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Reinforcement learning is a learning paradigm concerned with learning to control a system so as to maximize a numerical performance measure that expresses a long-term objective. What distinguishes reinforcement learning from supervised learning is that only partial feedback is given to the learner about the learner's predictions. Further, the predictions may have long term effects through influencing the future state of the controlled system. Thus, time plays a special role. The goal in reinforcement learning is to develop efficient learning algorithms, as well as to understand the algorithms' merits and limitations. Reinforcement learning is of great interest because of the large number of practical applications that it can be used to address, ranging from problems in artificial intelligence to operations research or control engineering. In this book, we focus on those algorithms of reinforcement learning that build on the powerful theory of dynamic programming. We give a fairly comprehensive catalog of learning problems, describe the core ideas, note a large number of state of the art algorithms, followed by the discussion of their theoretical properties and limitations. Table of Contents: Markov Decision Processes / Value Prediction Problems / Control / For Further Exploration
This book provides a thorough overview of Bitcoin, cryptocurrencies, and digital assets and their impact on the future of money and finance. It provides a 360-degree practical, concise, and engaging overview of all the topics that one interested about digital assets needs to know including how Bitcoin and Ethereum work, an overview of the most important digital assets in the market, and deep dives into the various types of digital assets including cryptocurrencies, stable coins, CBDCs, utility tokens, security tokens, NFTs, and many others. The book also covers all the essentials including DeFi, crypto mining, crypto regulations, crypto investors, crypto exchanges, and other ecosystem players as well as some of the latest global crypto trends from Web 3.0 and the Metaverse to DAOs and quantum computing. Written by a leading industry expert and thought leader who advises some of the leading organisations in the digital assets space globally, this book is ideal for anyone looking to acquire a solid foundational knowledge base of this fast-growing field and understand its potential impact on the future of money.
Women comprise the majority of pediatricians in the United States and yet there has been slow progress in leadership diversity and equity in the field overall. While there have been many academic journal articles that examine women¿s roles, challenges and successes in the field, there is not one, overarching book that follows the path of women into the profession, the challenges they encountered in the early years ¿ and still encounter - the successes they¿ve had, and what the future might look like. This book fills that gap in medical literature.Because women are so well-represented in the field, one would think that pediatrics should be leading the way in gender equity achievements, but this is not the case. This text examines the disparities, the boundaries that are in place, the impact of intersectionality on equity, the toll gender discrimination has on the health and wellness of women in pediatrics, and best practices that can help achieve gender equity in the field. The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the disparities that women, and in particular women with intersectionality, face. This book also examines the immediate impact of the pandemic on women in pediatrics, what future implications may be, and how we can potentially mitigate them. Equity strategies that can be implemented by healthcare institutions, professional societies and other medical organizations are also discussed.The book is divided into three main sections. The first section gives an overview of the history of women in pediatrics by describing stories of early leaders and the early days of women in pediatrics. The second section reviews the current state of affairs in women in pediatrics. Chapters in this section detail women entering and practicing in pediatrics; leadership; women of color; women conducting research; national campaigns and efforts focused on gender equity; and childbearing, adoption, motherhood and eldercare by women in pediatrics. The final section describes the future of women in pediatrics. The seven chapters in this section discuss leaders in pediatrics supporting women; policies and programs to advance equity; allies in gender equity efforts; research, funding and publication for women; networking, mentorship, sponsorship, coaching, and career development activities; advocacy efforts; and supporting the health and wellbeing of women in pediatrics.Written by experts in the field, Women in Pediatrics is a valuable resource for all pediatricians in academic or community-based medicine, as well as those involved in pediatric sub-specialties. On a broader level, this text is also of interest to all other women involved in medicine and science.
This book provides the first comprehensive overview of the most important water-related issues that centre on Italy, analysed from several disciplinary perspectives ¿ such as hydrology, economics, law, sociology, environmental sciences and policy studies ¿ in order to promote full understanding of the challenges the country is facing and the ways it could best tackle them.Despite the misconception that Italy is a water-scarce country, is in fact quite rich in water resources. Such resources, however, are unevenly distributed over the Italian territory. Italy¿s northern regions rely on quite an abundant quantity of freshwater, whereas in the southern area water endowment is limited. Moreover, climatic differences between North and South contribute to widen the divide. This disparity has notable consequences of socio-economic character, some of which, in turn, feed back into the environmental conditions of Italian regions: pollution, floods, landslides and droughts are among the problems affecting the country. There are numerous features of water use and consumption that distinguish Italy from other comparable countries, such as the significant role played by agriculture (a water-intensive activity), a lead position in the consumption of bottled water, lower-than-average prices of water and a far-from-optimal efficiency of waterworks. All such aspects, and many others, make Italy an essential case study.
This book describes theory and techniques of empathic communication, normalization and de-escalation procedures for the management of aggressive or violent patients in clinical critical settings'. Consisting of 9 chapters, it discusses in detail the self-regulation of empathy in potential dangerous interactions, as well as common mistakes and nonprofessional reactions. It also explores the basic concept of neurobiology of violence and aggression behaviour, such as brain circuitry and neuromodulators, and other rapid tranquillization guidelines. The final chapter focuses on the crucial topics of post-aggression debriefing.Based on the clinical experience of the editors and authors, who work in emergency psychiatry settings, the book offers practical key expressions to promote a normalization talk, to calm agitated individuals, and to prevent crises both for psychiatric patients and people without mental disorders.It is a useful tool to help readers gain confidence as mediators in critical circumstances and will be of interest for a wide range of practitioners in healthcare settings, from psychiatrists and psychologists, to nurses and other healthcare workers.
This book provides detailed information on functional anatomy, physical examination, and clinical radiology of the knee with a view to enabling the clinician to identify the most suitable treatment approach to different knee joint pathologies. In addition, the arthroscopic treatment techniques most frequently employed in patients with these conditions are described, with presentation of numerous arthroscopic images detailing characteristic findings. Knee joint pathologies today represent a significant challenge owing to the complexity of the injuries suffered, rising activity levels, and high patient expectations. A proper physical examination plays an important role in diagnosis. The surgeon who has the opportunity to conduct a clinical evaluation must fully understand the role of radiological evaluations, and assessment by a radiology expert is also necessary. In all cases, knowledge of the normal anatomy and its correlation with clinical and radiological findings is fundamental to correct diagnosis and treatment selection. Surgeons and trainees with an interest in knee joint pathologies will find this book to be an excellent, richly illustrated educational guide to the subject.
This book presents the clinical scope of cancer immunotherapeutic agents for solid tumors and Hematologic malignancies, elaborates on the scientific details of their modes of action, and presents the impact of these agents on oncology, patients and the broader healthcare system. At present, cancer immunotherapies fall broadly into three categories: immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), adoptive T cell therapies, and cancer vaccines which have distinct mechanisms of action. Immune checkpoint inhibitors rely upon disrupting tumor antigen recognition as self by the immune system through inhibition of checkpoint molecules. Adoptive T cell therapies involve the engineering of T cells ex vivo to target and destroy tumor cells.The first part of this book will provide an overview of the discovery and mechanistic details of the technology. The second part will be devoted to elaborating on the clinical outcomes, successes and limitations for specific tumor subtypes, which includes both solid tumors and hematologic malignances for both pediatric and adult populations. As such, the book offers a valuable resource for oncologists, hematologists, and all those seeking an up-to-date overview of cancer immunotherapies.
Revised and updated for the 2nd edition, this textbook provides an analysis and investigation of the most essential areas of environmental economic theory and policy, including international environmental problems. The approach is based on standard theoretical tools, in particular equilibrium analysis, and aims to demonstrate how economic principles can help to understand environmental issues and guide policymakers. Current topics including climate change, overfishing and integrated approaches to environmental policies are carefully analyzed in this framework, and a multitude of practical examples from various parts of the world is presented. Addressing undergraduate and graduate students, this book is a must read for everybody interested in a better understanding of environmental economics.
This book is a guide for educators on how to develop and evaluate evidence-based strategies for teaching biological experimentation to thereby improve existing and develop new curricula. It unveils the flawed assumptions made at the classroom, department, and institutional level about what students are learning and what help they might need to develop competence in biological experimentation.Specific case studies illustrate a comprehensive list of key scientific competencies that unpack what it means to be a competent experimental life scientist. It includes explicit evidence-based guidelines for educators regarding the teaching, learning, and assessment of biological research competencies. The book also provides practical teacher guides and exemplars of assignments and assessments. It contains a complete analysis of the variety of tools developed thus far to assess learning in this domain.This book contributes to the growth of public understanding of biological issues including scientific literacy and the crucial importance of evidence-based decision-making around public policy. It will be beneficial to life science instructors, biology education researchers and science administrators who aim to improve teaching in life science departments.Chapters 6, 12, 14 and 22 are available open access under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License via link.springer.com.
Digital healthcare is heterogeneous along the entire treatment pathway, ranging from monitoring applications and artificial-intelligence-based diagnostics, to support for virtual reality surgery. Since the introduction of the Digital Health Act in Germany in early 2020, there has been a push toward digital innovative solutions, especially in the outpatient sector.This book analyzes current digital health law from an economic perspective, combining theory with real-world applications. It examines both the incentives and market access pathways for digital solutions and the price effects brought about by the new regulatory framework in Germany. Further, it discusses the difficulties in pricing due to the monopolistic BfArM register and negotiations with the association of all German health insurance companies. The book addresses a wide range of topics, including incentives for innovation, specifics of digital health applications, reimbursement and financing options for digital health solutions. Lastly, it presents an outlook for the future and a comparison between Germany and other countries, namely the USA and Japan. Given its scope, this book will appeal to scholars of health economics, healthcare management and public health, as well as practitioners and professionals in the public health sector.
This book presents an empirical examination of consent-seeking among Pashtun Muslims in the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), to determine whether cultural norms and beliefs have largely come to diverge from the principles of consent in Islamic law and jurisprudence. Is culture part of the 'inevitable decay' to which Max Müller says every religion is exposed? Or - if rephrased in terms of the research encapsulated within this book - are cultural beliefs and practises the inevitable decay to which Islam has been exposed in Muslim societies?Drawing on interviews with Muslims in Pakistan and Australia, the research broadly broaches questions around the rights of women in Islam and contributes to a wider understanding of Muslim social, cultural, and religious practices in both Muslim majority nations and diaspora communities. The author disentangles cultural practices from both religious and universal legal principles, demonstrating how consent seeking in Pashtun culture generally does not reflect the spirit or the intent of consent as described in Hanafi law and jurisprudence. This research will be of interest to students and scholars across sociology, anthropology, socio-legal studies, and law, with a focus on Islamically-justified law reform in Muslim nation states.
The world is not an equal place. There are high- and low-income countries and high- and low-income households. For each group, there are differential educational opportunities, leading to differential educational outcomes and differential labor market opportunities. This pattern often reproduces the privileges and inequalities of groups in a society. This book explores this differentiation in education from a social justice lens. Comparing the United States and South Africa, this book analyzes each country¿s developmental thinking on education, from human capital and human rights approaches, in both primary and higher education. The enclosed contributions draw from different disciplines including legal studies, sociology, psychology, computer science and public policy.
This book presents the state of art of the several advanced approaches to beneficiation of coal. The influence of recent technology attains the advantages of processing coal, purification studies, rheological behavior, and the mineral beneficiation. The experts collected in this volume have contributed significantly to the enrichment in the in depth knowledge not only in context of working knowledge, but also future prospects of clean coal technology.
Taking a novel approach that adapts Freud's theory of the Primal Crime, this book examines a wealth of ethnographic data on the Gimi of the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea, focusing on women's lives, myths, and rituals. Women's and men's separate myths and rites may be 'read' as a cycle of blame about which sex caused the ills of human existence and is still at fault. However, the author demonstrates that in public rites of exchange in which both sexes participate, men appropriate and subvert women's usages as a ritual strategy to 'undo' motherhood and confiscate children at puberty. In doing so, she reveals how Gimi women both rebel against the male-dominated social order and express understanding of why they also acquiesce. The result of decades of fieldwork, writing and reflection, this book offers an analysis of Gimi women's complex understanding of their situation and presents a nuanced picture of women in a society dominated by men. It represents an important contribution to New Guinea ethnography that will appeal to students and scholars of psychoanalysis, gender studies, and cultural, social and psychoanalytic anthropology.
This book presents a compact overview of the history, evolution and fascinating novel applications of antibodies for the treatment of cancer, leading the reader step by step to the latest advances. Interesting anecdotes, together with self-explanatory and clearly structured figures with a humorous touch, facilitate the reader¿s understanding of this complex topic. Clinical cases round out the book, making it a valuable aid for professionals in their everyday practice. The growing importance of the topics covered here was highlighted by the joint award of the 2018 Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Frances H. Arnold (directed evolution of enzymes), George P. Smith (phage display of peptides) and Sir Gregory P. Winter (phage display of antibodies). Furthermore, the 2018 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation. Many of the antibodies that are now being brought to market target precisely these immune checkpoint modulators.The book addresses a broad readership, ranging from professionals and experts in the field to residents and medical students.
This book examines the geostrategic alliances in the Eastern Mediterranean and MENA regions. It analyzes how these alliances transcend stereotyped political and cultural prototypes throughout western Eurasia as the outcome of shifting regional power balances. The authors explain how this development has its foundation mostly in the United States' ¿Pivot to Asiä policy, resulting in a lower priority ranking of the Middle East for Washington, but also in the emergence of Chinäs economic incursion on the wider region.The book looks into and presents different reasons for this paradigm shift: First and foremost, the historical ambitions and conflicting assertions of sovereignty in the region. Then, competition over control of hydrocarbons reserves and pipeline politics, civil wars, and political chaos in certain littoral states. US retrenchment and Russiäs naval base expansion in Syria, as well as Turkish expansion in Libya, NATO allies divisions and, not to reckon with, waves of migration and refugees. Yet some internal and external factors could lead to some changes in these trends, including the need to engage in energy transitions due to climate change consequences in the region.Therefore, this book is a must-read for scholars, students, policy-makers, and practitioners interested in a better understanding of the political development in the Eastern Mediterranean and MENA regions, as well as of International Relations in general.
Learn about commercial spaceflight¿s most successful startup in this fully updated book, which follows the extraordinary feats of engineering and human achievement that have placed SpaceX at the forefront of the launch industry and positioned it as the most likely candidate for transporting humans to Mars.This second edition emphasizes SpaceX's much-hyped manned mission to the Red Planet. With a plethora of new material gathered from 2013 to the present, the text offers the most up-to-date portrait of the maverick band of scientists and engineers producing some of the most spectacular aviation triumphs of the 21st century. Topics covered in this book include: all CRS flights, the challenges of developing retro-propulsion, and the pathway towards realizing the Falcon Heavy and BFR. In addition, the chapters describe SpaceX¿s emphasis on simplicity, low-cost, and reliability, and the methods the company employs to reduce its costs while speeding up decision-making and delivery. Detailing the Falcon 1, Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy launch vehicles, the book shows how SpaceX is able to offer a full spectrum of light, medium, and heavy lift launch capabilities to its customers and how it is able to deliver spacecraft into any inclination and altitude, from low Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit to planetary missions. This book is the perfect go-to guide on SpaceX for anybody working or interested in the commercial space arena.
This book discusses several product development strategies and tools employed by organizations around the world to implement frugal innovations. Over the past decade, frugal innovations have caught the attention of countless management scholars. This book comes at the right time for academics and practitioners alike, as it explores how the concept of frugal innovation has evolved over the past several years and is shifting its focus from merely featuring ¿cost¿ driven innovations to being more ¿resourceful¿ and ¿sustainable¿ at its core. Furthermore, in light of the ongoing digital revolution and emergence of new business models such as sharing economy and circular economy, the book highlights recent and upcoming trends and their impacts on frugal innovation strategies.
This book introduces the reader to the field of jet substructure, starting from the basic considerations for capturing decays of boosted particles in individual jets, to explaining state-of-the-art techniques. Jet substructure methods have become ubiquitous in data analyses at the LHC, with diverse applications stemming from the abundance of jets in proton-proton collisions, the presence of pileup and multiple interactions, and the need to reconstruct and identify decays of highly-Lorentz boosted particles. The last decade has seen a vast increase in our knowledge of all aspects of the field, with a proliferation of new jet substructure algorithms, calculations and measurements which are presented in this book. Recent developments and algorithms are described and put into the larger experimental context. Their usefulness and application are shown in many demonstrative examples and the phenomenological and experimental effects influencing their performance are discussed. A comprehensive overview is given of measurements and searches for new phenomena performed by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations. This book shows the impressive versatility of jet substructure methods at the LHC.
Volcanoes have terrified and, at the same time, fascinated civilizations for thousands of years. Many aspects of volcanoes, most notably the eruptive processes and the compositional variations of magma, have been widely investigated for several decades and today constitute the core of any volcanology textbook. Nevertheless, in the last two decades, boosted by the availability of volcano monitoring data, there has been an increasing interest in the pre-eruptive processes related to the shallow accumulation and to the transfer of magma approaching the surface, as well as in the resulting structure of volcanoes. These are innovative and essential aspects of modern volcanology and, as driving volcanic unrest, their understanding also improves hazard assessment and eruption forecasting. So far, the significant progress made in unravelling these volcano-tectonic processes has not been supported by a comprehensive overview.This monograph aims at filling this gap, describing the pre-eruptive processes related to the structure, deformation and tectonics of volcanoes, at the local and regional scale, in any tectonic setting. The monograph is organized into three sections (¿Fundamentals¿, ¿Magma migration towards the surface¿ and ¿The regional perspective¿), consisting of thirteen chapters that are lavishly illustrated. The reader is accompanied in a journey within the volcano factory, discovering the processes associated with the shallow accumulation of magma and its transfer towards the surface, how these control the structure of volcanoes and their activity and, ultimately, improve our ability to estimate hazard and forecast eruption.The potential readership includes any academic, researcher and upper undergraduate student interested in volcanology, magma intrusions, structural geology, tectonics, geodesy, as well as geology and geophysics in general.
This book provides a comprehensive analysis of time-fixed terminal rendezvous around the Earth using chemical propulsion.The book has two main objectives. The first is to derive the mathematics of relative motion in near-circular orbit when subjected to perturbations emanating from the oblateness of the Earth, third-body gravity, and atmospheric drag. The mathematics are suitable for quick trajectory prediction and the creation of computer codes and efficient software to solve impulsive maneuvers and fly rendezvous missions.The second objective of this book is to show how the relative motion theory is applied to the exact precision-integrated, long-duration, time-fixed terminal rendezvous problem around the oblate Earth for the general elliptic orbit case.The contents are both theoretical and applied, with long-lasting value for aerospace engineers, trajectory designers, professors of orbital mechanics, and students at the graduate level and above.