Topics covered in this volume include but are not limited to the following: Materials Modeling and Experimental Testing MethodsFriction and ContactFormability, Necking, and FractureInstabilities and Surface DefectsFracture and DamageNumerical MethodsSpringbackIncremental Sheet FormingRoll FormingInnovative Forming MethodsProduct and Process Design and Optimization
Based on the success of the first published book on "e;Nondestructive Evaluation and Monitoring Technologies, Documentation, Diagnosis and Preservation of Cultural Heritage"e;, this book will includes peer reviewed papers submitted to the conference in form of single independent chapters. Each chapter will highlight the benefits of one or more Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) methods, image processing and data analysis methods and their applications on cultural heritage sites. This book demonstrates Non-destructive sensing technologies and inspection modules as main tools for documentation, diagnosis, characterization, preservation planning, monitoring and quality of restoration, assessment and evaluation of material and preservation work. Within this book, the benefits of NDT methods and their applications will be demonstrated on diverse and important cultural heritage sites and monuments around the world. NDT sensing technologies and inspection modules are becoming main tools for the documentation, diagnosis, characterization, preservation planning, monitoring and quality control of restoration, assessment and evaluation of materials and preservation works.Distinguished scientists and representatives of the National Geographic Society, the Cultural Heritage Finance Alliance, the International Council of Monuments and Sites ICOMOS, the Organization of World Heritage Cities OWHC, the European Society for Engineering Education SEFI, the European Construction Technology Platform ECTP, the International Federation of Surveyors FIG, the International Committee CIPA Heritage Documentation, the World Monuments Fund and other major International and European Organizations, Associations, networks Universities and Research Centers in the field of cultural heritage preservation, participate in to the International Steering Committee which had successfully organized the 1st TMM_CH Conference as well.
This book reviews work that covers everything from basic chemistry to advanced applications. Chitin and chitosan are used in a plethora of applications from wastewater treatment to prosthetics. After introducing the subject of polysaccharides as a whole, the authors turn to the preparation of chitin and chitosan and the characterization of the latter. The book provides information on chitin chemistry, extraction of chitin, chitosan preparation processes, and the applications of their derivatives in various fields. Among the applications that are included in detail are the adsorption of heavy metals for pollution prevention and clean-up, biosensors, cosmetics, various medical applications from anti-tumor activity to bone tissue engineering, agriculture and food production, and proton exchange membranes for fuel cells.Chitin and Chitosan features:* information on molecular structure, synthesis, properties, and latest research related to chitin and chitosan;* coverage of a wide range of topics from the properties of chitosan to its derivatives and applications;* in-depth information on biomedical applications of chitin and chitosan; and* information that can be applied to other biopolymer processing engineering areas.This book will be of interest to practitioners working in a wide variety of industries for which chitin and chitosan are useful materials, researchers in biosensors and heavy-metal adsorption, and to academic researchers investigating the properties, preparation, and uses of these materials.
This book provides a comprehensive introduction to all aspects of low-energy ion-solid interaction from basic principles to advanced applications in materials science. It features a balanced and insightful approach to the fundamentals of the low-energy ion-solid surface interaction, focusing on relevant topics such as interaction potentials, kinetics of binary collisions, ion range, radiation damages, and sputtering. Additionally, the book incorporates key updates reflecting the latest relevant results of modern research on topics such as topography evolution and thin-film deposition under ion bombardment, ion beam figuring and smoothing, generation of nanostructures, and ion beam-controlled glancing angle deposition. Filling a gap of almost 20 years of relevant research activity, this book offers a wealth of information and up-to-date results for graduate students, academic researchers, and industrial scientists working in these areas.
Among the many intense light sources, excimer lasers have a unique set of properties that place them at the forefront of tooling for material processing. Their extreme versatility means that they can be used in many areas of materials science and medicine. But three conditions need to be fulfilled in order that their versatility be truly appreciated and exploited: the characteristics and limitations of the sources must be known; the basic excimer laser processes should become reasonably widely known; and problems in search of a solution should be clearly identified. Excimer Lasers covers all three of these points in an instructive and logical way. Probably for the first time, both instrumental and fundamental aspects of excimer laser interaction with matter are presented side-by-side, with examples drawn from the widest range of materials. The articles gathered here are tutorial in their nature, thus making them suitable for a wide readership, from recent graduates and postgraduate students to those established scientists entering the field, all of whom could not find a better, nor more authoritative work with which to start their reading.