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Academic Paper from the year 2018 in the subject Law - European and International Law, Intellectual Properties, University of Malta, course: M.A. European Politics, Economics and Law, language: English, abstract: The present work takes a closer look at the rare case of exclusion in asylum law. This article will analyse into detail which crimes and acts are taken in consideration. First, it will give an introduction of the legal framework of exclusion. In the second part it will analyse in depth the steps of the exclusion assessment, referring to experts such as EASO and the UNHCR. The article will conclude with a summary of the findings.Exclusion is a rare circumstance in the asylum procedure. The criteria to establish inclusion exactly like exclusion are set out in the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, from now on 1951 Refugee Convention. An asylum seeker who applied for international protection will go through an assessment done by an authority establishing whether he or she is entitled for international protection. If the person is entitled to protection according to the refugee definition stated in the 1951 Refugee Convention the person will be included. Being included means that the person needs protection because he or she has been forced to flee his or her country because of persecution, a refugee has a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, political opinion or membership in a particular social group. Being included is also a prerogative for exclusion, a person cannot be excluded if he or she is first not included. The principle of exclusion is that the person who applied for asylum does not deserve protection. The aim of the 1951 Refugee Convention is to protect potential victims, not to protest criminals, therefore it does not have to be misused.The reason for not deserving protection can be mainly three. The first case is when the person is already beneficiary of protection, because he or she receives assistance from organs or agencies of the United Nations. The second scenario is when the person is recognised by the competent authorities of the country in which he or she has taken residence as having the same rights and obligations of the citizen in possession of the nationality of that country. The third and maybe most controversial scenario is when the person claiming asylum is responsible of a crime or an act so serious that the person is not considered to deserve protection.
Essay from the year 2018 in the subject Politics - Environmental Policy, grade: A, University of Malta (Institute for European Studies), language: English, abstract: Climate policy for the European Union (EU) was irrelevant until the 70s, it became a topic on the political agenda only in the 80s, and today its policy includes adaptation.The European Union recognises that some of the impacts of climate change caused by past emissions are irreversible. The policy responses of climate change are adaptation and mitigation. The main reason for a weak adaptation strategy in mid 80s and 90s was the reluctance of the Member States (MS) to give up power to the supranational institutions. But it was only when the IPCC report put emphasis on adaptation arguing that it should concern even industrialized countries and not only Developing countries (DC) that things started to change. The EU has adopted in 2013 the Adaptation Strategy, which has been strengthened since the 5th National Communication.The aim of this paper is to critically assess EU¿s current trends in adaptation actions, as well as future adaptation requirements. In order to reach this goal this paper will rely on two main documents: sixth EU¿s National Communication to the UNFCCC and to the correspondent UNFCCC¿s in-depth review. The first part will give a brief overview of the EU adaptation strategy, its development and the main official documents, the second part is a more detailed analysis and criticism on the actions described in the current EU adaptation strategy. Before the conclusion, the main criticism will be highlighted and the future adaptation requirement outlined.
Academic Paper from the year 2018 in the subject Business economics - Economic Policy, grade: A, University of Malta (Institute for European Studies), language: English, abstract: The aim of this paper is to understand whether the EU's trade policy position is fostering economic development. According to International Monetary Fund's World Economic Outlook Report, on April 2015 the Developing Countries in the world are 151, this number emphasises the importance of the topic.The first part gives an overview on the trade theories, in particular the comparative advantage theory. The main analysis of this paper is concentrated on the trade policies used in the Developing Countries (DC) and the EU trade policy and its instruments and their effects. Before getting to the conclusion this paper will highlight the main critics and problems of the EU trade policy.
Seminar paper from the year 2018 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Region: Western Europe, University of Malta (Institute for European Studies), language: English, abstract: In about and since the Valletta EU-Africa Summit of 2015, EU policy has shifted to controlling its own borders as well as ensuring cooperation with transit and sending countries in the control of immigration. Agreements have been concluded with sub-Saharan countries and those of the Sahel, as well as with countries in the Horn of Africa, notably Ethiopia. Explain what has been achieved at and since the Valletta Summit but also assess the controversies that have arisen about this new EU policy, particularly on the EU¿s linkage of development aid with compliance in restricting emigrant outflows from third countries and in accepting returned migrants. Refer also to the EU-Turkey 2016 Understanding and the current agreements with Libya on managing migration. Refer also to the Human Rights dilemmas that this policy has ignited.
Academic Paper from the year 2018 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: Public International Law and Human Rights, , language: English, abstract: The asylum procedure is a very complex thematic. The right to seek asylum, because a person is in need of protection, is settled down in the 1951 Refugee Convention. 147countries agreed that when a person¿s life is in danger because of persecution, he/she deserves protection. If a country is not able to protect its citizens, or maybe the government itself is the cause of persecution, then another country is supposed to help people who flee. The right to seek asylum is even mentioned in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Aim of this paper is to describe in detail the different forms of protection awarded to asylum seekers in Malta, including an analysis of the legal framework and a description of the similarities, differences and criteria, which must be fulfilled for each form of protection. In the first part, the focus will be on the legal framework these different regimes are based on. Before analysing the forms of protections, as it is important to have an idea about what it means to be an asylum seeker in Malta, we will here provide some data about applications in Malta. However, the main part of this paper will concentrate on the three protection forms granted to asylum seekers in Malta. There will be a discussion about the differences and similarities on these forms of protections before getting to a conclusion.
Academic Paper from the year 2018 in the subject Business economics - Economic Policy, University of Malta (Institute of European Studies), course: M.A. European Politics, Economics and Law, language: English, abstract: The aim of this paper is to identify the best media strategy for a Maltese union in order to stop an governmental policy not in their favour. It is here requested to find a way to convince the union not to use the social media strategy; the assumption is that it would not be cost effective. In the first part the paper highlights some basic background information about what outside lobby is and then it goes more into detail, and analyses the different media strategies the union could use and which steps exactly are requested. In the second part, the goal is to bring out arguments against the use of social media, for this purpose second literature will be used. This paper will also consider some alternative strategies before getting to the conclusion.
Academic Paper from the year 2018 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: European Union, grade: A, University of Malta, language: English, abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyse European Union policies in the field of hunger and poverty in third countries from the Malian point of view. The aim is to critically analyse the actions of EU taken in Mali to fight hunger and poverty. The European Union is argued to be the major donor of external assistance, with more than half of the world¿s official development aid. The European Commission is organised in General Directorates (DGs), the one involved in Hunger and Poverty fight is the International Cooperation and Development DG. EU, as a global actor, has relations with almost all the countries in the world and Mali is one of these. The controversy in the case of Mali is that this country has an enormous inner potential and could be a wealthy country, just think about the mineral resources, but the reality is that Mali is one of the poorest countries of the world. The country is traditional split in two, Arabic populations live in the north, while Sub-Saharans in the south. Mali`s internal conflict and instability is growing, armed groups coming from the north of the country carry out attacks and move forward to the centre. In order to understand the problems, challenges and most controversies of the EU actions in Mali it is important to understand what the EU has done so far.
Academic Paper from the year 2018 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: European Union, grade: A, University of Malta (European Studies), course: European Politics, Economics and Law, language: English, abstract: Aim of this paper is to understand the role and types of these European Agencies (EAs) and the main problems connected to them. First, we will try to find a definition of Agencies. Starting from the first agencies we will analyse how these developed in their number, structure, role and competencies.After this, it is important to understand the legal framework in which EAs are established, and to analyse if the agencies are attracted by the community method or not. At this point, we will find several critics, the main rising question concerns the delegation of power, how much competencies can the European Commission delegate to Agencies? Why should the EU delegate power? In order to have basic knowledge to discuss this topic we have to mention the Meroni law-case. In the academic literature, the EAs are often considered as the fourth branch of governments. What does this mean? After an overview about basics elements of EAs and a discussion about the main problems involved, we will come to our conclusion.