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An earthquake is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves. Earthquakes can range in size from those that are so weak that they cannot be felt to those violent enough to toss people around and destroy the whole cities. At the Earth's surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by shaking and sometimes displacement of the ground. When the epicenter of a large earthquake is located offshore, the seabed may be displaced sufficiently to cause a tsunami. Earthquakes can also trigger landslides and occasionally volcanic activity. Earthquakes are caused not only by rupture of geological faults but also by other events such as volcanic activity, landslides, mine blasts, and nuclear tests. This book addresses the multidisciplinary topic of earthquake hazards and risk, one of the fastest growing, relevant, and applied fields of research and study practiced within the geosciences and environment. This book addresses principles, concepts, and paradigms of earthquakes, as well as operational terms, materials, tools, techniques, and methods including processes, procedures, and implications.
Master's Thesis from the year 2015 in the subject Engineering - Geotechnology, grade: 9.44, , course: Masters (Structural Engineering), language: English, abstract: The present study investigates the seismic behavior of multi-story building using damping devices strategically located within the lateral load resisting elements. It concentrates on a retrofitting strategy with passive energy dissipation device known as Fluid Viscous Damper (FVD) which will be applicable to new design as well as retrofitting existing buildings to ensure seismic safety by fitting damping devices which can transform a wall panel into a damping element. The first study involves analysis of a nine-story model having cut-outs and the use of the dampers of different configuration in these structures. The second study involves the use the diagonal brace configuration dampers provided in the cutout sections of 2D 9, 18, 27 storey structures and 3D 27 storey with core wall structure at three consecutive story levels each. For the second study, the cut out locations is varied depending on their relative positions. The relative position is the ratio of the total height of the structure to the upper edge of the topmost cut-out.These structures were initially modeled and time history analysis was performed on the structure without FVD and the structure retrofitted with FVD. Three different ground motions were used for the analysis. Results of the un- retrofitted structures are then compared with a retrofitted structure in terms of peak story displacements, roof accelerations, and pseudo-spectral accelerations. Study shows that there has been a significant reduction in seismic demands for a structure retrofitted with FVD in terms of peak storey displacements, pseudo-spectral accelerations and roof accelerations when the dampers are placed at lower three cut outs i.e. with high relative position. It is also observed that damping coefficient value obtained is least for upper toggle-brace configuration out of the four different damper configurations and with maximum reduction compared to other configurations. For modeling and analysis purpose the software SAP2000® is used.Through the study it could be concluded that FVD significantly reduces the seismic demands of the structure in terms of peak storey displacements, pseudo-spectral accelerations and roof accelerations. This suggests that FVDs can be efficiently used in retrofitting. Also damping coefficient value obtained is least for upper toggle-brace configuration out of the four different damper configurations suggesting this is the most efficient configuration for retrofitting.
Seismic Evaluation, Damage, and Mitigation in Structures covers recent developments in the area of seismic performance assessment of structures. Earthquakes are one of the main natural hazards that could directly cause damages to or collapse of structures, resulting in significant economic and human life losses. In the event of an earthquake where many buildings and infrastructure components are not able to function afterward, or if extensive repair and associated disruption are needed, it can be very costly and take a long time to resolve. Divided into three parts, the book reviews and discusses earthquake-induced damage evaluation in structures, repair of structural and non-structural components, and seismic damage mitigation strategies. With contributions from the leading experts in the field, this book is for earthquake and structural engineers and PhD students studying civil engineering and for those who understand that design and damage mitigation of structures that have limited structural or non-structural damage in a seismic event can be easy to inspect and repair for quick reoccupation.
This book provides rigorous foundations of applying modern computational mechanics to earthquake engineering. The scope covers the numerical analysis of earthquake wave propagation processes and the faulting processes, and also presents the most advanced
The international workshop on ""Earthquake Hazards and Mitigation"" was held in Guwahati, India during 7-8 December 2007. This proceedings contains 5 keynote lectures, 11 invited lectures and 44 contributed papers presented in the workshop.