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The chemical process industry is a rich target for cyber attackers who are intent on causing harm. Current risk management techniques are based on the premise that events are initiated by a single failure and the succeeding sequence of events is predictable. A cyberattack on the Safety, Controls, Alarms, and Interlocks (SCAI) undermines this basic assumption. Each facility should have a Cybersecurity Policy, Implementation Plan and Threat Response Plan in place. The response plan should address how to bring the process to a safe state when controls and safety systems are compromised. The emergency response plan should be updated to reflect different actions that may be appropriate in a sabotage situation. IT professionals, even those working at chemical facilities are primarily focused on the risk to business systems. This book contains guidelines for companies on how to improve their process safety performance by applying Risk Based Process Safety (RBPS) concepts and techniques to the problem of cybersecurity.
Process Safety for Engineers Familiarizes an engineer new to process safety with the concept of process safety management In this significantly revised second edition of Process Safety for Engineers: An Introduction, CCPS delivers a comprehensive book showing how Process Safety concepts are used to reduce operational risks. Students, new engineers, and others new to process safety will benefit from this book. In this updated edition, each chapter begins with a detailed incident case study, provides steps that help address issues, and contains problem sets which can be assigned to students. The second edition covers: Process Safety: including an overview of CCPS Risk Based Process Safety Hazards: specifically fire and explosion, reactive chemical, and toxicity Design considerations for hazard control: including Hazard Identification and Risk Analysis Management of operational risk: including management of change In addition, the book presents how Process Safety performance is monitored and sustained. The associated online resources are linked to the latest online CCPS resources and lectures.
Human Factors Handbook for Process Plant Operations Provides clear and simple instructions for integrating Human Factors principles and practices in the design of processes and work tasks Human Factors, the science of interaction between humans and other elements of a system, draws from disciplines such as psychology, ergonomics, anthropometrics, and physiology to understand how and why people behave and perform as they do and how best to support them in performing tasks. The goals of the Human Factors approach are to improve human reliability, minimize the risk from human error, and optimize the working environment, human wellbeing, and overall system performance. Human Factors Handbook for Process Plant Operations guides supervisors, managers, and engineers on incorporating Human Factors principles and practices into plant maintenance and operations. With thorough and accessible coverage of all Human Factors topics of relevance to process industries, this easy-to-use handbook uses real-world anecdotes and case studies to demonstrate effective training and learning, task planning, communications, emergency response, risk and error management, and more. Throughout the text, the authors offer valuable insights into why people make mistakes while providing advice on how to help workers perform their process operational tasks successfully. Explains all essential Human Factors concepts and knowledge with clear descriptions and illustrative examples Offers actionable advice and models of good practice that can be applied to design, process operations, start-ups and shut-downs, and maintenance Addresses job aids, equipment design, competence, task support, non-technical skills, working with contractors, and managing change Discusses how lack of Human Factors considerations during the engineering design phase can adversely affect safety and performance Describes how to use indicators to both recognize and learn from human error and performance issues Written by highly experienced operating and maintenance personnel, Human Factors Handbook for Process Plant Operations is an indispensable resource for everyone involved with defining, planning, training, and managing process operations, maintenance, and emergency response in the food, pharmaceutical, chemical, petroleum, and refining industries. The missions of both the CCPS and EI include developing and disseminating knowledge, skills and good practices to protect people, the environment, and property by bringing the best knowledge and practices to industry, academia, governments and the public around the world through collective wisdom, tools, training and expertise. The CCPS, an industrial technology alliance of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), has been at the forefront of documenting and sharing important process safety risk assessment methodologies for more than 35 years and has published over 100 books in its process safety guidelines and process safety concept book series. The EI s Technical Work Program addresses the depth and breadth of the energy sector from fuels and fuels distribution to health and safety, sustainability and the environment. The EI program provides cost-effective, value-adding knowledge on key current and future international issues affecting those in the energy sector.
The book supplements Guidelines for Chemical Process Quantitative Risk Analysis by providing the failure rate data needed to perform a chemical process quantitative risk analysis.
The complexity of today's risk decisions is well known. Beyond cost and risk there are many other factors contributing to these decisions, including type of risk (such as human injury or fatality), the economic impact on the local community, profitability, availability of capital, alternatives for reducing or eliminating the risk, costs of implementing alternatives, codes, standards, regulation, and good industry practice. This book presents a large range of decision aids for risk analysts and decision makers in industry so that vital decisions can be made in a more consistent, logical, and rigorous manner. Though primarily aimed at the process industry, this book can be used by anyone who makes similar decisions in other industries, including those in management science.
The serious consequences of vapor cloud explosions, flash fires, and BLEVEs are very well known. Better understanding of the characteristics of these phenomena and models to calculate their consequences are key to effective prevention and mitigation. Cited by EPA in its 1996 document, "e;Off-site Consequence Analysis Guidance, "e; the first half of the book describes the characteristics of these phenomena and gives an overview of past experimental and theoretical research and methods to estimate consequences. The second part focuses on methods for consequence estimating by presenting sample problems. The entire book is heavily illustrated with photos, charts, tables, and diagrams, and each chapter has a full set of references for additional reading.
First-line managers have to maintain the integrity of facilities, control manufacturing processes, and handle unusual or emergency situations, as well as respond to the pressures of production demand. On a daily basis, they are closest to the operating personnel who may be injured by a process accident, and they are in the best position to spot problem conditions and to act to contain them. This book offers these managers "e;how-to"e; information on process safety management program execution in the operations and maintenance departments, recommending technical and administrative process safety activities for the entire life cycle of the plant. Helpful tables and references add to the value of this process safety resource.
This Guidelines book provides technical information on how to conduct a consequence analysis to satisfy your company's needs and the EPA rules. It covers quantifying the size of a release, dispersion of vapor clouds to an endpoint concentration, outcomes for various types of explosions and fires, and the effect of the release on people and structures. Special Details: Includes CD-ROM with example problems worked using Excel and Quattro Pro. For use with Windows 95, 98, and NT.
At last, a book that covers safety procedures and standards with information that is rarely available outside of proprietary materials. A comprehensive source for basic and essential operations and procedures in use in any facility, the book offers chemical operators and first line supervisors guidance in applying appropriate practices to prevent accidents, and suggests which practices to avoid.
The process industry has developed integrated process safety management programs to reduce or eliminate incidents and major consequences, such as injury, loss of life, property damage, environmental harm, and business interruption. Good documentation practices are a crucial part of retaining past knowledge and experience, and avoiding relearning old lessons. Following an introduction, which offers examples of how proper documentation might have prevented major explosions and serious incidents, the 21 sections in this book clearly present aims, goals, and methodology in all areas of documentation. The text contains examples of dozens of needed forms, lists of relevant industry organizations, sources for software, references, OSHA regulations, sample plans, and more.
Drawn from international sources, this book provides principles and strategies for the evaluation of chemical reactions, and for using this information in process design and management. A useful resource for engineers who design, start-up, operate, and manage chemical and petrochemical plants, the book places special emphasis on the use of state-of-the-art technology in theory, testing methods, and applications in design and operations.
Prevention, preparedness, response and recovery--the key components of emergency planning--form the major sections of this work. The book first describes PSM (Process Safety Management) as the key to prevention, then goes on to consider the main features of a preparedness program, including recognizing credible incidents, planning practical strategy to deal with these incidents, selecting necessary physical support systems and equipment, and developing a complete emergency response plan. The Response section presents the functions implemented during an actual emergency and concludes with a section on managing cleanup and restoration of operations. The many tables and figures include Sample Incident Command System Plans for both large and small organizations, OSHA and EPA regulations affecting planning, sample Fire Emergency Action Levels, HAZMAT Responder Levels, and OSHA Emergency Training Requirements.
In today s competitive economy, companies often augment in-house production by outsourcing chemical reaction processes and distillation, drying, formulating, blending, and packaging operations. While most of these tolling, or contracted manufacturing services, proceed without incident, recent major accidents have pointed to weaknesses in some tolling arrangements, such as reactivity of materials and processes. This Guidelines book provides the reader with proven procedures to improve process safety throughout the life cycle of a contracted manufacturing operation. Extensive checklists and examples used throughout the book make it a valuable learning tool and reference for companies conducting toll manufacturing, or considering outsourcing manufacturing operations.
Chemical process quantitative risk analysis (CPQRA) as applied to the CPI was first fully described in the first edition of this CCPS Guidelines book. This second edition is packed with information reflecting advances in this evolving methodology, and includes worked examples on a CD-ROM. CPQRA is used to identify incident scenarios and evaluate their risk by defining the probability of failure, the various consequences and the potential impact of those consequences. It is an invaluable methodology to evaluate these when qualitative analysis cannot provide adequate understanding and when more information is needed for risk management. This technique provides a means to evaluate acute hazards and alternative risk reduction strategies, and identify areas for cost-effective risk reduction. There are no simple answers when complex issues are concerned, but CPQRA2 offers a cogent, well-illustrated guide to applying these risk-analysis techniques, particularly to risk control studies. Special Details: Includes CD-ROM with example problems worked using Excel and Quattro Pro. For use with Windows 95, 98, and NT.
Batch reaction systems pose unique challenges to process safety managers because they do not operate in a steady state. The sequence of processing steps, and frequent start-ups and shutdowns, increase the possibility of human errors and equipment failures. And, since batch plants are often designed for shared use, frequent modification of piping and layout may occur, resulting in complex "e;management of change"e; issues. This book identifies the singular concerns of batch reaction systems including potential sources of unsafe conditions and provides a "e;how-to"e; guide for the practicing engineer in dealing with them by applying appropriate practices to prevent accidents.
While there is no "e;perfect"e; solution or absolute zero risk, engineering design can significantly reduce risk potential in the CPI. In Guidelines for Design Solutions to Process Equipment Failures, industry experts offer their broad experience in identifying numerous solutions to the more common process equipment failures including inherent safer/passive, active, and procedural solutions, in decreasing order of robustness and reliability. The book challenges the engineer to identify opportunities for inherent and passive safety features early, and use a risk-based approach to process safety systems specification. The book is organized into three basic sections: 1) a technique for making risk-based design decisions; 2) potential failure scenarios for 10 major processing equipment categories; and 3) two worked examples showing how the techniques can be applied. The equipment categories covered are: vessels, reactors, mass transfer equipment, fluid transfer equipment, solids-fluid separators, solids handling and processing equipment, and piping and piping components. Special Details: Hardcover book plus 3.5"e; diskette for use in any word processing program with design solutions for use in PHAs.
Written by reliability data experts, the book gives plant managers and supervisors the guidance they need to collect, and use with confidence, process equipment reliability data for risk-based decisions. Focusing on the process industries, it provides the protocol and techniques to collect and organize high quality plant performance, maintenance, and repair data from your own operations, and includes methods and examples on how the data can be converted into useful information for engineering, maintenance, safety, and loss prevention. This data can be used for: facility reliability/availability assessments; making decisions on the need for redundant systems; improving equipment designs; selecting the best equipment for specific tasks; estimating required work force; benchmarking current efforts both frequency and time; integrating predictive and preventive maintenance effort; integrating shutdowns with production needs; quantifying risks; and minimizing human reliability issues.
A comprehensive understanding of the potential dangers inherent in warehousing chemicals is the first step in managing the associated risks. Written by industry professionals for warehouse operators, designers, and all who are concerned with the safe warehousing of chemicals, this book offers a performance-based approach to such hazards as health effects, environmental pollution, fire, and explosion, and presents practical means to minimize the risk of these hazards to employees, the surrounding population, the environment, property, and business operations. These basic precepts can be used to evaluate the risks in initial or existing designs for warehousing facilities on a manufacturing site, for freestanding offsite buildings, and for strictly chemical or mixed-use storage. Each of the book s ten chapters has a list of references and suggestions for further reading. The numerous topics covered make this book invaluable for warehousing designers and operators.
Over the years, companies have developed independent systems for managing process safety, environment, health, safety, and quality. Many aspects of these management systems are similar. Integrating EHS management systems can yield economies and improved system effectiveness. This book explains how integration reduces cost of delivery through a reduction in the number of management program steps and avoidance of redundancy; how it results in more effective programs, since the best practices can be combined into a single process; and how this integration brings a faster, and more cost effective response to new demands.
This book puts together a body of very recent information never before presented in one volume on the design of post-release mitigation systems. The development of a fundamental knowledge base on post-release mitigation systems, through testing and data correlation, is very new. While further research and development is needed, this practical work offers guidance on putting post-release countermeasures to work now. The book presents current engineering methods for minimizing the consequences of the release of toxic vapors, or ignition of flammable vapors, including passive and active systems intended to reduce or eliminate significant acute effects of a dispersing vapor cloud in the plant facility, or into the surrounding community. As in all CCPS works, the book emphasizes planning and a systems approach, shows limitations of any methods discussed, and provides numerous references so that the reader may continue to learn.
The second edition of this essential reference updates and combines two earlier titles to capture the many technological advances for predicting the "e;footprint"e; of a vapor cloud release. Cited by EPA in its 1996 document, "e;Off-Site Consequence Analysis Guidance,"e; the aim of the book is to encourage and facilitate the development and use of dispersion modeling as an everyday tool, providing practical understanding of basic physical and chemical principles, guidance in selecting release scenarios and the best available models, and information and examples on how to run some models and interpret outputs. Equally useful to beginners and experts, it compares 22 programs based on input from model developers, and presents 7 examples of typical accidental release scenarios. The book comes with a disk providing input and output data for scenarios.
With new and growing interest in dealing with the hazards of reactive chemicals, this book offers guidelines that can significantly reduce the risk or mitigate the severity of accidents associated with storing and handling reactive materials. Necessary elements of a reliable system to prevent equipment or human failures that might lead to a reactive chemical incident are sound and responsible management policies, together with a combination of superior siting, design, fabrication, erection, inspection, monitoring, maintenance, operations and maintenance of facilities. These Guidelines deal with all of these elements with emphasis on design considerations.
Whether occurring accidentally or through acts of terrorism, catastrophic chemical releases must be identified early in order to mitigate their consequences. Continuous sensor monitoring can detect catastrophic chemical releases early enough to curb extreme amounts of damage. In several notable instances, such monitors have not been used appropriately, or have fallen short of what they should have been capable of delivering. This book provides the technical background and guidance needed to get the most from this emerging technique and details the essentials of preparing any workplace from falling victim to a gas-leak catastrophe.
Almost all the major accident investigations--Texas City, Piper Alpha, the Phillips 66 explosion, Feyzin, Mexico City--show human error as the principal cause, either in design, operations, maintenance, or the management of safety. This book provides practical advice that can substantially reduce human error at all levels. In eight chapters--packed with case studies and examples of simple and advanced techniques for new and existing systems--the book challenges the assumption that human error is "e;unavoidable."e; Instead, it suggests a systems perspective. This view sees error as a consequence of a mismatch between human capabilities and demands and inappropriate organizational culture. This makes error a manageable factor and, therefore, avoidable.
Powders and bulk solids, handled widely in the chemical, pharmaceutical, agriculture, smelting, and other industries present unique fire, explosion, and toxicity hazards. Indeed, substances which are practically inert in consolidated form may become quite hazardous when converted to powders and granules. The U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board is currently investigating dust explosions that occured in 2003 at WestPharma, CTA Acoustics, and Hayes-Lemmerz, and is likely to recommend that companies that handle powders or whose operations produce dust pay more attention to understanding the hazards that may exist at their facility. This new CCPS guidelines book will discuss the types of hazards that can occur in a wide range of process equipment and with a wide range of substances, and will present measures to address these hazards.
While there are many resources available on fire protection and prevention in chemical petrochemical and petroleum plants this is the first book that pulls them all together in one comprehensive resource. This book provides the tools to develop, implement, and integrate a fire protection program into a company or facility s Risk Management System. This definitive volume is a must-read for loss prevention managers, site managers, project managers, engineers and EHS professionals. Note: CD-ROM/DVD and other supplementary materials are not included as part of eBook file.
This CCPS Guideline book outlines current transportation risk analysis software programs and demonstrates several available risk assessment programs for land transport by rail, truck, and pipeline for consequences that may affect the public or the environment. Provides introductory transport risk considerations for process engineers Gives guidance on route selection, equipment factors and materials Describes transportation security risk issues and industry practices to mitigate them Includes loading and unloading checklists for several transport modes Develops specific operating procedures and checklists to reduce human error Discusses considerations for transportation security, including threat and vulnerability assessments and potential countermeasures Summarizes key transportation security regulations, guidelines and industry initiatives. Note: CD-ROM/DVD and other supplementary materials are not included as part of eBook file.
Over 40 papers and posters that share the latest practices in emergency planning related to fixed chemical, pharmaceutical, LNG, and petroleum facilities, storage facilities, transportation, and security.
The first part of this book (Chapters 1 and 2) provides an introduction and discusses basic concepts. Chapter 3 deals with the use of the basic human senses for identifying hazards. Chapter 4 deals with different classes and categories of hazards. Chapter 5 deals with techniques and methodologies for identifying and evaluating hazards. Chapter 6 deals with making risk based decisions. Chapter 7 deals with follow-up and call to action. Chapter 8 deals with learning and continuous improvement. The Appendices provide references, case studies, hazard presentations and additional pictures. Note: CD-ROM/DVD and other supplementary materials are not included as part of eBook file.
Process safety metrics is a topic of frequent conversation within chemical industry associations. Guidelines for Process Safety Metrics provides basic information on process safety performance indicators, including a comprehensive list of metrics for measuring performance and examples as to how they can be successfully applied over both the short and long term. For engineers, insurers, corporate traininers, military personnel, government officials, students, and managers involved in production, product and process development, Guidelines for Process Safety Metrics can help determine appropriate metrics useful in monitoring performance and improving process safety programs. Note: CD-ROM/DVD and other supplementary materials are not included as part of eBook file.