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This book provides a thorough overview of Bitcoin, cryptocurrencies, and digital assets and their impact on the future of money and finance. It provides a 360-degree practical, concise, and engaging overview of all the topics that one interested about digital assets needs to know including how Bitcoin and Ethereum work, an overview of the most important digital assets in the market, and deep dives into the various types of digital assets including cryptocurrencies, stable coins, CBDCs, utility tokens, security tokens, NFTs, and many others. The book also covers all the essentials including DeFi, crypto mining, crypto regulations, crypto investors, crypto exchanges, and other ecosystem players as well as some of the latest global crypto trends from Web 3.0 and the Metaverse to DAOs and quantum computing. Written by a leading industry expert and thought leader who advises some of the leading organisations in the digital assets space globally, this book is ideal for anyone looking to acquire a solid foundational knowledge base of this fast-growing field and understand its potential impact on the future of money.
In two volumes, this book covers in a comprehensive, internally balanced, systematic and detailed way the field of European Union (EU) banking law and regulation. In three parts, Volume I offers a brief introduction to the role of banks in the contemporary financial system and the theory of banking regulation, a thorough analysis of international financial standards which are contained in the sources of public international banking law (and of public international financial law, in general), a detailed presentation of the gradual evolution and the sources of EU banking law, as well as a precise analysis of the law-making process and the key institutional aspects of this branch of EU economic law. The standards and rules adopted and the institutions created in the aftermath of the (2007-2009) global financial crisis and the subsequent euro area fiscal crisis, as well as during the current pandemic crisis are discussed, as appropriate. A detailed analysis of the substantive aspects of EU banking law will follow in Volume II
This book offers a complete focus on the radiographic analysis of the abdominal wall and hernias. An estimated 20 million hernias are repaired annually throughout the world. As the technology utilized to complete hernia repairs becomes more complex, surgeons are required to have a more thorough understanding of the radiographic anatomy and diagnostic modalities used to evaluate hernias. Furthermore, the amount that now goes into the preoperative planning of hernias for complex repairs (such robotic and open transversus abdominis muscle release procedures) requires an understanding of radiology and the ability to identify nuances of anatomy offered by the imaging. The use of mesh and extent of re-do hernia repairs has also complicated radiographic evaluation of hernias. The text is a comprehensive review of abdominal wall imaging broken down into individual types of hernia. Each hernia type is discussed with consideration to the best type of imaging evaluation, unique radiographic findings and considerations prior to repair. Representative images, diagrams and videos are used to point out anatomy and features of the hernia. This text offers the first-of-its-kind standardized approach to evaluating hernias radiographically. Most importantly, each hernia and chapter is approached with the surgeon in mind, meaning, authors explain the radiology based on anatomy and with a plan for surgical repair on the horizon. Select chapters include illuminating videos to give context to the text. This is an ideal guide for practicing surgeons and trainees treating patients with hernias.
Reinforcement learning is a learning paradigm concerned with learning to control a system so as to maximize a numerical performance measure that expresses a long-term objective. What distinguishes reinforcement learning from supervised learning is that only partial feedback is given to the learner about the learner's predictions. Further, the predictions may have long term effects through influencing the future state of the controlled system. Thus, time plays a special role. The goal in reinforcement learning is to develop efficient learning algorithms, as well as to understand the algorithms' merits and limitations. Reinforcement learning is of great interest because of the large number of practical applications that it can be used to address, ranging from problems in artificial intelligence to operations research or control engineering. In this book, we focus on those algorithms of reinforcement learning that build on the powerful theory of dynamic programming. We give a fairly comprehensive catalog of learning problems, describe the core ideas, note a large number of state of the art algorithms, followed by the discussion of their theoretical properties and limitations. Table of Contents: Markov Decision Processes / Value Prediction Problems / Control / For Further Exploration
This book presents the proceedings of the International Conference on Managing Business through Web Analytics (ICMBWA 2021). The conference provides a global forum for sharing knowledge and results in theory, methodology, and applications of Web Analytics and their role in the formulation and the orientation of businesses' strategies. The aim of the conference is to provide a platform for researchers and practitioners from both academia and industry to meet and share their works in the field. Is an excellent resource for scholars, experts and industrial in the fields represented, as well as Ph.D. students seeking an entryway into current research in data analytics, Web analytics, machine learning algorithms, and their various applications within businesses.
This book analyzes the conflict that emerges between parties after a breach of contract and how different legal remedies can best reduce conflict. Causes for conflict include equity, efficiency, and ethical reasons that parties might consider and use to blame the other or to justify breach. In the end, if not resolved through apologies or renegotiation, conflict leads to aggrievement and behavioral reactions in form of retaliation by the victim against the promisor in breach. The book provides empirical evidence from laboratory experiments for how individuals react to perceived wrongful acts such as breach of contract and for the function of legal remedies to reduce retaliation by disappointed promisees in providing them compensation. It reveals how the inequality in the outcome, and not the inefficiency of breach of contract, causes aggrievement and retaliation by victims. The book concludes with a comparative law and economic analysis of remedies for breach of contract adopted in different leading jurisdictions, with important normative implications for the American insistence on expectation damages, the French expansion of specific performance with "e;astreinte"e;, the German junction of specific performance, expectation damages, and disgorgement damages, and the British timid acceptance of partial disgorgement damages.The book will appeal to scholars, researchers, and students of economics and law, interested in a better understanding of remedies for breach of contract.
Known to many as American University's "e;peace legend,"e; Abdul Aziz Said (1930-2021)led an academic career spanning nearly sixty years. Always a forward-looking thinker,Said consistently sought to be among the first to grapple with the leading-edge issues ofhis day, from decolonization and turbulent social change in developing countries to theinfluence of multinational corporations, the normative priority of human rights, culturalaspects of conflict resolution, and the promotion of Islamic-Western understanding.Taken together, his extensive writings, innovative pedagogy, and practical pursuits offera model for engaged scholarship, characterized by dynamic use of the platform providedby a university career to advance international peace, intercultural dialogue, and socialjustice as well as a spiritual ethic emphasizing unity and connectedness among peoplefrom diverse cultural, religious, and racial backgrounds.* Abdul Aziz Said has been an innovator in international relations and peacestudies;* Born in Syria, he completed his higher education in the United States and wenton to teach multiple generations of international affairs students;* He was a leading scholar focusing on global peace as well as Islam and peace;* His writings address salient global issues from the 1950s to the first decades ofthe twenty-first century.
This book provides an overview of Pacific-Indigenous knowledge as insights of Oceanic citizen-science to inform culturally-safe practice for psychology. It profiles contemporary Pacific needs in areas of crisis such as family violence, education disparities and health inequities, and points to ancient Pacific-indigenous knowledges as tools of healing for global diasporic communities in need. The historical evolution of psychology's knowledge base and practice illustrates a fundamental crisis in the method of producing knowledge for psychology - the absence of Pacific-indigenous cultural knowledge. It suggests more effective research methodologies grounded in Pacific-Indigenous epistemologies and ontologies for psychology and overall community capability. It fosters practice perspectives and strategies based on NIU-psychology (New Indigenous Understandings) for innovative solutions to modern-day crises of humanity.
This book presents case studies to analyse the relationship between sustainability - environmental, social, institutional and economic - and digital innovation. The respective contributions offer a contextualisation of the main present and future trends concerning these two elements, and present analyses from economic, technical, managerial, and social perspectives alike. The individual sections of the book focus on interactions between sustainability and digital innovation in existing organisations and highlight the new opportunities, challenges and threats that may emerge as a result. The contributions are mainly based on case studies and research conducted in Europe and Africa, with a few focusing on Southeast Asia and Central America, and were prepared by experts in the fields of Information Systems, Computer Science, Social Development, and Economics.
This book examines similarities and differences in 31 European governments' responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic hit Europe in early 2020. It spread across the continent during the Spring while anxious electorates were treated to news reports about health systems under duress and frustrated attempts by public procurement officials to obtain adequate supplies of medical and protective equipment. Over the next 15-18 months considered by this book, national responses exhibited both similarities and profound variations as the different endeavours to regulate social interactions constituted a stress test for political systems across Europe.
This book summarizes work being undertaken within the School Activates Resources-stitching the lost heritage of the suburbs (ScAR) project, which addressed cultural heritage in a broad sense, as a system of values identified by the populations and in constant evolution. This tangible and intangible heritage fuels the promotion of intergenerational and intercultural dialogue and represents an opportunity for resilient social and territorial development. The book ponders the experience gained and the points of view of the different disciplines involved, examines issues such as children and youth participation in civil life or education in cultural heritage and landscape, and presents real-world experiences of heritage education in everyday landscape in difficult contexts and/or concerning poorly recognized and valued cultural heritage.
This book uses belonging as a lens through which to understand women students' experiences of studying for a doctorate, exploring the impact of academic cultures on career aspirations. Drawing on discourses of neoliberalism and academic identities, it makes a valuable contribution to ongoing discussions of gender inequality in the academy. Based on data gathered from women doctoral students in the UK, this book offers a contemporary, research-informed understanding of the doctorate as an inherently gendered experience, which has implications for individuals, academic institutions, and for the future of the academic sector. The book will be of interest to academics working in the area of doctoral education, doctoral supervisors and those involved in doctoral student support, including researcher developers and individuals working in graduate schools, as well as doctoral students themselves.
This edited volume presents the key unresolved debates in monetary macroeconomics, covering the five topics of budget, trade, taxes, exchange rates and monetary policy. For each topic, there are two authors - one arguing for a certain policy and one against. The book takes an approach eschewing mathematics or econometrics, instead presenting arguments in the spirit of political economy - while incorporating the most recent thinking in macroeconomics. This approach, combined with the objective of encouraging debate, makes the book ideal reading for students of monetary macroeconomics, researchers seeking alternative views, and the general public.
This textbook presents the principles and methods for the measurement of radioactivity in the environment. In this regard, specific low-level radiation counting and spectrometry or mass spectrometry techniques are discussed, including sources, distribution, levels and dynamics of radioactivity in nature. The author gives an accurate description of the fundamental concepts and laws of radioactivity as well as the different types of detectors and mass spectrometers needed for detection. Special attention is paid to scintillators, semiconductor detectors, and gas ionization detectors. In order to explain radiochemistry, some concepts about chemical separations are introduced as well. The book is meant for graduate and advanced undergraduate students in physics, chemistry or engineering oriented to environmental sciences, and to other disciplines where monitoring of the environment and its management is of great interest.