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INTRODUCTION Swami Vivekananda, the patriot saint of Modern India, was born at Calcutta on January 12, 1863. His father Vishwanath Dutta was an attorney of Calcutta High Court. His father was considered generous, and had a liberal and progressive outlook in social and religious matters. His mother Bhuvaneshwari Devi was pious and prayed to VireswarSiva of Varanasi to give her a son. There after a son was born to her, who was named Narendranth Dutta. Narendranath Dutta inherited his intellect from his father and tender loving nature from his mother.^ Narendranath Dutta is considered a key figure in the introduction of Hindu philosophies of Vedanta in Europe and America.^ He is also credited with raising interfaith awareness, bringing Hinduism to the status of a world religion during the end of the 19th century.^ Vivekananda is considered to be a major force in the revival of Hinduism in modern India.'* He is perhaps the best known for his inspiring speech beginning with "Sisters and Brothers,
Figure no. 1: Map of MeghalayaThe state of Meghalaya is situated in the north-east of India. It extends for about 300kilometres in length and about 100 kilometres in breadth. It is bounded on the northby Goalpara, Kamrup and Nowgong districts, on the east by Karbi Anglong andNorth Cachar Hills districts, all of Assam, and on the south and west by Bangladesh.1.1: (a) People & Culture of MeghalayaMeghalaya is the homeland mainly of the Khasis, the Jaintias and the Garos. TheGaros inhabit western Meghalaya, the Khasis in central Meghalaya, and the Jaintiasin eastern Meghalaya. The Khasi, Jaintia, Bhoi, War, collectively known as theHynñiewtrep people, predominantly inhabit the districts towards the eastern part ofMeghalaya and are also known to be one of the earliest ethnic group of settlers in theIndian sub-continent, belonging to the Proto Austroloid Mon-Khmer race. The Garo
Chapter 1: Terminal alkyne: a versatile synthon for the synthesis of bioactive molecules1.1 Introduction1.1.1 History of alkynesAlkynes are one of the fundamental functional groups that established the foundation of organic chemistry.' The smallest member of this famil y, acetyle ne, was first discovered in 1836 by Edmund Davy.2 In 1862 , Friedrich Wohler discovered thegeneration of acetylene from the hydrolysis of calcium carbide (Scheme 1).CaC2 + H2O - H - H + Ca(OH)2Scheme 1.Acetylene produced by this reaction was the main source of organic chemicals in the coal-based chemical industries. When petroleum was replaced by coal as the chief source of carbon in the 1950s , the partial combustion of methane became the prevale nt industrial manufacture processes for acetylene (Scheme 2).2CH4 + (3/2)02 ----- H _ H + 3H2OScheme 2.According to Ferdinand Bohlm ann, the first naturally occurring acetylenic compound, dehydromatricaria ester 1 was isolated from an Artemisia species in 1826. 3 Over a thousand naturally occurring acetylenes have been discovered and reported in 19 th and 20th centuries. 4 Polyynes, a subset of this class of natural products , have been isolatedfrom a wide variety of plant species, 4 cultures of higher fung i,5 bacteria , marinesponges, and cora ls .6 In addition , dihydromatricaria acid 2 is the unique example of a polyyne obtained from an insect, the soldier beetle.7 At present over I 000 compounds with two or more conjugated C=C bonds have been isol ated. 8 These compounds represent a distinctive class of compounds with a significant array of biological act ivities , such as antibacterial, antimicrob ia l, antifungal, antitumor , anticancer , anti HIV and pesticidal properties .92Figure 1. Naturally occurring acetylenic compounds,
Preliminary Remarks: (a) A Concept is a generalization or abstraction which stands for some integrated knowledge as the mental sturucture in philosophy or in other cognitive decipline. (b) However, the term Science stands for a study of the physical world through systematic experimentation and observation such as the study of material bodies and their motion. (c) A systematic knowledge discovering general truth or operating laws as obtained through scientific methods also considered in the domain of science such as psychology. (d)Concept of science deals with the understanding or explanation, interpretation and conceptualization about science by the contemporary Muslim thinkers. (e) Nevertheless, we have to make a distinction between science and meta-science. Science is a broad area of study of natural entities, mostly done in controlled environment known as laboratories. The scholars carry such activities in labs through well designed, methods are known a scintists and their findings are recognised as Science. However those who are not doing anything in labs but they are discussing and deliberating issues and problem about science are involved in Meta-science. Therfore, the Concept of Science, of Contemporary Muslim Thinkers is nothing but a meta-scintific account of it. (f) The term thought in the title of the dissertation stands for a product or conclusion of thinking. Thinking is purely a mental activity that includes deductive and inductive reasoning, comprehension of a text, computation or recognition of a pattern, imagination and recalling,
Yoga is a complete science of life that originated in India many thousands of years ago. It is the oldest system of personal development in the world encompassing the entire body, mind and spirit. Traditionally Yoga is the union between a person's own consciousness and the universal consciousness. Yoga is defined as a science of mental control which helps not only one to control one's mental state, but also to improve one's personality and behaviour, if practiced regularly from childhood (Udupa, 1985). Taking into account the importance of Yoga in all walks of life, it has been extensively worked on. Yoga has been seen to have an effect on stress reduction at the managerial levels of employment (Heilbronn, 1992), and has been reportedly of wide spread use in the general clinical (Lepicovska, Dostaiek & Kovarova, 1988), as well as the psychiatric set up (Shannahoff, David & Beckett, 1996; Pasek, 1982). These studies have not only been extensively reported from the eastern part of the world but also from Europe and the United States, thereby providing evidence of the fact that Yoga has become more of a way of life, a harbinger of wellness and a path towards well-being in general. The physical benefits of Yoga were found to have been immense. Pranayama was shown to have an effect on muscular endurance, vital capacity and cardiovascular endurance (Sakthignanavel, 1998). Yoga training was reported to have brought about positive psychoneuro, physiological and biochemical alterations (Ganguly, Bera & Gharote, 2002),
Introduction By nature all human beings are to wonder and curious about their own existence, ultimate destiny and sense of their lives and also capable of find out the reality of inevitable suffering and death. Human beings are the only creatures who do not accept their condition and have realized the ultimate truth of life that is death. Moreover, in the experience of suffering they recognize their own limitations and wonder about what has caused it. As a result, the question of the existence about God is raised. It is to be stated that all sentient beings have to face the disaster of death. We are born means one day we have to die. Neither human beings nor non- human beings can deny this ultimate truth of life. But, human beings try to understand the mystery of death and always try to search their limitations of not getting the answer. The inevitable experiences of suffering and evil encouraged people to find out the reasonable explanation and philosophers, theologians and thinkers have tried to solve and understand the problem of human suffering. They have tried to find out the answer of the questions, such as, 'why do people need to suffer?'. Or, 'what is the ultimate cause of human suffering?'. The problem of suffering is one of the most difficult and complex human problems. There is no one who would not have been troubled by the question of suffering at some point of his or her life. If we look at the problem of suffering then we will find that suffering becomes more problematic from the believers perspective. Peter Kreeft says that suffering not in itself is a problem but it appears as a problem when God comes into play. However, the truth is that the problem of suffering pertains both to the believer,
INTRODUCTION The life and works of Mohondas Karamchand Gandhi, popularly known as Bapuji, the father of Indian nation, have been extensively discussed by many scholars. However, there are still many unexplored virgin areas that require further study. Gandhi's thought on religion is one such area. Religion is of primary importance in understanding Gandhi's life. Religious thought inspired him to work for the swaraj of the whole nation and dedicate his own life for the humanity. Understanding his conception of religion is necessary for understanding his philosophy of life and action. He interpreted the secular sphere of life in moral and religious terminologies. His approach is experimental, critical and rational. He intended to renew the moral and spiritual culture of Indian civilization and bring a gradual and subtle transformation in human life by emphasizing the ethico-religious principles of truth and non-violence. He was an inspiring spiritual leader with a strong religious bent of mind. Although in his writings he stated that he was neither constructing any new system of philosophy of life nor a new religion, and that he was neither teaching any new creed nor propounding any new sect, we find a common underlying thread running through all of them,
INTRODUCTION1.1 IntroductionRise of Indigenous psychology was the response to the customary and conventional description of Psychology. Superannuated psychology made an attempt to seek out the reflection of individual's cultural, societal and political characteristics across the world. People's feedback to conventional psychology was very incompetent as they believed that it was not that proficient to solve their societal complexities confronted at their personal level. It was one of the maJor concerns for the emergence of indigenous psychology. (Allwood & Berry, 2006)Western psychology mainly laidemphasis on the 'self' and on 'individual'.In order to have better understanding about the background of human beings, differences in their traits depending on their respective cultures gave rise to the indigenous psychology. Many researchers have attempted to describe the concept of 'indigenous psychology'. There have been numbers of definitions on indigenous psychology. Indigenouspsychology is defined as "the scientific study of human behavior or mind that is native, that is not transported from other regions, and that is designed for its people". (Kim, Indigneous, Cultural and Cross-Cultural Psychology: A theoretical, conceptual and epistemological analysis, 2000)Another researchers of Chinese Psychology movement, reviewed the variety of definitions of indigenous psychology and concluded that "no matter how these psychologists define indigenous psychology, the definitions all express the same basic goal of developing scientific knowledge system that effectively reflects, describes, explains, or understands the psychological and behavioral activities in their native contexts in terms of culturally relevant frame of reference and culturally derived categories and theories". (Kim, Yang, & Hwang K.K, 2006)Indigenous psychology can be explained in three distinctive aspects, first aspect is, all the cognitive processes like&nb
Ramakrishna's main teachings included God realization as the supreme goal of life, renunciation of Kama-Kanchana, Harmony of Religions and Jiva is Shiva. Key concepts in Ramakrishna's teachings included the oneness of existence and the unity and truth of all religions,
INTRODUCTION "Self Actualization is the intrinsic growth of what is already in the organism, or more accurately, of what the organism is." Maslow (1987) Human life will never be understood unless its highest aspirations are taken into account. Growth, Self Actualization, the striving towards health, the quest for identity and autonomy, challenging the limits of intellectual potential and the yearning for excellence are a universal human tendency. The more we learn about man's natural tendencies, the easier it will be to tell him how to be good, how to be happy, how to be fruitful, how to love and how to fulfil his highest potentialities. Within human nature, one can discern a hierarchy of levels, each with a characteristic set of values, needs and modes of expression. For any person, the greatest satisfaction can be attained through realisation of the qualities of the highest level and the potentialities associated with this highest level are the ones most essentially and distinctively human. The high level functioning person, evokes admiration and aesthetic sensitivity and in classical Husserlian terms this epoche is perceived as "beautiful." On the behavioural front the actions performed by such a person are characteristic of their ethical height and the value of such actions is judged to be of great consequence to be termed as beautiful and noble according to Ted and Moshe (1991). The beautiful and noble person (BNP) perceives reality accurately, is characterised by a passionate love of self, fellow people and the world, and is devoid of bizarre behaviour. The ultimate goal of realising one's potential and leading a life filled with a profound sense of commitment contains a balanced view of the self and understanding one's self is probably the greatest intellectual challenge for human beings. This theme of realising the potentialities of the highest level, runs through writings of James (1907), Jung (1948), Goldstein (1934), Maslow (1943) and Rogers (1959). This issue was the central theme of Aristotle's Ethica Nicomachea (Aristotle, 1925) also, who acknowledged "reason" to be at the highest level, but he used reason in a very broad sense, distinguishing contemplative and calculative processes and various forms of cultural expression to qualify it,
Dr. Ambedkar's actual experience and formation of his concept of Dharma Bhimrao Ramji was born on 14th April 1891 in a family of Mahar community in Maharastra. His mother was Bhimabai and his father was Ramji Shakpal. The original residence of the Ramji family was in the village of Amabavade in Kher Taluk, Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra. 5 Their family's name was Shakpal. But according to the rules of Maharastra, Bhimrao Ramji used to write the name of the village along with his name, Ambavadekar; studied at T Swan High School in Mombai in 1900 from onward.6 He was introduced to an exceptional teacher who used to eat food with Bhimrao, though he was a Brahmin himself. This Brahmin teacher's surname was Ambedkar.7 His full name was Krishna Keshav Ambedkar. One day he ordered Bhima to use Ambedkar as his title everywhere.8 Since then, this great man has been named Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar. Later on he became renowned for this name. Ambedkar faced the curse of untouchability at a very young age. He also realized that many foreign missions in India and many foreign regimes caused huge damage to India and Indians. But India's social life has caused the maximum harm in terms of untouchability. The distorted from of traditional Hindu Dharma concentrated in inequalities of caste discrimination. Inhuman discrimination to the ethnic group of this race creates a deep wound in Dr. Ambedkar's mind. He realized that by making proper explanation of Dharma, it is possible to make the greatest improvement in social life in India. In this chapter "Ambedkar's Actual Experience and Formation of His Concept of Dharma" is highlighted to show Dr. Ambedkar's experience of Dharma and his approaches to reconstruction of Dharma. This chapter has five sub-topics. These are: 1) Vedic period and Varna vyavastha, 2) Manusamhita and Varna vyavastha, 3) Dr. Abmedkar's period and Varna vyavastha, 4) Revival of Hindu Dharma, and 5) New approach of Dharma. 1. Vedic period and Varna vyavastha: The Vedas are the largest and oldest literature of ancient world. The Vedas are recorded by mantras, hymns or chants. To those who uttered all these hymns are called Rishis. The deities were worshiped with mantras. The,
Introduction ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --- Equality and justice are two important concepts which are essential elements of socio- political and moral philosophy. Metaphorically speaking, these two concepts seem to operate like two sides of the same coin in a human society. For, an ideal society cannot be conceived without the concepts of equality and justice. Health and progress of a good society presuppose equality and justice in social, economic, political and religious domains of human life. In the present thesis titled "A Socio-philosophical Study on Equality and Justice as in the Thoughts of M.K. Gandhi and B.R. Ambedkar" an attempt has been made to understand equality and justice of Gandhi and Ambedkar. The importance of equality and justice to usher in harmonious and progressive social order is immense in the present human society. Here I have made an attempt to elucidate different senses in which equality and justice have been used in the social, religious, political and economic spheres of human life. In the second chapter of my thesis entitled "Concepts of Equality and Justice" I have dwelled upon concepts of equality and justice. This chapter has elaborately discussed the concepts of equality and justice following different philosophers. It is needless to state that the concepts of 'equality' and 'justice' lack a precise explanation. In fact, these two concepts are very closely connected. Justice cannot fully be explained,
Introduction This thesis falls in the area of social and political philosophy which has become one of the frontal areas of philosophical research, thanks to its organic relation with not only ethics but also metaphysics (that is social and human ontology) and epistemology. This is not surprising because the recent developments in sociopolitical philosophy have reopened the various issues concerning the social world, human nature including its relation to the natural word, the nature of knowledge, belief and ideology and of course our responses to the issues right/wrong distinction. One of the central themes of contemporary social and political philosophy is modernity. As Charles Taylor rightly says, 'from the beginning, the number one problem of modern social science has been modernity itself." (2004:1) However, he could have added humanities in this connection. Whether it is in the literary studies or historical studies or in philosophical studies modernity has emerged as a core theme. The very fact that the theme has commanded such a multifarious approaches speaks immensely of its intellectual richness. In fact, it is one of the prime themes of what today goes by multidisciplinary or transdisciplinary inquiry. The thematic significance mentioned above owes itself to the following reasons: firstly, modernity is primarily adoption not of certain gargets or technological innovations but of certain attitudes, beliefs, and commitments which together constitute what Charles Taylor calls a 'social imaginary' which is radically distinct from its pre-modern counterpart, and which makes intelligible our present day institutional practices and ways of living. Secondly, modernity has brought about a fundamental division between its protagonists and antagonists, not only at a global level and at the level of distinct social settings but also at the level of individual,
INTRODUCTION Adolescents are the future citizens of any country and it is imperative to systematically address their needs (Manpower Profile, 1996). According to World Health Report (2001) Adolescence is marked by immense turmoil in emotional and behavioural spheres. WHO defines adolescence as the period of life between the ages of 10-to 19 years. The adolescent struggles to develop his individuality while still conforming to societal norms. Rapid urbanization and modernization have exposed them to changes in society. The resultant breakdown in family structure, excessive or minimal control confuses the adolescent and makes him/her especially vulnerable to maladaptive patterns of thinking and behavior. Healthy adulthood depends upon successful resolution of these emotional and behavioural problems. Treading on this tightrope, most adolescents go through to adulthood normally. All adolescents may not be so fortunate, to get the ideal societal support for this smooth transition. Some develop maladaptive patterns in emotional and behavioral profiles. This augers ill for the individual's future resulting in depression, delinquency and suicides besides other problems. The Indian Constitution (1950) asserted that all boys and girls up to the age of fourteen must be in schools. Adolescence can be categorized into,
INTRODUCTION AND REVIEW Domestic violence in this study entails physical, emotional, sexual, and financial abuse suffered by women as young daughters-in-law inflicted by both their husbands and in-laws. In societies governed by patriarchal structures, where men as a group dominate women as a group, such violence is not limited to a husband abusing his wife, but it is a manifestation of the complex interplay between both gender and generational hierarchies. The multitudinal forms of domestic violence and its effect on the victim have been the subject matter of variegated theoretical discourses. A detailed understanding of various components of domestic violence and the impact of a collectivist and an agrarian society such as Punjab, on the nuances of domestic violence is the subject matter of the introduction and review of this research. Domestic violence in the form of coercive controlling violence (Kelly & Johnson, 2008) can have severe emotional and physical consequences for the women who have been the victims. In some cases it may lead to the development of Battered Women Syndrome. Studies have also suggested cyclicity in the nature of violence. Coercive control to which women are subjected to, the cyclic nature of violence, its consequences, and the lack of recourses available to them further entraps the women in abusive relationships. The inter-relationship among these factors also determines the choice of strategies employed by the women to cope with the situation. Choice of coping strategies in turn influences the battered women's mental health and wellbeing. 1.1. Violence against women Domestic violence in gendered societies stems from the general subjugation of women as a group. It is committed to target that particular group in order to suppress them, and the problem has become endemic affecting half of the human race in some form or the other. Beating, coerced sex, and other physical or psychological abuse can be some of the forms of violence. At least every third woman in the world has been subjected to such abuse by people known to them (UNIFEM, 2006). Violence against,
Introduction & Review of Literature Introduction Social encounters of human beings occur within organized frameworks that comprise interlocking relationships embedded in interlocking social networks. Relationships defined as aggregations of interactions that endure overtime and that form the basis for reciprocal interpersonal expectations (Hinde, 1997), are thus basic social contexts. Competence in communication, impulse regulation, getting along with others and knowledge about the world, emerge mostly from early relationships and are refined continuously with them. Relationships are resources that buffer one from stress and are instruments for both cooperative and competitive problem solving. Well-functioning relationships have a bearing on mental and physical health and well-being (Reis & Collins, 2004). One type of such relationship is the relationship with peers. Peer relationship refers to a relationship which involves mutual knowledge, esteem, and affection (Piaget, 1965). At times the terms peers and friends are used synonymously. However both are not the same. ¿Peers' refers to a broader category of an individual's age mates, in school or at home. ¿Friends' are one type of category of peers. The major difference between the two is that intimacy is a part of the relationship between friends but not that of peers. Peers have a more casual relationship with each other as compared to friends who are confidants to each other and share their in-depth emotions and feelings. Friendship is only one type amongst the many types of peer relationships that exist. Whether one refers to interaction between toddlers or interaction between teenagers, the weight of the research evidence suggests that peers are necessities not luxuries in human development. Contacts with peers, especially with friends serve many significant functions in children's lives and development (Asher & Parker, 1989; Furman & Robbins, 1985; Hartup & Sancillio, 1986). Peer relationships are of significance even to the young child (Gottman & Parkhurst, 1980; Howes, 1988), and they assume increasing Dimensions of Peer Relationship Among Adolescents 2 importance as children grow older (Ellis, Rogoff, & Cromer, 1981). As children move into preschool years, they spend more time in the company of other children. Research indicates that play with peers provides children with important opportunities to discuss feelings, expand thought processes and knowledge, and experiment with language and social roles. Children learn social skills in the peer group-sharing, helping, taking turns and dealing with conflict. They learn how to lead and how to follow. Physical and cognitive skills develop through peer interactions. Peers also provide emotional support (Dishion & Stormshack, 2007; Grusec, 2006). The degree of cooperation, communication and interaction that young children are capable of with peers also increases dramatically across early childhood as communication skills, cognitive development and emotional control improve. Peers are important sources of companionship and recreation, share advice and valued possessions, serve as trusted confidants and critics, act as loyal allies, and provide stability in terms of stress or transition. Peer relationships and friendships have a special place in the lives of adolescents (Jin, Tepper, & Russell, 2009). Adolescence is marked by a need to establish ones separate identity (Blos, 1967). A certain degree of distancing from parents is thought to occur as adolescents become preoccupied with concerns about autonomy and self-governance (Hill & Holmbeck, 1986; Steinberg, 1988). Research indicates that adolescents interact with peers more frequently and longer than when they were younger, both within school and out of school. Adolescents come to desire or need intimate confidants with whom they can share and explore their opinion about others and concerns,
Introduction The world is known today as a global village. Today's knowledge becomes old on the next day. Lord Shri Krishna has said in the Gita, "Change is a universal law" The above statement has become true in every field of life. Today, Change touches each and every field of life. A teacher helps students conform to changes. Two major poles of education process are teacher and students. Here, the influence of a teacher is more profound on students. You cannot build anything without a solid foundation. The "A" is for Attitude - the foundation sustaining all successful people. Attitude is the "advance man" of our true selves. The roots spread inward and are anchored in past experiences, and the fruit branch outward exposed for all to see. Attitude is both our best friend and our worst enemy. It is more honest and more consistent than our words. Attitude is one of the most important factors in helping us get through the highs and lows of life. Attitudes are rooted in one's own beliefs and are unique across most individuals. Attitude towards self is the most dominating one especially during adolescence, as pupils become more conscious about themselves. They are sensitive to reaction of others towards them. The good and appreciating reactions from others help to shape their concept of self, which in turn results in positive self-image or vice versa. The concept of attitudes has since long been one of the most generally applied concepts by psychologists and sociologists (Allport, 1935; Ajzen, 20012 ). Allport (1935) defined an attitude as a "Mental and neural state of readiness, organized through experience, exerting a directive or dynamic influence upon the individual's response to all objects and situations with which it is related."1 He looked upon attitude primarily as a set to respond in a particular way. In psychology, an attitude refers to a set of emotions, beliefs, and behaviours toward a particular object, person, thing, or event. Attitudes are often the result of experience or upbringing, and they can have a powerful influence over behaviour. An Attitude is an enduring system that includes a cognitive component, a feeling component and an action tendency. Attitudes involve an emotional component. An Attitude is an enduring system that includes a cognitive component, a feeling component and an action tendency. Attitudes involve an emotional component. That is why once an attitude is formed it becomes resistant to change; it does not generally respond to new facts. An attitude involves beliefs as well as evaluations. These attitudes involve some knowledge about the other groups (the cognitive component), some feelings of dislike,
INTRODUCTION Creativity is a key component in the advancement of present civilization, stability and prosperity of the nations. It helps in adapting to new situations and to find novel ways for dealing with social and technological changes occurring in the modern society. This happens because individual with creative thinking skills use the information constructively to understand the complexities of the fast-paced world (Todd & Shinzato, 1999). It also safeguards oneself from stress during the years of socialemotional growth (Sautter, 1994; Honig, 2000). These capabilities are valuable in breaking down and restructuring of knowledge to gain new insights (Wertheimer, 1945; 1959) in all spheres of life. Thus, creativity is a hallmark for adolescents to become more capable to deal with the complex situations in their critical phase of development. In this regard, researchers (Nurmi & Pulliainen, 1991; Fryer, 1996) advocated that facilitation of creative potential in adolescents helps them to achieve their career achievements which they have envisioned and helps them in keeping up with accelerating social and technological developments. Since past seven decades, creativity has been the province of psychological studies. In 1950, Guilford inspired the study of creativity in his presidential address to American Psychological Association (APA). He emphasized the need to study the very important aspect of human cognition i.e. creativity which was a neglected field in psychological researches at that time. This challenge motivated various researches including Barron and Torrance to study creativity. Guilford (1950) and Torrance (1963), both psychometricians believed that divergent thinking was the basis for creativity. Guilford (1955) described that at least eight primary abilities underlay the entire creative process i.e. from problem finding to evaluation resulting in novel and unique outcomes. These abilities are: sensitivity to problems (ability possibly related to curiosity); fluency (producing a large number of significant ideas); novel ideas (new unusual but appropriate ideas); flexibility (ability to easily change the solutions); synthesizing and analyzing abilities (organizing of ideas into larger and more inclusive manner); complexity (manipulation of interrelated ideas) and evaluation (determining the value of new ideas). For analyzing these primary abilities, he described creativity in his structure of intellect as divergent thinking which consisted of four basic dimensions i.e. fluidity (no. of ideas), flexibility (no. of categories),
worthiness' which a person distinctively entitles to be considered as a human being. The expression of human dignity as a value is used universally to characterize the worthiness of human beings as such. The respect for human dignity is inalienable for human beings and humanity in general. Human beings are considered to have dignity by virtue of being human - a rational, moral and social agent who has ¿autonomy' and ¿agency' as person qua person. As a value, dignity is on a par with other basic values, such as, truth, beauty, good, justice, benevolence, chastity, etc. and, as such, it is important to examine in what respect the concept of dignity is similar to or dissimilar from the other value concepts. I will consider the study of the concept of dignity in comparison with other value concepts. Before I proceed to discuss what the concept of human dignity is and how the concept of human dignity has been developed in the domain of philosophical and socio-political discourse, I shall focus on the concept of dignity itself. The concept of dignity as Aural Kolnai points out is similar in some respects to other value concepts in so far as response is concerned. When we experience something as beautiful, our response to it might be described as delight with a tinge of devotion, while when we experience morally right conduct or good character, the appropriate response is approval, i.e. an appreciation with an aspect of volitive approbation. Likewise, dignity evokes emphatic respect, a reverential mode of response, an upward- looking' type of pro-attitude, bowing gestures as it were. This suggests that there is an obvious overlapping between the different modalities of appreciative response.1 We have already pointed out, dignity is both similar to and dissimilar from other value categories in so far as response is concerned. In response to dignity, there is less emphasis on delight and satisfaction than there is in aesthetic appreciation,
General Introduction Man lives in a combined environment, conducive to his growth and also hostile to his living. These mixed conditions involve him to develop an attitude of own and disown some factors in the world in which he lives. The attitude of owning is developed into his involvement in the activities in the world. This is how an individual tries to interact with the world. If the factors in the environment are contributing to his immediate physical and mental satisfaction, he is prone to develop an effective interaction. There are equipments, which help him in the effective interaction. They are especially his sensory and motor organs and the rational faculty. It is only a matter of intellectual belief that one's rational faculty is the role factor in knowing his world. Intellect or 'reason' generally means the capacity which helps man to man to know things around him and also within him. It is the faculty of thinking and attains knowledge, especially of a higher order. Here higher-order meant to designate that about the empirical region. The sense organs are equipments directed towards the external world. They take in sensation or sense data and furnish them to the rational faculty of the mind. The mind analyses these data and pronounces judgment on them. This is the basic step in acquiring knowledge of rational knowledge. Since the data pertaining to it are necessary in the world, rational knowledge must be necessarily empirical in nature. The necessity for credible knowledge promoted man to make a thorough investigation of the available potentialities in him. The investigation cannot be from outside, as it will inevitably end in rational thought. So a different approach is to be initiated. It cannot be a pre-emptive inquiry barring the reflective domain, for every act of mental investigation cannot but starts from a rational domain. The question of whether the possibility of a knowledge not,
Introduction: Historical Account of the Concept of Social Justice In this chapter, I would like to give a historical account of the concept of justice and trends of philosophy which influenced Rawls in formulating his concept of justice. The word 'justice' has been originated from the Latin word 'Jus', which means 'bond' or 'tie.' Justice is a system in which men are tied in a close relationship. A man living in a society is attached to another man in one way or the other and their mutual relationship is subject to certain rights and duties. When a man while enjoying his rights also fulfils his duties and behaves in an appropriate manner with others; then he is said to be doing justice. There are different dimensions of justice such as legal, political, social and economic dimensions of justice and all the dimensions are not isolated from one another and are rather interlinked. Generally, the legal dimension of justice says that justice and laws have a close relationship with each other. The state makes laws and implements them in order to establish justice in the society. Just laws, equality before law and uniform legal system, impartial and independent judiciary are necessary conditions for ensuring legal justice. The political dimension of justice holds that nobody should be denied of equal political rights. The universal adult franchise, right to contest elections, right to form political parties, right to protest and the existence of a democratic system - are the necessary parts of ensuring political justice. The social justice is to give proper opportunities to every citizen in every sphere of life, to develop his/her personality and to put an end to all types of social inequalities. Equality before law, a just distribution of wealth, a democratic government and the provision of equal,
Fath-e-Islam (The Victory of Islam) is an Urdu treatise penned in 1890 by Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad(as), the Promised Messiah and Mahdi. It outlines the Divinely ordained strategy to combat the aggressive misinformation campaigns orchestrated by the Christian missionaries throughout the Muslim world.
ang-e-Muqaddas (The Holy War) documents the daily debate proceedings held between Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad(as), the Promised Messiah and Mahdi, and Deputy Abdullah Atham, an Indian convert to Christianity. The event's origins date to 1893, when a prominent Christian missionary, Dr. Henry Martyn Clark, penned an open letter challenging the Muslims of Jandiala to a decisive debate-which he named The Holy War-declaring that if Muslims shy away from this contest or suffer a crushing defeat, they would forfeit their right to confront the scholars of Christianity, or to boast of Islam's truth. When the leader of the Muslims petitioned the Promised Messiah(as) to defend Islam, he readily accepted the challenge.
INTRODUCTION "The children of today will make India of tomorrow. The way we bring them up will determine the future of the country". Jawaharlal Nehru (1889) The present century with greater advancement in all walks of life, has undoubtedly provided comforts and facilities but affected the personal and societal well-being from various angles also. Among many amusements, electronic gadgets are the most attractive and fascinating thing for the younger generation. Adolescent is the age where the world is most beautiful, confusing and fascinating period. Some adolescents are cool and calm and few are irritated and confused. This period is a crucial one due to various ¿stress¿ and ¿storm¿. If adolescents are guided properly, they will be able to become a productive citizen of the country. As modern days have become rush, busy, mobile and hectic, people are after the e-gadgets leading to fast communication. At present, one or the other e-gadgets in the family has become necessary to make their life easier. Thus, even lower class and lower middle class people also possessing the e-gadgets. Naturally, the adolescents of each and every family are also getting affected by the e-gadgets used by them. Today¿s adolescents are observed to very commonly using the e-gadgets such as television, mobile, smartphone, i-phone, mp3 player, i-pod, computer, laptops, tablets, notebook and internet services. They are also observed to be very active throughout the day on social media such as Whats App, Face Book, Twitter, Instagram. As the adolescent period is very much after pleasure seeking and exploring, naturally their mind is diverted to play with video games, including the violent video games like Blue whale and Pokemon,
A religious belief in the present scenario across the world seems to be at a gargantuan level. Most of the people believe in a supernatural agent and often report religious or spiritual experiences despite decades of secularization (Pollack, 2008). In India, rarely do we find a community without any folk or traditional beliefs and customs and superstitions. Himachal Pradesh is considered as "Dev Bhumi" where the religious beliefs in their local deities are found at every choke point of life. Be it a traditional ritual observance like deities possession, psychological accounts and expectation of outcomes, it has proved effective for promoting "La Dolce Vita" philosophy of saccharine life (Zinta & Negi, 2016). It seems that attaining hedonism through eudemonism has remained as the cherished goal of humanity since their inception of religion is metaphysical in nature. It incorporates ideological, intellectual, ritual, experiential, and consequential dimension. It connotes specific behavioural, social, doctrinal, and denominational characteristics. The Himalayas with long chains of mountains is rich in religious beliefs, customs, and traditions. Such immutable 'deity belief culture' generally seems to be commenced with classical text like "Puranas, Vedas and Mahabharata". It is still prevalent with great fervor in the current society, especially in Himachal Pradesh where the literate, illiterate, employed and unemployed people of rural and urban areas have cognitive representations of their local deities while beginning their daily activities of any kind (Zinta & Kataik, 2013; Thakur, 2009). Ancient wisdom teaches a man to lead a happy and healthy life. The sacred sectarian institutions, their obligatory creeds, and rituals, by means of mystic experience, have proved effective in ameliorating socio-emotional conflicts. Pui-Lam Law (2005) has stated that the folk beliefs are indeed not restricted to one source of religious ideas but are combinations of ideas on magic. Some of the folk beliefs may be rooted in science; some may not make sense at all. A unique achievement of human cognition is the invention of supernatural elements, which reside inside the individual, and thus exert two-way control on thinking, feeling, and behavior to mould one's affectionate and sensual relationships (Faw, 2006; Jones, 2009). The cognitive science is exploring the dynamics of supernatural elements in the human mind by involving folk psychology and cognitive neuroscience. By cognitive scientists and social psychologists, it has been proved that the generalization of attachment theory of John Bowlby developed on human infants and the Harlow's,
Overview of IQ / EQ There had been lot of research work done in the last few decades, on identifying the factors contributing to academic performance among students in learning institutions. They have almost arrived at a consensus on a variety factors like the students' IQ, socio economic status, motivation, peer-relationship, teacher-student relationship, parental involvement and personality. They have averred that the Intelligent Quotient is predominantly intertwined with every other factor. However, many recent and emerging studies reveal that IQ alone cannot be a reliable predictor of students' academic achievement. The few limitations of IQ are listed below: 1) IQ is the sum total of knowledge, skills and information learnt by the individual in a given environments, 2) One cannot scientifically judge or foretell the outcome in later life of the individual (say in job performance) based on the present IQ, 3) IQ is less effective when population, situations or tasks change, (Goleman, 1983) and 4) IQ tests measure only a restricted aspect of human intellectual ability (Robert Sternberg and Howard Gardner, (1983). Howard Gardner, (1983) coined the term ¿Multiple Intelligence' in 1983, when he postulated that interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence are as important as the type of intelligence typically measured by IQ and related tests. Emotional Intelligence (EI) is defined as the ability to identify, assess, and control one's own emotions, the emotions of others, and that of groups. One of the most popular and most cited sources is Daniel Goleman's infamous book Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ. In his book Goleman (1995) claims that only 20% of a person's success can be attributed to IQ. Salovey and Mayer (1990) have defined Emotional intelligence as the ¿process of one's assessment of his own and others' emotions accurately, to express feelings appropriately and process of emotional information including the regulation of emotion to make the life better. Goleman (1995) has defined the emotional intelligence as recognizing and managing feelings, self-action, the ability of understanding the others' feelings and to,
INTRODUCTION Sexual risk behavior is identified as the leading cause of illness and mortality among adolescents (CDC, 2011b). The variables that have been used to define sexual risk behavior include, condom use (Shapiro, Radecki, Charchian, and Josephson, 1999; Graves and Leigh, 1995; Weinstock, Lindan, Bolan, Kegeles, and Hearts, 1993; Baldwin and Baldwin, 1988), number of sexual partners (Graves and Leigh, 1995, Weinstock, Lindan, Bolan, Kegeles, and Hearst, 1993; Aral and Holmes, 1990), age of first intercourse (McCree, Wingood, DiClemente, Davies and Harrington, 2003; Aral and Holmes,1990), participation in heterosexual or homosexual sex (Reinisch, Hill, Sanders and Ziemba-Davis, 1995), level of commitment in the relationship (Baldwin and Baldwin, 1988), and use of alcohol or drugs before sexual intercourse (Brener, McMahon, Warren and Douglas, 1999). Sexual risk behaviors affect sexual health which is defined as the complete physical, emotional, mental, and social well-being of individuals in regard to their sexual behaviors (Berkeley and Ross, 2003), by means of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), sexually transmitted infections (STIs), reproductive infections, infertility, sexual dysfunction, and sexual attitudes (World Health Organization, 2006). The term sexually transmitted infections (STIs) describe infections caused by more than 30 different bacteria, viruses and parasites which are transmitted through sexual intercourse. The common feature of these infections is their mode of transmission (WHO 2011a; Sasadeusz, Locarnini, Kidd, Bradford and Danta, 2008). Another term that is used in the literature is STD (sexually transmitted diseases), which refers to the disease caused by an
INTRODUCTION Today we are living in a revolutionary world of dots and coms and, within seconds, several new inventions are happening around the globe, media technology being one of them. Media technology has changed our lives giving us the freedom to perform activities from the comfort zone of our homes. The evolving technology has a strong impact on an individual's life especially teenagers as they are vulnerable to change. The invention of the cell phone, appearance of computers, laptops, and Internet communication has become a vital link in communicating with others. It has become inseparable part of our life and it is everywhere and it is impossible to escape from them. Twenty first century is the world of technology and Internet has grown leaps and bounds from the time of its origin to the present times globally. There are 4.1 billion Internet users in the world as at December 2018. This is compared to 3.9 billion Internet users in mid 2018 and about 3.7 billion Internet users in late 2017.According toInternet Statistics (2019) Asia has the most Internet users of all continents accounting for 49 per cent of all Internet users (down from about 50 percent in 2017 and up from about 48 per cent mid 2018). Europe is a runner up with 16.8 per cent of all Internet users.China has the most Internet users of all country. At over 802 million Internet users at the time of writing this, China currently accounts for almost 20 per cent of Internet users worldwide. It is trailed by India, with over 500 million Internet users.The number of people using the Internet in China is more than double the population of the U.S. and more than the combined population of the U.S., Japan, Russia, and Mexico. 98 per cent of Internet users in China are mobile. Iceland is the country with the highest Internet penetration in the world with an impressive 100 per cent of its citizens using the Internet.The Internet influenced retail sales to the tune of $2.84 trillion in 2018 and is expected to influence retail sales to the tune of $3.45 trillion in 2019. With a $205 billion Internet ad spend compared to a TV ad spend of $192 billion, global Internet advertising spend exceeded TV advertising spend for the very first time in 2017.An estimated 1.92 billion people are expected to purchase something online in 2019. 80 per cent of,
INTRODUCTION "We say that slavery has vanished from European civilization, but this is not true. Slavery still exists, but now it applies only to women and its name is prostitution". (VICTOR HUGO, Les Misérables) This quote by Victor Hugo (1862) not only holds good to European civilization but also is a mirror to all civilizations across the world. Commercial sex work is the business or practice of engaging in sexual relations especially in a promiscus way, in exchange for payment in money or other things of value. A person who works in this field is called a sex worker. Prostitution is one of the branches of the sex industry. The legal status of sex work varies from country to country, from being permissible but unregulated, to an enforced or unenforced crime or to a regulated profession. Prostitution is sometimes referred to as "the world's oldest profession" (Keegan, Anne 1974). Estimates place the annual revenue generated from the global prostitution industry to be over $100 billion (Scambler 2007). The World Health organisation has encouraged the permittance and regulation of sex work as a means of decreasing sexually transmitted diseases and thus increasing sexual health. Commercial sex work occurs in a variety of forms, brothels are establishments specifically dedicated to commercial sex work. Escort prostitution, street prostitution, lesbian prostitutes, and straight male prostitutes are a few of them. A COMPARATIVE STUDYOF BEGINNERS AND ESTABLISHED COMMERCIAL SEX