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Kvalitative metoder belyser, hvordan mennesker oplever og beretter om verden, hvordan de agerer, og hvordan menneskelige fænomener fremtræder og udvikler sig i komplekse sammenhænge. Metoderne er på forskellig vis egnede til at beskrive, forstå, fortolke og analysere den menneskelige erfarings mange nuancer og kvaliteter. De kvalitative metoder har været i hastig vækst i human- og samfundsvidenskaberne i de seneste ca. 25 år, og forskere har på tværs af faggrænser udviklet et væld af forskellige teknikker, tilgange og perspektiver.I denne 3. udgave er samtlige kapitler reviderede og opdaterede. Bogen inkluderer et nyt kapitel om kvalitative forløbsstudier samt et nyt kapitel om uddannelse i kvalitativ metode. I takt med udbredelsen af kvalitative metoder og undersøgelser er det mere vigtigt end nogensinde at udvikle det kvalitative forskningshåndværk. Denne bog tilbyder et overblik over typiske, kvalitative metoder, og hvordan disse anvendes i dansk og international kontekst.Bogens 30 kapitler giver en indføring i de kvalitative metoders teori, men lægger først og fremmest vægt på konkret at beskrive den håndværksmæssige kunnen, som præger indsigtsgivende kvalitative studier. Bogen er velegnet for både studerende og erfarne kvalitative forskere.Svend Brinkmann er professor ved Aalborg Universitet.Lene Tanggaard er rektor på Designskolen i Kolding og professor ved Aalborg Universitet.
These conceptions of culture are interrogated, and a reformulation of the concept is sketched.This book will be of interest to students and scholars across a variety of fields, including anthropology, sociology, cultural studies, and education.
Denne bog udkommer 20 år efter, at professor David Hargreaves holdt sin forelæsning 'Undervisning som en forskningsbaseret profession: Muligheder og fremtidsudsigter' ved det årlige Teacher Training Agency-møde, hvor han via en sammenligning med medicinens verden kritiserede uddannelsesforskningen for ikke at levere en tilfredsstillende og brugbar videns- og evidensbase for lærerprofessionen. Det satte gang i en debat med blandt andre professor Martyn Hammersley om, hvilke konsekvenser brugen af forskningsmæssig evidens får for lærerens professionelle dømmekraft. Hovedspørgsmålet var, om brug af denne evidens suspenderer lærerens dømmekraft, eller om den 'blot' forandrer og styrker lærerens autonomi til at udøve professionel dømmekraft.
This book offers a well-informed and timely appraisal of the rationale for ethnomethodology and conversation analysis. It examines some of the influences that have shaped work of this kind, and its relationship to mainstream social science. -- .
This book engages with key intellectual challenges facing social science today, at a time when it is under considerable pressure to demonstrate its value. It addresses questions that carry implications for research practice, quantitative or qualitative, by making use of contemporary examples, such as the London riots.
Structured as a series of probing questions, and covering a range of methods, this book reflects on the challenge posed by the idea that social research should serve evidence-based practice.
Explores the field of research ethics and presents a distinctive perspective; one that is at odds with the assumptions underpinning ethical regulation, but also with the views of many qualitative researchers today.
In this confrontational text Martyn Hammersley looks at the key issues in current social research methodology, it is a must-read for those interested in the state of this field.
Provocative essays on current developments and debates that are essential reading for anyone interested in the future of qualitative research.
Educational Research maps the demands now being made on educational research against the background complexities of the relationship between research and practice.
Recent years have seen a growing range of challenges to the idea that research should be governed by the principle of value neutrality. In this stimulating and often controversial book, Martyn Hammersley weighs the arguments offered in support of these positions.
While the term 'culture' has come to be very widely used in both popular and academic discourse, it has a variety of meanings, and the differences among these have not been given sufficient attention. This book explores these meanings, and identifies some of the problems associated with them, as well as examining the role that values should play in cultural analysis. The development of four, very different, conceptions of culture is traced from the nineteenth century onwards: a notion of aesthetic cultivation associated with Matthew Arnold; the evolutionary view of culture characteristic of nineteenth-century anthropology; the idea of diverse cultures characteristic of twentieth and twenty-first century anthropology; and a conception of culture as a process of situated meaning-making - found today across anthropology, sociology, and cultural studies. These conceptions of culture are interrogated, and a reformulation of the concept is sketched.This book will be of interest to students and scholars across a variety of fields, including anthropology, sociology, cultural studies, and education.
`This valuable book addresses an important current issues for education research in developed countries - the relationship between research on the one hand and policy-making and education practice on the other' - Stephen Gorard, Cardiff University, British Journal of Education Studies`Martyn Hammersley has produced a remarkably complete analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of educational research. I believe the analysis to be fair to all parties' - Lewis Elton, British Journal of Educational TechnologyEducational research and its relationship with policy making and practice has been a perennial concern. This book deals with some basic and controversial questions about that issue, including: - Can there be harmony in the relationship between researchers and educational policymakers or practitioners? - Do increases in knowledge always lead to practical improvement, and never to undesirable consequences? - Would educational research flourish if it were subjected to more central, and external, control? - What is the role of research reviews in making the results of research publicly available?Educational Research maps the demands now being made on educational research against the background complexities of the relationship between research and practice. This book is for students on methodology courses, taught courses and research degrees in education, social science disciplines, social policy and health studies both at masters and doctoral level.
Martyn Hammersley describes the history of the dispute betwen qualitative and quantitative methods in social research and the relevance of the argument today. He also provides a clear discussion of Blumer's notion of science.
Originally published 1992 What's Wrong With Ethnography? provides a fresh look at the rationale for and distinctiveness of ethnographic research in sociology, education and related fields. Relativism, critical theory, the uniqueness of the case study and the distinction between qualitative and quantitative research are all examined and found wanting as a basis for informed ethnography. The policy and political implications of ethnography are a particular focus of attention. The author compels the reader to re-examine some basic methodological assumptions in an exciting way.
Originally published in 1989, The Dilemma of Qualitative Method is a stimulating guide to the discussion of qualitative versus quantitative approaches to social research, originated in nineteenth-century debates about the relationship between the methods of history and natural science. One of the key theorists in this area was Chicago sociologist Herbert Blumer. The book analyses the historical context of the dispute and provides a detailed account and systematic analysis Blumer's methodological writings including his doctoral thesis. The strategies for qualitative research advocated by Blumer within the Chicago tradition are reviewed and assessed.
Provides a practical guide to the critical reading of ethnographic studies: discussing in detail how to identify the main arguments and what is involved in making an assessment of such studies.
The literature on social science methods and the issues surrounding them has grown massively and continues to increase. Yet many social scientists are ambivalent about methodology. For some, it plays a central, perhaps even an all-encompassing, role; while, for others, it is desirable only in small amounts, or indeed is regarded as an irrelevance, as a distraction from actually doing research.In this book, Hammersley argues that, in large part, this reflects and is part of a wider problem: the gradual decline of a previously influential academic model of inquiry. This has occurred as a result of ideological challenges and the erosion of the institutional conditions that support academic work. He defends this model, spelling out the demands it places upon social scientists, and examining such issues as the proper role of methodology, the nature of objectivity, the false idea that social scientists should be intellectuals or social critics, the dialectic of academic discussion, the ethics of belief, and the limits of academic freedom. More broadly, he also questions the role of the social research within society and what it means to be a social scientist in the 21st century. Hammersley's book is engagingly written and controversial. It tackles the major issues of contemporary social research methodology head on and is an essential read for anyone with an interest in this field.
First Published in 1990. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
Martyn Hammersley's provocative new text interrogates the complex relationship between research, policymaking and practice, against the background of the evidence-based practice movement. Addressing a series of probing questions, this book reflects on the challenge posed by the idea that social research can directly serve policymaking and practice.Key questions explored include:- Is scientific research evidence-based?- What counts as evidence for evidence-based practice?- Is social measurement possible, and is it necessary?- What are the criteria by which qualitative research should be judged?The book also discusses the case for action research, the nature of systematic reviews, proposals for interpretive reviews, and the process of qualitative synthesis.Highly readable and undeniably relevant, this book is a valuable resource for both academics and professionals involved with research.
All social researchers need to think about ethical issues. Their salience has recently been increased by the pressures of ethical regulation, particularly in the case of qualitative research. But what are ethical issues? And how should they be approached? These are not matters about which there is agreement. Ethics in Qualitative Research explores conflicting philosophical assumptions, the diverse social contexts in which ethical problems arise, and the complexities of handling them in practice. The authors argue that the starting point for any discussion of research ethics must be the values intrinsic to research, above all the commitment to knowledge-production. However, the pursuit of inquiry is rightly constrained by external values, and the book focuses on three of these: minimising harm, respecting autonomy, and protecting privacy. These external values are shown to be far from unequivocal in character, often in conflict with one another (or with the commitments of research), and always subject to situational interpretation and practical judgment. Nevertheless, it is contended that in the present challenging times it is essential that qualitative researchers uphold research values.Martyn Hammersley is Professor of Educational and Social Research at The Open University.Anna Traianou is Senior Lecturer in the Department of Educational Studies, Goldsmiths, University of London.
Is qualitative research in crisis? In Questioning Qualitative Inquiry Martyn Hammersley raises fundamental questions about the current state of qualitative social research. He examines some of the changes that have taken place within it over the past fifty years, suggesting that the move away from natural science as a model, and towards an appeal to literature and art, involves rejection of key principles that are essential to research of any kind.Hammersley argues that, in important respects, qualitative inquiry has not lived up to the claims originally made on its behalf, and that more recent developments have worsened the situation. Insufficient attention has been given to the problems surrounding leading ideas like thick description, analytic induction, and constructionism. The argument is pursued through discussion of the work of influential writers - such as Clifford, Geertz, Denzin and Lincoln - and by detailed examination of concrete issues, like the value of interview data, the rationales for discourse and conversation analysis, the role of rhetoric in research reports, and the nature of assessment criteria. At a time when qualitative inquiry is coming under renewed challenge in some quarters, the task of addressing the methodological problems it faces has become urgent. These essays on current developments and debates are essential reading for anyone interested in the future of qualitative research.
This stimulating and refreshing study, written by one of the leading commentators in the field, provides novel answers to these crucial questions. "e;What's Wrong With Ethnography provides a fresh look at the rationale for and distinctiveness of ethnographic research in sociology, education and related fields, and succeeds in slaying a number of currently fashionable sacred cows. Relativism, critical theory, the uniqueness of the case study and the distinction between qualitative and quantitative research are all examined and found wanting as a basis for informed ethnography. The policy and political implications of ethnography are a particular focus of attention. The author compels the reader to reexamine some basic methodological assumptions in an exciting way"e;, Martin Bulmer, London School of Economics.
What forms of knowledge can social science claim to produce? Does it employ causal analysis, and if so what does this entail? What role should values play in the work of social scientists? These are the questions addressed in this book. They are closely interrelated, and the answers offered here challenge many currently prevailing assumptions. They carry implications both for research practice, quantitative or qualitative, and for the public claims that social scientists make about the value of their work.The arguments underpinning this challenge to conventional wisdom are laid out in detail in the first half of the book. In later chapters their implications are explored for two substantive areas of intrinsic importance: the study of social mobility and educational inequalities; and explanations for urban riots, notably those that took place in London and other English cities in the summer of 2011.
In the past it was generally taken for granted that the goal of social research was the production of objective knowledge; and that this required a commitment to value neutrality. In more recent times, however, both these ideals have come to be challenged, and it is often argued that all research is inevitably political in its assumptions and effects.In this major contribution to the debate, Martyn Hammersley assesses the arguments from the classic and still influential contributions of C. Wright Mills, Howard Becker and Alvin Gouldner to the present day. He concludes that the case for partisanship is not convincing, and that an intelligent and sceptical commitment to the principles of objectivity and value neutrality must remain an essential feature of research.
The main way in which research findings can be disseminated to a wide audience is via the mass media. However, there are frequent complaints that media coverage of social and educational research is very limited and often highly distorted. Exploring this issue in depth, this key book analyzes British media reports of a research review dealing with ethnic inequalities in educational achievement. Written by a well-respected scholar and covering many areas - including education, media studies, cultural studies, sociology and social policy - this book will undoubtedly be of great interest to a broad cross section of readers.
Now in its third edition this leading introduction to ethnography has been thoroughly updated and substantially rewritten. It offers a systematic introduction to ethnographic principles and practice. New material covers the use of visual and virtual research methods, hypermedia software and the issue of ethical regulation. There is also a new prologue and epilogue. The authors argue that ethnography is best understood as a reflexive process. What this means is that we must recognise that social research is part of the world that it studies. From an outline of the principle of reflexivity the authors go on to discuss and exemplify main features of ethnographic work, including: the selection and sampling of cases the problems of access observation and interviewing recording and filing data the process of data analysis and writing research reports. Throughout, the discussion draws on a wide range of illustrative material from classic and more recent studies within a global context. The new edition of this popular textbook will be an indispensable resource for students and researchers utilizing social research methods in the social sciences and cultural studies.
The issue of educational opportunity has long been of public concern and a major focus for eduational research. As a result, there is now a substantial body of research findings in this field, both quantitative and qualitative.; This work relates to various levels of the educational system and to different categories of student, but particularly social class, gender, ethnicity and race. The central trend has been to find persisting inequalities despite reform at system, institutional and classroom levels. Furthermore, the educational system is frequently portrayed as playing a key role in reproducing wider social and economic inequalities.; This book examines the status of educational inequality as a social problem, explores the conceptual issues surrounding it, assesses a representative sample of recent research, and seeks to clarify the relevant methodological ground rules, thereby laying the basis for future research in the field.
There is a tendency in much educational thinking to view pupils in passive terms, as the material on which schools operate. This damaging view is challenged here. Significant recent research shows the effects of changing educational conditions on the experience of teaching and learning in schools. By redressing the balance and acknowledging the affective side of pupils and their learning, this book shows that improved understanding leads to improved teaching. Contributions from Stephen Ball, Martyn Descombe, Ann Filer, Andy Hargreaves, Bob Jeffrey, Geoff Troman, Andrew Pollard and Peter Woods.