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This book highlights the state-of-the-art research and discovery in the use of chitosan-based nanocomposites in biomedical applications, including the scope to which these novel materials have been incorporated by the community. It provides an exceptional insight into the strategies for the synthesis and chemical modifications of chitosan, characterization techniques, their use as anticancer agents, antimicrobial, antiviral, and antifungal agents, their role in the biomedical field, and applications in drug delivery, gene therapy, dentistry, orthopedics, etc. This book will also emphasize the challenges with previous signs of progress and way for further research, details relating to the current pioneering technology, and future perspectives with a multidisciplinary approach. Furthermore, it presents up-to-date information on the economics, toxicity, and regulations related to these novel materials.
Fluorescence Molecular Tomography: Principles and Applications is the first book to cover the underlying principles and practical applications of fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) in a systematic manner. Using a tutorial approach, the text begins with an overview of the fundamentals of FMT and goes on to detail image reconstruction approaches (including linear and nonlinear reconstruction algorithms), FMT instrumentations (including time-domain, frequency-domain, and continuous-wave domain systems), and implementation of image-enhancing schemes (including both software and hardware approaches). Further chapters examine multimodal approaches combining photoacoustic tomography (PAT), computed tomography (CT), single-photon emission tomography (SPECT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and discuss bioluminescence tomography and miniaturized FMT from hand-held to endoscopic FMT. A final chapter looks at clinical applications and animal studies. This authoritative and practical guide will serve as a valuable reference for researchers, scientists, clinicians, and industry professionals.The first book dedicated to fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT); Covers underlying principles and practical applications; Written by a leading FMT research pioneer and expert.
This classroom-tested textbook provides a self-contained one-semester course in semiconductor physics and devices that is ideal preparation for students to enter burgeoning quantum industries. Unlike other textbooks on semiconductor device physics, it provides a brief but comprehensive introduction to quantum physics and statistical physics, with derivations and explanations of the key facts that are suitable for second-year undergraduates, rather than simply postulating the main results. The book is structured into three parts, each of which can be covered in around ten lectures. The first part covers fundamental background material such as quantum and statistical physics, and elements of crystallography and band theory of solids. Since this provides a vital foundation for the rest of the text, concepts are explained and derived in more detail than in comparable texts. For example, the concepts of measurement and collapse of the wave function, which are typically omitted, are presented in this text in language accessible to second-year students. The second part covers semiconductors in and out of equilibrium, and gives details which are not commonly presented, such as a derivation of the density of states using dimensional analysis, and calculation of the concentration of ionized impurities from the grand canonical distribution. Special attention is paid to the solution of Poisson's equation, a topic that is feared by many undergraduates but is brought back down to earth by techniques and analogies from first-year physics. Finally, in the third part, the material in parts 2 and 3 is applied to describe simple semiconductor devices, including the MOSFET, the Schottky and PN-junction diodes, and optoelectronic devices. With a wide range of exercises, this textbook is readily adoptable for an undergraduate course on semiconductor physics devices, and with its emphasis on consolidating and applying knowledge of fundamental physics, it will leave students in engineering and the physical sciences well prepared for a future where quantum industries proliferate.
This contributed volume reviews the latest advances in all the new technologies currently developed for MagnetoEncephaloGraphy (MEG) recordings, as well as sensor technologies and integrated sensor arrays for on-scalp MEG. The book gives an account of the first MEG imaging studies and explores the new field of feasible, experimental paradigms of on-scalp MEG. This is an ideal book for engineers, researchers, and students in the neurosciences interested in MEG imaging.
This book, the first dedicated to the topic, provides a comprehensive treatment of forward stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in standard optical fibers. SBS interactions between guided light and sound waves have drawn much attention for over fifty years, and optical fibers provide an excellent playground for the study of Brillouin scattering as they support guided modes of both wave types and provide long interaction lengths. This book is dedicated to forward SBS processes that are driven by co-propagating optical fields. The physics of forward SBS is explained in detail, starting from the fundamentals of interactions between guided optical and acoustic waves, with emphasis given to the acoustic modes that are stimulated in the processes. The realization of forward SBS in standard single-mode, polarization-maintaining and multi-core fibers is then discussed in depth. Innovative potential applications in sensors, monitoring of coating layers, lasers, and radio-frequency oscillators are presented. This book introduces the subject to graduate students in optics and applied physics, and it will be of interest to scientists working in fiber-optics, nonlinear optics and opto-mechanics.Provides the first treatment of forward stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in book form;Reflects the dramatic recent increase in interest in forward SBS processes , driven in part by the promise of new fiber sensing concepts;Delivers a solid and comprehensive grounding in the physics of forward SBS along with detailed experimental set-ups, measurement protocols, and applications.
This book covers the fundamentals of different laser-based manufacturing and processing, namely laser shock peening, laser micromachining, laser cleaning, cladding, remelting, laser honing, and other several aspects of lasers. The book discusses the general laser interaction with different materials. The application of laser-based post-processing of additive manufacturing and repair engineering is reported. It also provides the reader with mechanism of lasers in manufacturing and recent developments in tools, technologies, controls, and operations.
This reference focuses on the current state of fundamental research and industrial achievements in the field of precision laser processing of a wide range of metal, semiconductor and dielectric materials. The possibilities of microprocessing by pulsed nanosecond laser radiation and copper vapor laser systems are analyzed.
Quantum TechnologiesThe next generation of quantum technologies holds immense potential for innovation in our economy, society as well as many industries and is highly important for Germany and Europe. Entirely new and unexplored solutions could unfold for improving efficiency, sustainability, security, telecommunication, computation and medicine, for example. Fraunhofer is an essential partner of the European industry and, at the same time, acts as an integrator and multiplier of disruptive technology leaps. As such, we are committed to the efficient and sustainable transfer of scientific knowledge into applications for the benefit of society - which is why new quantum technologies represent an important research field in our portfolio. In this book, Fraunhofer presents its knowledge and experience on quantum technology innovations in the areas of sensing, imaging, communication and computing, as well as their scientific foundations and applications.The EditorProf. Dr.-Ing. Reimund Neugebauer is the 10th president of the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft. He took of-fice on October 1, 2012. Under his leadership, the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft has grown by approximately 10,000 employees and has increased its budget by around 1 billion euros.
This book highlights state-of-the-art in III-nitrides-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Motivated by the application prospects in lighting, high-resolution display, and health & medicine, the book systematically introduces the physical fundamentals, epitaxial growth, and device fabrications of III-nitride-based LEDs. Important topics including the structures of chips, device reliability and measurements and the advances in mini and micro LEDs are also discussed. The book is completed with a decade of research experience of the author's team in the design and fabrication of III-nitrides-based LEDs, presenting the novel achievements in the stress control of the large mismatch heterostructures, defect formation and inhibition mechanism of the heteroepitaxial growth, LED epitaxial technologies, and the fabrication of high-efficient flip-chip LEDs. The book comprises of a valuable reference source for researchers and professionals engaged in the research and development of III-nitrides-based LEDs.
The 6th revised edition expands with new research developments, including new melt casts, reactive structure materials, a computational study on the detonation velocity of mixtures of solid explosives with non-explosive liquids, calculation of craters after explosions. This work is of interest to advanced students in chemistry, materials science and engineering, as well as to all those working in military and defense technology.