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Der vil altid være støj, der gør det svært for enhver at foretage vurderinger og træffe beslutninger. Daniel Kahneman, Olivier Sibony og Cass R. Sunstein viser i denne bog, hvordan støj er årsagen til, at der begås fejl inden for alle områder - herunder lægevidenskab, jura, sundhed, patenter, økonomi, retsmedicin, strategi og ansættelsesprocesser. Selvom støj findes overalt, hvor der træffes beslutninger, ignorerer både enkeltpersoner og organisationer dens betydning - ofte med store omkostninger til følge. Med enkle midler udforsker denne banebrydende bog, hvad vi kan gøre for at træffe bedre beslutninger.Forestil dig to læger, der stiller forskellige diagnoser til patienter med samme sygdom. Eller to dommere ved samme domstol, der giver forskellige domme til mennesker, der har begået identiske forbrydelser. Forestil dig, at beslutningerne afhænger af, om det er morgen eller eftermiddag, om det er mandag eller onsdag, eller om det er lige før eller efter frokost. Det er eksempler på støj: variationer i beslutninger, der burde være identiske.
Every day, we make decisions on topics ranging from personal investments to schools for our children to the meals we eat to the causes we champion. Unfortunately, we often choose poorly. The reason, the authors explain, is that, being human, we all are susceptible to various biases that can lead us to blunder. Our mistakes make us poorer and less healthy; we often make bad decisions involving education, personal finance, health care, mortgages and credit cards, the family, and even the planet itself.Thaler and Sunstein invite us to enter an alternative world, one that takes our humanness as a given. They show that by knowing how people think, we can design choice environments that make it easier for people to choose what is best for themselves, their families, and their society. Using colorful examples from the most important aspects of life, Thaler and Sunstein demonstrate how thoughtful choice architecture can be established to nudge us in beneficial directions without restricting freedom of choice. Nudge offers a unique new takefrom neither the left nor the righton many hot-button issues, for individuals and governments alike. This is one of the most engaging and provocative books to come along in many years.
How our shifting sense of "what's normal" defines the character of democracy
Many Americans fear the power of unelected, unaccountable bureaucrats-the "deep state." Cass Sunstein and Adrian Vermeule seek to calm those fears by proposing a moral regime to ensure that government rulemakers behave transparently and don't abuse their authority. The administrative state may be a Leviathan, but it can be a principled one.
From the New York Times bestselling author of Nudge and The World According to Star Wars, a revealing account of how today's Internet threatens democracyand what can be done about itAs the Internet grows more sophisticated, it is creating new threats to democracy. Social media companies such as Facebook can sort us ever more efficiently into groups of the like-minded, creating echo chambers that amplify our views. It's no accident that on some occasions, people of different political views cannot even understand each other. It's also no surprise that terrorist groups have been able to exploit social media to deadly effect.Welcome to the age of #Republic.In this revealing book, Cass Sunstein, the New York Times bestselling author of Nudge and The World According to Star Wars, shows how today's Internet is driving political fragmentation, polarization, and even extremismand what can be done about it.Thoroughly rethinking the critical relationship between democracy and the Internet, Sunstein describes how the online world creates "e;cybercascades,"e; exploits "e;confirmation bias,"e; and assists "e;polarization entrepreneurs."e; And he explains why online fragmentation endangers the shared conversations, experiences, and understandings that are the lifeblood of democracy.In response, Sunstein proposes practical and legal changes to make the Internet friendlier to democratic deliberation. These changes would get us out of our information cocoons by increasing the frequency of unchosen, unplanned encounters and exposing us to people, places, things, and ideas that we would never have picked for our Twitter feed.#Republic need not be an ironic term. As Sunstein shows, it can be a rallying cry for the kind of democracy that citizens of diverse societies most need.
Why are group decisions so hard?Since the beginning of human history, people have made decisions in groups-first in families and villages, and now as part of companies, governments, school boards, religious organizations, or any one of countless other groups. And having more than one person to help decide is good because the group benefits from the collective knowledge of all of its members, and this results in better decisions. Right?Back to reality. We've all been involved in group decisions-and they're hard. And they often turn out badly. Why? Many blame bad decisions on "e;groupthink"e; without a clear idea of what that term really means.Now, Nudge coauthor Cass Sunstein and leading decision-making scholar Reid Hastie shed light on the specifics of why and how group decisions go wrong-and offer tactics and lessons to help leaders avoid the pitfalls and reach better outcomes. In the first part of the book, they explain in clear and fascinating detail the distinct problems groups run into:They often amplify, rather than correct, individual errors in judgmentThey fall victim to cascade effects, as members follow what others say or doThey become polarized, adopting more extreme positions than the ones they began withThey emphasize what everybody knows instead of focusing on critical information that only a few people knowIn the second part of the book, the authors turn to straightforward methods and advice for making groups smarter. These approaches include silencing the leader so that the views of other group members can surface, rethinking rewards and incentives to encourage people to reveal their own knowledge, thoughtfully assigning roles that are aligned with people's unique strengths, and more.With examples from a broad range of organizations-from Google to the CIA-and written in an engaging and witty style, Wiser will not only enlighten you; it will help your team and your organization make better decisions-decisions that lead to greater success.
The official report that has shaped the international debate about NSA surveillance"e;We cannot discount the risk, in light of the lessons of our own history, that at some point in the future, high-level government officials will decide that this massive database of extraordinarily sensitive private information is there for the plucking. Americans must never make the mistake of wholly 'trusting' our public officials."e;-The NSA ReportThis is the official report that is helping shape the international debate about the unprecedented surveillance activities of the National Security Agency. Commissioned by President Obama following disclosures by former NSA contractor Edward J. Snowden, and written by a preeminent group of intelligence and legal experts, the report examines the extent of NSA programs and calls for dozens of urgent and practical reforms. The result is a blueprint showing how the government can reaffirm its commitment to privacy and civil liberties-without compromising national security.
The future of the U.S. Supreme Court hangs in the balance like never before. Will conservatives or liberals succeed in remaking the court in their own image? In A Constitution of Many Minds, acclaimed law scholar Cass Sunstein proposes a bold new way of interpreting the Constitution, one that respects the Constitution's text and history but also refuses to view the document as frozen in time. Exploring hot-button issues ranging from presidential power to same-sex relations to gun rights, Sunstein shows how the meaning of the Constitution is reestablished in every generation as new social commitments and ideas compel us to reassess our fundamental beliefs. He focuses on three approaches to the Constitution--traditionalism, which grounds the document's meaning in long-standing social practices, not necessarily in the views of the founding generation; populism, which insists that judges should respect contemporary public opinion; and cosmopolitanism, which looks at how foreign courts address constitutional questions, and which suggests that the meaning of the Constitution turns on what other nations do. Sunstein demonstrates that in all three contexts a "e;many minds"e; argument is at work--put simply, better decisions result when many points of view are considered. He makes sense of the intense debates surrounding these approaches, revealing their strengths and weaknesses, and sketches the contexts in which each provides a legitimate basis for interpreting the Constitution today. This book illuminates the underpinnings of constitutionalism itself, and shows that ours is indeed a Constitution, not of any particular generation, but of many minds.
Simpler government arrived four years ago. It helped put money in your pocket. It saved hours of your time. It improved your childrens diet, lengthened your life span, and benefited businesses large and small. It did so by issuing fewer regulations, by insisting on smarter regulations, and by eliminating or improving old regulations. Cass R. Sunstein, as administrator of the most powerful White House office youve never heard of, oversaw it and explains how it works, why government will never be the same again (thank goodness), and what must happen in the future. Cutting-edge research in behavioral economics has influenced business and politics. Long at the forefront of that research, Sunstein, for three years President Obamas regulatory czar heading the White House Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, oversaw a far-reaching restructuring of Americas regulatory state. In this highly anticipated book, Sunstein pulls back the curtain to show what was done, why Americans are better off as a result, and what the future has in store. The evidence is all around you, and more is coming soon. Simplified mortgages and student loan applications. Scorecards for colleges and universities. Improved labeling of food and energy-efficient appliances and cars. Calories printed on chain restaurant menus. Healthier food in public schools. Backed by historic executive orders ensuring transparency and accountability, simpler government can be found in new initiatives that save money and time, improve health, and lengthen lives. Simpler: The Future of Government will transform what you think government can and should accomplish.
Synopsis coming soon.......
The Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA) is the nation's regulatory overseer. In this book, the author draws on his experience as the Administrator of OIRA from 2009 to 2012, to argue that we can humanize regulation - and save lives in the process.
This volume asks how juries actually make decisions about punitive damages. Specialists in psychology, economics and law present new data gathered from over 600 controlled experiments which documents a range of systematic bias in jury behaviour.
Nuclear bombs in suitcases, anthrax in ventilators, tsunamis and meteors, avian flu, scorchingly heat: nightmares that were once the plot of Hollywood movies are now frighteningly real possibilities. Sunstein explores these and other worst-case scenarios and how we might best prevent them in this vivid, illuminating, and highly original analysis.
American constitutional law is at a crossroads. In a major new interpretation of the Constitution, Cass Sunstein offers a clear account of our present dilemmas and shows where we might go from here.
From the same authorship team behind the highly successful Constitutional Law and among the leading casebooks in the field, The First Amendment provides a comprehensive and accessible review of speech and religion jurisprudence under the First Amendment. The eminent authorship team, whose members are distinguished both in teaching and scholarship, combines textual, historical, theoretical, and doctrinal approaches in an inclusive and creative survey of the essential elements of modern First Amendment doctrine. It has been completely updated to incorporate recent developments in the field, including campaign finance and government speech, and provides a broader discussion of modern First Amendment issues, including those related to modern technology. New to the Sixth Edition: New coverage relating to: Issues of free speech on campus, extremist speech and online terrorism, hate speech, and issues of ';fake news'. New material on cases including: Iancu v. Brunetti and Matal v. Tam Masterpiece Cakeshop v. Colorado Civil Rights Commission National Institute of Family and Life Advocates v. Becerra Substantial discussion of Trump v. Hawaii and the Bladensburg cross case Reorganization of the presentation of the role of impermissible purposes in Establishment Clause jurisprudence, in light of the (near) elimination of the Lemon test Professors and students will benefit from: Rigorous questions in the Notes Carefully selected and challenging excerpts from articles and books by leading First Amendment scholars Thoughtful organization of topics and cases designed to challenge students and to illuminate the evolution and current state of First Amendment jurisprudence
Adhering to the multi-disciplinary and scholarly approach of its predecessors, the eighth edition of Constitutional Law guides students through all facets of constitutional law. Constitutional Law explores traditional constitutional doctrine through the lens of varying critical and social perspectives informed by political theory, philosophy, sociology, ethics, history, and economics. This comprehensive approach paired with carefully edited cases provides instructors with rich material for classroom discussion. Logically organized for a two-semester course, the first part of Constitutional Law tackles issues concerning separation of powers and federalism while the second part addresses all facets of individual rights and liberties. Constitutional Law also provides thoughtfully selected content on the First Amendment to give students a well-rounded understanding of religion and free speech issues. Key Features: The text's attention to policy, including discussion of competing critical and social perspectives. A multi-disciplinary approach that draws on political theory, philosophy, sociology, ethics, history, and economics. Thoughtful editing, including both lightly and more tightly-edited cases that balances close textual analysis with comprehensive converge of important opinions and pivotal cases. Streamlined treatment of First Amendment law, so that it efficiently provides the necessary fundamentals in free speech and religious liberties jurisprudence. The purchase of this Kindle edition does not entitle you to receive access to the online e-book, practice questions from your favorite study aids, and outline tool available through CasebookConnect.