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Emmanuel Levinas est le philosophe de la non-indifference; il n'est en aucune sorte un philosophe indifferent. Son inquietude personnelle et engagement politique ont trouve une expression philosophique dans une quete a deux versants. Dans le versant ontologique, il cherche a montrer que meme si l'homme est l'evenement de comprehension de l'etre, tout l'homme et toute signification ne se reduisent pas a la comprehension de l'etre seul. Dans le versant politique, il s'interroge sur la possibilite de soumettre la tendance totalitaire de toute politique a une recherche de justice qui ne depend pas finalement de la politique meme. Mais ces deux versants n'en font qu'un. La decouverte d'une signification qui excede la comprehension de l'etre - l'ethique - fournit en meme temps la source de renouvellement de la justice. Ainsi, par cette double question, Levinas nous presente les fils conducteurs de notre enquete: une signification au-dela de la comprehension de l'etre et sa portee ethique, que nous appelons langage et que nous explorons dans la perspective de son importance politique. Les etudes analytiques dans lesquelles les notions de politique et de langage fonctionnent comme clef d'interpretation mutuelle debouchent sur une critique centree sur deux problemes: l'impossibilite d'interpreter la signifiance de l'autre et le danger inherent a la conception d'une justice depassant l'Etat.
H, as it is often said, mathematics is the queen of science then algebra is surely the jewel in her crown. In the course of its vast development over the last half-century, algebra has emerged as the subject in which one can observe pure mathe- matical reasoning at its best. Its elegance is matched only by the ever-increasing number of its applications to an extraordinarily wide range of topics in areas other than 'pure' mathematics. Here our objective is to present, in the form of a series of five concise volumes, the fundamentals of the subject. Broadly speaking, we have covered in all the now traditional syllabus that is found in first and second year university courses, as well as some third year material. Further study would be at the level of 'honours options'. The reasoning that lies behind this modular presentation is simple, namely to allow the student (be he a mathematician or not) to read the subject in a way that is more appropriate to the length, content, and extent, of the various courses he has to take. Although we have taken great pains to include a wide selec- tion of illustrative examples, we have not included any exer- cises. For a suitable companion collection of worked examples, we would refer the reader to our series Algebra through practice (Cambridge University Press), the first five books of which are appropriate to the material covered here.
Der vorliegende Band versammelt Forschungsmanuskripte aus dem Nachlass Edmund Husserls zu vier miteinander zusammenhangenden Themenbereichen. Die Manuskripte des ersten Themenbereichs bieten phanomenologische Analysen zu den Phanomenen des Unbewusstseins und zu den damit verbundenen Problemen von Geburt, Schlaf und Tod und fuhren an die Grenzen der transzendentalen Phanomenologie als einer deskriptiven Wissenschaft. Dies gilt auch fur die Phanomenologie der Instinkte, die sich in den Manuskripten des zweiten Themenbereichs findet. Die Texte der beiden ersten Themenbereiche bieten wesentliche Stucke einer phanomenologischen Fundierung der Husserl'schen Metaphysik. Diese Metaphysik wird von Husserl in den Texten des dritten Themenbereichs als eine spekulative Monadologie und Teleologie sowie als eine damit eng verbundene philosophische Theologie in Ansatzen entfaltet. Die vierte und grote Gruppe der in vorliegenden Band edierten Manuskripte dokumentiert in einer reprasentativen Textauswahl Husserls ethisches Denken, wie es sich in seinen Freiburger Jahren entwickelt hat. Husserl ruckt in diesen Jahren von seiner fruhen, unter dem Einfluss Brentanos stehenden Gottinger Ethik ab und entwickelt insbesondere unter dem Einfluss Fichtes eine Ethik, die in eins Individualethik, Sozialethik und Menschheitsethik ist. Fur diese Ethik ist ein erweiterter Begriff von praktischer Vernunft kennzeichnend. Vernunftig und damit geboten sind nun nicht mehr einzelne Handlungen, die das Beste des in einer Situation Erreichbaren realisieren, sondern geboten ist nun eine absolut gerechtfertigte Gestaltung des ganzen je eigenen individuellen Lebens sowie eine vernunftige Gestaltung des Lebens der nationalen und ubernationalen Gemeinschaften in Richtung auf das Ideal einer Liebesgemeinschaft gegenseitiger Fursorge. Angesichts der Irrationalitat im Leben des Einzelnen und in der Geschichte der Menschheit drangen sich Husserl Fragen nach dem Wert und der Moglichkeit ethischen Handelns uberhaupt auf. In diesem Zusammenhang rucken das Phanomen der Liebe als Quelle bindender Werte und als Motiv ethischen Handelns sowie das Phanomen des individuellen Rufs zu einer Lebensaufgabe ins Zentrum von Husserls spaten ethischen Reflexionen.
Grundlegend fur Husserls Phanomenologie sind die beiden Methoden der eidetischen und der phanomenologischen Reduktion. Fur den Band wurden Forschungsmanuskripte zur Lehre vom Wesen ausgewahlt, die Husserl zwischen 1891 und 1935 verfasste. Analog zu den Phasen, in denen er seine Lehre modifizierte, ist der Band in 5 Teile gegliedert. Damit dokumentiert diese erste Veroffentlichung zu Husserls Eidetik alle Phasen und systematischen Schwerpunkte: von den Anfangen bis zur Abfassung der Krisis"e; - mit Texten aus bislang unveroffentlichten Manuskripten.
Industrial radiography is a well-established non-destructive testing (NDT) method in which the basic principles were established many years ago. However, during 1993-95 the European Standards Organisa- tion (CEN) commenced drafting many new standards on NDT including radiographic methods, and when completed these will replace national standards in all the EC member countries. In some cases these standards vary significantly from those in use in the UK at present. These CEN standards are accepted by majority, not unanimous voting, so they will become mandatory even in countries which vote against them. As most are likely to be legal by the time this second edition is published, they are described in the appropriate places in the text. The most important new technical development is the greater use of computers in radiology. In the first edition, computerized tomography was only briefly mentioned at the end of Chapter 11, as it was then largely a medical method with only a few equipments having found a place in industrial use. The method depends on a complex computer program and a large data store. Industrial equipments are now being built, although their spread into industry has been slow. Computer data storage is also being used for radiographic data. Small computers can now store all the data produced by scanning a radiographic film with a small light-spot, and various programs can be applied to these data.
This text outlines the fluid and thermodynamic principles that apply to all classes of turbomachines, and the material has been presented in a unified way. The approach has been used with successive groups of final year mechanical engineering students, who have helped with the development of the ideas outlined. As with these students, the reader is assumed to have a basic understanding of fluid mechanics and thermodynamics. However, the early chapters combine the relevant material with some new concepts, and provide basic reading references. Two related objectives have defined the scope of the treatment. The first is to provide a general treatment of the common forms of turbo machine, covering basic fluid dynamics and thermodynamics of flow through passages and over surfaces, with a brief derivation of the fundamental governing equations. The second objective is to apply this material to the various machines in enough detail to allow the major design and performance factors to be appreciated. Both objectives have been met by grouping the machines by flow path rather than by application, thus allowing an appreciation of points of similarity or difference in approach. No attempt has been made to cover detailed points of design or stressing, though the cited references and the body of information from which they have been taken give this sort of information. The first four chapters introduce the fundamental relations, and the suc- ceeding chapters deal with applications to the various flow paths.
We have sought in this book to present a series of portraits of the plant cell wall as it participates in various different aspects of the life of the plant cell. Hardly any event in the cell's life occurs without involving the wall in some way, and as a result the book covers almost every aspect of plant cell biology, albeit from a special point of view. In presenting the various portraits, we have tried to show how the biochemistry, physiology and fine structure combine to give a full picture. In many cases, however, cell-wall research has not progressed far enough to give a complete picture, and numerous gaps remain. We are most grateful to Mike Black and John Chapman for inviting us to write this book and for their advice; to Clem Earle for his encouragement and help; to Dr P.M. Dey for his helpful comments; to the many contributors of photographs and diagrams; to Ros Brett, for taking more than her share of the parenting while writing was in progress; and, most especially, to Su Waldron for doing all the work on the word processor.
This book grew out of projects funded by the Kentucky Human- ities Council in 1974 and. 1975 and by the Environmental Protec- tion Agency in 1976 and 1977. As a result of the generosity of these two agencies, I was able to study the logical, methodological, and ethical assumptions inherent in the decision to utilize nuclear fission for generating electricity. Since both grants gave me the opportunity to survey public policy-making, I discovered that there were critical lacunae in allegedly comprehensive analyses of various energy technologies. Ever since this discovery, one of my goals has been to fill one of these gaps by writing a well-docu- mented study of some neglected social and ethical questions regarding nuclear power. Although many assessments of atomic energy written by en- vironmentalists are highly persuasive, they often also are overly emotive and question-begging. Sometimes they employ what seem to be correct ethical conclusions, but they do so largely in an in- tuitive, rather than a closely-reasoned, manner. On the other hand, books and reports written by nuclear proponents, often Under government contract, almost always ignore the social and ethical aspects of energy decision-making; they focus instead only on a purely scientific assessment of fission generation of electricity. What the energy debate needs, I believe, are more studies which aim at ethical analysis and which avoid unsubstantiated assertions. I hope that these essays are steps in that direction.
In the second century, Galen recognized that nerve and muscle were functionally inseparable since contraction of muscle occurred only if the nerves supplying that muscle were intact. He therefore concluded that the shortening of a muscle was controlled by the central nervous sytem while the extension of a muscle could occur in the absence of innervation. Nerves, he thought, were the means of transport for animal spirits to the muscles; the way in which animal spirits may bring about contraction dominated the study of muscle physiology from that time until the historical discovery of Galvani that muscle could be stimulated electrically and that nerve and muscle were themselves a source of electrical energy. It is now well known that nerves conduct electrically and that transmission from nerve to striated muscle is mediated by the chemical which is liberated from nerve terminals onto the muscle membrane. In vertebrates this chemical is acetylcholine (ACh). Thus the concept of spirits that are released from nerves and control muscle contraction directly, is no longer tenable. Nevertheless the concept of 'substances' transported down nerv~s which directly control many aspects of muscle has not been abandoned, and has in fact been frequently reinvoked to account for the long-term regula- tion of many characteristics of muscle (see review by Gutmann, 1976) and for the maintenance of its structural integrity.
This book is intended, like its predecessor (The metallurgy of welding, brazing and soldering), to provide a textbook for undergraduate and postgraduate students concerned with welding, and for candidates taking the Welding Institute examinations. At the same time, it may prove useful to practising engineers, metallurgists and welding engineers in that it offers a resume of information on welding metallurgy together with some material on the engineering problems associated with welding such as reliability and risk analysis. In certain areas there have been developments that necessitated complete re-writing of the previous text. Thanks to the author's colleagues in Study Group 212 of the International Institute of Welding, understanding of mass flow in fusion welding has been radically transformed. Knowledge of the metallurgy of carbon and ferritic alloy steel, as applied to welding, has continued to advance at a rapid pace, while the literature on fracture mechanics accumulates at an even greater rate. In other areas, the welding of non-ferrous metals for example, there is little change to report over the last decade, and the original text of the book is only slightly modified. In those fields where there has been significant advance, the subject has become more quantitative and the standard of math- ematics required for a proper understanding has been raised.
number of these concerns may be compared with capitalist enterprises ways), derived from the utility's annual reports, have been added to the (1. 5), but generally they scarcely rise above the level of one-man figures for private rail-and tramways (Tables 1 and 2). Expenditure ~n concerns. Although it is true that when taken individually, the fixed assets by the 'Gemeenschappelijke Mijnbouw Maatschappij Billi- allocations for increasing productive capacity in these concerns required ton' (Billiton Mining Company, in which the Government participated) only small amounts of money (in many cases they were not even are taken up under Mining (Table 3). Remaining public expenditure on monetary transactions at all), the large number of businesses concerned production-generating durable equipment and assets, including the oth- mean that taken as a whole, these efforts amount to substantial sums. It er mixed enterprises, have been derived from the finalised public ac- has not, however, proved possible to quantify these investments. counts ('extraordinary expenditure', CEI, 32, Vo1. 2. pp. 32-35). Among other things it covers irrigation and power installations (Table 1. 3 The data 2). Expenditure on roads and buildings have, however, been excluded For the most part, this research has been based on the data made (Budin and De Meel29, Van der Stok 101). available by the 'Bureau Schadeclaims Indonesie' (1. 1). The data are thus confined exclusively to Dutch enterprises. The report on this 1.
Early in the first volume of his Ideen zu einer reinen Phiinomeno- logie und phiinomenologischen Philosophie, Edmund Husserl stated concisely the significance and scope of the problem with which this present study is concerned. When we reflect on how it is that consciousness, which is itself absolute in relation to the world, can yet take on the character of transcendence, how it can become mundanized, We see straightaway that it can do that only by means of a certain participation in transcendence in the first, originary sense, which is manifestly the transcendence of material Nature. Only by means of the experiential relation to the animate organism does consciousness become really human and animal (tierischen), and only thereby does it achieve a place in the space and in the time of Nature. l Consciousness can become "e;worldly"e; only by being embodied within the world as part of it. In so far as the world is material Nature, consciousness must partake of the transcendence of material Nature. That is to say, its transcendence is manifestly an embodiment in a material, corporeal body. Consciousness, thus, takes on the characteristic of being "e;here and now"e; (ecceity) by means of experiential (or, more accurately, its intentive) relation to that corporeal being which embodies it. Accordingly, that there is a world for consciousness is a conse- quence in the first instance of its embodiment by 2 that corporeal body which is for it its own animate organism.
Biochemistry is the study of the chemistry of living organisms, of the ways in which food is used to serve all the many needs of the body. Biochemistry is closely connected with nutrition, the study of the types and amounts of various materials required in the diet. Biochemistry is also inextricably int~rtwined with endo- crinology, the study of hormones, for most of the hormones exert their actions by altering the behaviour of chemical reactions within the body. The central problem in biochemistry is that of the supply of energy. Energy is needed for a multitude of purposes of which muscular activity is the best known. Energy is required for digestion, and for the functioning of the kidney, the liver, the brain and all the other organs in the body. Energy is also essential for the building up of the complex organic molecules of which the body is con- structed. Ultimately, most of the energy utilized on earth comes from the sun. Plants are able to tap this energy source directly by the process of photosynthesis. By using pigments, notably the green chlorophyll, plants can trap the energy of sunlight and use it to build up complex substances such as fat, carbohydrate, protein and nucleic acids. The only raw materials required are carbon dioxide, water and simple inorganic substances such as nitrates which can be extracted from the soil.
The articles in this volume have been stimulated in two different ways. More than two years ago the editor of Synthese, laakko Hintikka, an- nounced a special issue devoted to space and time, and articles were solicited. Part of the reason for that announcement was also the second source of papers. Several years ago I gave a seminar on special relativity at Stanford, and the papers by Domotor, Harrison, Hudgin, Latzer and myself partially arose out of discussion in that seminar. All of the papers except those of Griinbaum, Fine, the second paper of Friedman, and the paper of Adams appeared in a special double issue of Synthese (24 (1972), Nos. 1-2). I am pleased to have been able to add the four additional papers mentioned in making the special issue a volume in the Synthese Library. Of these four additional articles, only the one by Fine has pre- viously appeared in print (Synthese 22 (1971), 448-481); its relevance to the present volume is apparent. In preparing the papers for publication and in carrying out the various editonal chores of such a task, I am very much indebted to Mrs. Lillian O'Toole for her extensive assistance. INTRODUCTION The philosophy of space and time has been of permanent importance in philosophy, and most of the major historical figures in philosophy, such as Aristotle, Descartes and Kant, have had a good deal to say about the nature of space and time.
IAU Symposium Number 52 on Interstellar Dust and Related Topics was held at Albany, N.Y., on the campus of the State University of New York at Albany from May 29 to June 2, 1972. The members of the Organizing Committee were: Dr A. D. Code, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis., U.S.A. Dr B. D. Donn, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., U.S.A. Dr A. Elvius, Stockholm Observatory, Saltsjobaden, Sweden. Dr T. Gehrels, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz., U.S.A. Dr J. M. Greenberg (Chairman), State University of New York at Albany, Albany, N.Y., U.S.A. Dr H. C. van de Hulst, Sterrewacht, Leiden, Holland. Dr S. B. Pikel'ner, Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow, U.S.S.R. Dr E. E. Salpeter, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., U.S.A. Dr B. E. Turner, National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, Va., U.S.A. The suggestion was first made in 1971 that a symposium on interstellar grains would be timely. The response to the first preliminary announcement, which was sent out on November 29, 1971, was well beyond our expectations. The meeting was locally sponsored by the State University and by Dudley Observatory. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation con- tributed along with the IAU. There were 158 participants of whom 49 were from 15 countries outside the United States. A total of 92 papers were presented.
Recent years have seen the appearance of many English-language hand- books of logic and numerous monographs on topical discoveries in the foundations of mathematics. These publications on the foundations of mathematics as a whole are rather difficult for the beginners or refer the reader to other handbooks and various piecemeal contribu- tions and also sometimes to largely conceived "e;mathematical fol- klore"e; of unpublished results. As distinct from these, the present book is as easy as possible systematic exposition of the now classical results in the foundations of mathematics. Hence the book may be useful especially for those readers who want to have all the proofs carried out in full and all the concepts explained in detail. In this sense the book is self-contained. The reader's ability to guess is not assumed, and the author's ambition was to reduce the use of such words as evident and obvious in proofs to a minimum. This is why the book, it is believed, may be helpful in teaching or learning the foundation of mathematics in those situations in which the student cannot refer to a parallel lecture on the subject. This is also the reason that I do not insert in the book the last results and the most modem and fashionable approaches to the subject, which does not enrich the essential knowledge in founda- tions but can discourage the beginner by their abstract form. A. G.