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The Trudeau government's White Paper on Indian policy issued in 1969 was a shock to members of the general public as well as the Indian population. Proposing to terminate all special rights, including the Indian Act, reserves, and treaties, it was diametrically opposed to what the Indians had been led to believe: that their rights would be honoured and that they would participate in shaping the policies that determined their future. The book looks inside the federal government in the early Trudeau years to see how that White Paper was formulated. The author examines ideologies held by major policy makers in the face of concepts of public participation and public servant activism -- two approaches to policy making closely coupled in Ottawa during the period. She reveals how the policy was developed behind close doors by a number of conflicting bureaucracies, in spite of the efforts of those who recommended Indian participation. The result was Indian militancy and mistrust, the very condition with the government hoped to dispel. The White Paper was shelved in 1970, but it left a powerful legacy. It continues to have an impact on government-Indian relations, as the Indians judge current policies and action on the basis of their memories. The author evaluates this impact and its implications for future governments with an eye to avoiding past errors. The book contributes to a greater understanding of government policy making. It demonstrates that personal aspirations and histories, individual philosophies, and political craftsmanship can dominate reason and logic in policy formation.
For the student of mathematics this book is intended to furnish an introduction to some of the applications of the exact sciences and their relation to the "e;practical"e; sciences and useful arts, and is primarily intended to give him a knowledge of facts and methods, but without neglecting the accurate exercise of his reasoning powers.For the student of physical science it is intended especially to emphasize general considerations of measurement, theory of errors, general methods of procedure, quantitative accuracy, adjustment of observations, etc. - topics that are often merely mentioned in the introduction or appendix of a laboratory manual, but that need laboratory work and drill quite as much as the measurements of the individual quantities that the student will take up in his later work.
Professor Kreiger's translation of Sierpinski's earlier work on point-set topology was speedily recognized as the outstanding work on the subject in English. The present volume is not just a revision of the previous one but a translation of an entirely new book which differs vastly in arrangement, outlook, and presentation; one of its most notable features is the addition of a large number of worked and unworked examples. Professor Kreiger is Associate Professor of Mathematics at University of Toronto.
A part of the Toronto Reprint Library of Canadian Prose and Poetry Series, this series is intended to provide for libraries a varied selection of titles of Canadian prose and poetry which have been long out-of-print. Each work is a reprint of a reliable edition, in a modern binding, and appropriate for public circulation. The Toronto Reprint Library makes available lesser known works of popular writers, and in some cases the only works of little known poets and prose writers. All form part of Canada's literary history: all help to provide a better knowledge of our cultural and social past.The Toronto Reprint Library is produced in short-run editions made possible by special techniques, some of which have been developed at the University of Toronto Press.
A STUDY of representation in a democratic legislature must be directed towards actual membership of the legislature and towards laws and practices governing the selection of members. The electoral system must be broadly viewed as embodying the devices by which constituencies are established and altered, the franchise which determines the extent of the electorate, and the provisions which are intended to control corrupt campaign tactics and otherwise prevent perversions of representation.The first few decades after Confederation were years of bitter struggle over election laws. The result was that genuine reform of the electoral machinery in the public interest was a literal impossibility until well after the turn of the century. That honesty in elections became possible, and even profitable, was the result at least as much of forces beyond the reach of legislative enactment as of positive federal policies conscientiously adopted and administered.The chronicle of this development, as it can be observed in several major sections of the electoral system, follows in these pages. In the first chapter the general nature of representation is discussed. The alteration of constituency boundaries after each decennial census is analysed in Part I. Membership in the legislature is examined in Part II. Part III covers the electoral machinery, both in its narrow aspect as a technique by which members of Parliament are returned, and in a broader sense as a large organization which includes the franchise, electoral corruption, and election expenses. Part IV comprises the conclusion.
The book serves as a useful anthology, providing as far as possible both representative selections from the works of the greater poets and a large collection of shorter pieces chosen for their intrinsic or historical importance.
The last few years have seen a tremendous increase in almost every area of musical life in Canada; more orchestras are playing longer seasons; Canadian composers are winning recognition at home and abroad; opera is coming into its own; the National Arts Centre in Ottawa is now a reality; as are various other centres for the arts; and interest in music among local groups, and among young people especially, is continually growing. Yet in spite of this emcouraging upsurge, it is also true that only about four per cent of Canadian adults actively support fine art, music, ballet, theatre and opera. One of the aims of this volume is to draw together the various, sometimes paradoxical, aspects of the country's musical life to provide a realistic and well-rounded survey of the current situation. This is the second volume of essays about music in Canada published by the Canadian Music Council and University of Toronto Press. The first, Music in Canada, edited by Sir Ernest MacMillan, described and documented Canada's musical life in the mid-fifties. That book receded into history with the accelerated tempo of musical development. Since then, the musical scene has changed fundamentally and beyond recognition. Aspects of Music in Canada delves into most, if not all, of the main areas of Canada's musical life, records its considerable achievements without ignoring its shortcomings, and pays tribute to Canadian artists and educators who have succeeded in a few short years in reaching international standards. Composition, performance (live and on the air), and education are surveyed and carefully documented. Essays on history, on folk and aboriginal music, and on musical organizations are also included. All who are intersted in the role that music has played and is playing in Canadian life will welcome this book of essays.
In an attempt to maintain self-sufficiency, both Canadian and American federal authorities have imposed a number of restrictions on the inter-country flows of natural gas in North America -- tariffs, export and import permits, and quotas. The purpose of this study is to estimate how much less final consumers would pay for natural gas if free trade were allowed. A linear programming model is used to estimate a hypothetical flow pattern when no restrictions are placed on trans-border flows of gas. In comparing this free trade solution to a simulation of the actual flow pattern under trade restrictions, the costs to final consumers can be estimated. In addition, the regional gains and losses to producers can be measured. A chapter is devoted to investigating both the balance of payments effects of free trade adn the impact of the Canadian tariff on natural gas which existed from 1924 to 1967. A technique is devised to estimate the tariff necessary to prevent entry into the domestic market by foreign suppliers. The book should be of great interest to teachers of programming, economists, people in government, and individuals concerned about the effects of a continental energy policy.
This radically new reading of La peau de charin presents a case for Balzac as a modern rather than a traditional, realist writer. Using the principles and languages of Marx, Derrida, Freud, Barthea, and others who have contributed to a redefinition of modern criticism, Samuel Weber presents a detailed and intricate explication of the text that challenges all standard interpretations of the novel. Traditional readings of La peau de chagrin, and of Balzac in general, have pursued a message in the novel, a reality beneath the allegory. Weber demonstrates that Balzac's text can be grasped both as a mise en scne and as a play of representations that reflects no original truth, reality, or meaning beneath the text to which the representation can be referred and by which they can be authenticated. To unwrap Balzac in this manner is to discover that there is no thing inside, that there is only the 'wrapping.'Weber's conclusions are not only startingly original, but they also solve problems which have puzzled traditional readers of the novel since the earliest commentators of 1831. Unwrapping Balzac is a brilliant tour de force that will create controversy among Balzac scholars for years to come.
'Breaking the law was a reflex in me. It wasn't something I thought about doing or not doing. It was something I simply did. Give me an opportunity -- when I was away from the carnivals -- and I wouldn't know how not to break the law.' A compulsive con turned compulsive crusader against crime. Tony McGilvary emerged from 22 years behind bars to turn his own life around and help other ex-cons get jobs, get straight, and stay off the street.
Among the medicinally useful constituent of plants, the alkaloids constitute an important group. The accounts and discussions given here attempt to summarize (a) the plant sources and fundamental properties of the medicinally important alkaloids, (b) the principles and certain useful methods for their separation and isolation from plant materials, and (c) some aspects of their biosynthesis. They are intended as an introduction to these aspects of the study of alkaloids, as a supplement to the relevant sections on the alkaloids in standard text-books of pharmaceutical subjects, and to provide a collateral background for related laboratory works. It is hoped that these introductory accounts may also serve to prepare the student for proceeding to independent and effective use of the more comprehensive literature on these and other alkaloids.
This revised and enlarged Checklist provides as complete a record as possible of the separately published works that constitute the literature of English-speaking Canada up to 1960. Its purpose is to stimulate interest and research in our literary culture, to reveal individual figures and areas of investigation rich in published material, and to facilitate the finding of the books concerned. Background materials are included because the cultural soil must be known if a nation's belles-lettres are to be adequately studied or fully appreciated. Part I of the Checklist records all known titles in poetry, fiction, and drama that were produced by English-speaking Canadians. Part II is a selective listing of books by Canadians which will be of value to anyone studying the literature of culture of Canada. Here are included books of biography, literary criticism, scholarship, local history and religion. Each title published before 1951 is coded to indicate where copies of the book can be found. Some 16,000 titles by 7,000 Canadian authors are included in this comprehensive bibliography. This edition maintains the qualities that made the first edition an indispensable reference work for librarians, book collectors, book dealers, and scholars.
This is a study of particular aspects of particular works in a particular context. The context, in general terms, is the humanist search for a synthesis or order based on the reconciliation of oppositions, for unity in difference, in spite of growing philosophical disillusionment and social disruption. More and more successfully -- in artistic terms at least -- than his fellow-dramatists. Shakespeare was able to achieve such reconciliations by utilizing opposed forces as the ingredients of both dramatic and poetic tension and by resolving conflicts between them on the basis of inclusion rather than exclusion. For Shakespeare, there is always "e;a soul of goodness in things evil"e; and a dram of evil in the best; in all human experience, as in Friar Laurence's flower, "e;poison hath residence, and medicine power."e; In exploiting the dramatic possibilities of the essential dualities of human existence, all the aspects of Shakespeare's art become increasingly involved. The book opens with a discussion of the contemporary climate of opinion in regard to the paradoxes of the human condition and the development of Shakespeare's attitudes towards them as demonstrated in his plays. Here, the emphasis is on dualities as thematic material. Subsequent chapters discuss the ways in which concepts of duality operate in paticular works, focussing, in each instance, on a particular aspect of Shakespeare's art -- the treatment of love in the Sonnets, the imagery of Romeo and Juliet, the inversions of Twelfth Night and Macbeth, the levels of order and justice in Measure for Measure, the structure of Antony and Cleopatra, and duality of intention in The Tempest.Well written, sensitive, and lively, this work will appeal to "e;the great variety of Readers"e; who joyfully accept the invitation of Shakespeare's first editors to "e;Reade him ... againe, and againe."e;
The first hundred years of Canada's criminal justice system are covered in this bibliography of published and unpublished scholarly materials written between 1867 and 1984. It offers 1100 French and English citations, most accompanied by English-language abstracts. Through a distinctly interdisciplinary focus this bibliography beings together, for the first time, a broad range of secondary sources essential for advanced research on the history and development of public policing, the criminal court system, and the correctional system. Organized into four broad subject areas, the bibliography deals first with police, including documents relating to the history and development of the RCMP, privincial and municipal policy, and the early use of the military in a policing capacity. The next chapter provides a context in which major components of the criminal justice system evolved: material on the history of crime and deviance, juvenile delinquency, and reform movements. The third chapter covers the history and developmetn of the criminal law and the criminal courts. Finally, chapter four deals with documents relating to the development of institutions for coping with criminals, the poor, and the insane; punishment and treatment of incarcerated offenders; penal reform; and the history and development of various sentencing alternatives, such as transportation, probation, and parole. Author and subject indexes provide ready access to the bibliography, and an appendix of sources searched is of invaluable assistance to researchers.
This study describes the organization and operation of the postwar Canadian housing and residential mortgage markets and investigates the role of and scope for government policy in these markets. There are three main sections. The first investigates the behavious of the housing market and structural relationships within it, and quatifies these relationships through the development of an econometric model. The single and multiple dwelling sectors are analysed separately, and considerable attention is paid to the factors affecting both housing demand and supply. The housing model is then used to explain the long-run and cyclical variations in residential construction activity on a period-by-period basis. The residential mortgage market is examined in the second section. The main participants are described and their mortgage investment behavious is analysed in terms of both their portfolio investment decisions and their net inflows of funds. The factors influencing the supply of mortgage credit are integrated with demand factors to explain the determination of mortgage rates, and simulations are conducted to indicate the interest sensitivity of mortgage flows for the major lending institutions. The third section forcuses upon government oplicy in the housing and mortgage markets using the models previously developed. The major government programs are analysed, and simulation experiments run to quantify their effects. The book concludes with a discussion of the trade-off between policies directed towards housing objectives and those directed toward general economic stability. This work should be helpful to students of Canadian housing and mortgage markets and to economists who are interested in more than cursory knowledge of the area. Policy-makers should also find it useful because it provides an in-depth analysis of past housing and mortgage market policy, and describes the framework and market structure within which future policies will operate.
Not all British immigrants in mid-nineteenth-century Upper Canada were 'roughing it in the bush.' This lively account of twenty years in the life of a dashing young man about town provides a firsthand description of society in early Victorian Toronto. Young Mr. Smithc's diaries and letters, from 1839 to 1858, have been edited by his graddaughter and deftly interwoven with her own background comments. Larratt William Biolett Smith (1820 - 1905) arrived in Toronto from England in 1833 at the age of twelve and was enrolled by his parents in the recently founded Upper Canada College. At seventeen he bore arms against the rebels of 1837. Two years later he became a law student articled to William Henry Draper, solicitor-general of Upper Canada, and, an increasingly prominent and eligible young bachelor, he began to keep a diary, In later life, he became a successful barrister, a figure of importance in business circles, vice-chancellor of the University of Toronto, a patriarch and owner of majestic Summer Hill. Personally revealing, full of fun, his diaries provide a gold mine of information about living conditions and the social and professional manners and customs of the time, as well as a thousand glimpses of timeless human nature. There are observations of friends, acquaintences, passing encounters, many with names that became part of Canadian history. We read about courtship and marriage, domestic joys and sorrows, the inevitable problems with servants and difficulties with legal partners; about the social impact of English officers forbidden to marry during their colonial postings; about travels to Upper Canada, tollgates, winter storms, and the ubiquitous bedbug. Above all, the gregarious young Mr. Smith presents a moving panorama of the social and cultural life of the city, the debates, clubs, plays, and concerts attended, the books read, the parties and dancing, hunting, sleighing, and skating, the incessant socializing -- on one occasion Smith made eighty-seven social calls during a hectic, two-day, New Year holiday! This abundant activity and the comments he made upon it make the book both informative and enjoyable.
This study of the poetry of the eighteenth century is written with appropriate clarity, grace, and wit. It does not profess to offer a new estimate, although it does dispel the notions still found at times about the "e;poetic diction"e; of Pope and the distinction between "e;classical"e; and "e;romantic"e; in the poetry of the period. Pope, Dryden, Samuel Johnson, Thomson, and Burns are dealth with perceptively in the three lectures. More than two decades have passed since Professor Nichol Smith delivered these lectures, and the book remains in constant demand. This new edition includes minor amendments.
This refernce work provides a list of bibilographical entries for books and periodical articles related to Northern Ontario. The geographical area covered is that part of the province which lies north of the Canadian National Railway running from Cochrane through Kapuskasing and Hearst to Sioux Lookout. With references to all aspects of this section of Canada, the compilers have included the following topics: Archaeology, Botany, Boundaries, Economics and Development, Entomology, Ethnology, Forestry, Ichthyology, Invertebrate Zoology, Linguistics, Mammalogy, Medicine, Meterology, Ornithology, Paleontology, and Transportation. An author index to the entire work, and a map, have been added for further clarity. This bibliography, a first gathering of information on this particular area to Canadian studies, will be invaluable to people in government and those who are interested in various aspects of life in the province of Ontario.
This volume describes and illustrates neural pathways, their interrelationships, and their blood supply, and is aimed particularly at students of neuroanatomy, particularly medical students. The caudal end of the axial nervous system is described first, and successively higher segments of the central nervous system are then described in turn. In order that the structure of the brain and the course of the longer pathways may be described with a minimum of digression, a full description of the cranial nerves and their afferent and efferent pathways is delayed until after the whole of the axial nervous system has been described. To round out this study of the nervous system, an attempt is made to interpret the structures that comprise its autonomic division. The concluding chapter is a treatise on the arterial blood supply. In keeping with the primary purpose of this text, a description of the coverings of the brain and the histology of nervous tissue are not included.
For some two hundred years, Old Testament criticism has wrestled with the problem of the Hexateuch. The commonly accepted view is based on the Wellhausen Hypothesis, which has held saw over the mids of scholars, save for a conservative few, for nearly seventy years. According to the theory of Wellhausen, the Hexateuch is a combination of fource literary sources, J, E, D, and P, with numerous additions and retouchings by the symbols Rje, Rd and Rp. Professor Winnett's view is that the Books of Exodus and Numbers constitute one primary source, the Mosaic Tradition, which has been supplemented and rearranged by P. Dr. Winnett shows that shortly after the fall or the Northern Kingdom in 722 B.C. the Southern Kingdom under Hezekiah took advantage of the extinction of its rival to issue a revised version of the national tradition.
Trade and regulation have been a theme and counteropint through much of recorded history, each advancing at times when the other receded. In the past, regulation was imposed by self-aggrandizing territorial units that sought to use trade for their own purposes. Today trade agreements between nations are a permanent factor in international commerce, and as a result the nature of regulation is changing. In this series of essays Gilbert R. Winham explores the nature of international trade and regulation as it is evolving today. He begins with a historical perspective, and then considers the various stresses to which the system of international trade is subject. He discusses the nature and function of the GATT and assesses its effectiveness. Next he turns his attention to the latest round of talks, which broke down abruptly in Brussels at the end of 1990, and concludes with a look forward to the future of the GATT specifically and international trade in general. Today as economic boundaries are merging, dividing, and reforming, international trade plays a critical role in global stability. Winham offers an insightful analysis of how the current situation has developed and where it might lead.
In Canada one of the most important means by which the government regulates business is the Combines Investigation Act. In this book a political scientist and an economist have collaborated to study the way this legislation has developed and has been administered. They have concentrated on the period between the establishment of the present administrative machinery in 1952 and the major revisions in the definition of offences under the Act in 1960. The authors are interested in description and analysis rather than a search for the 'right' policy. Nevertheless, certain recommendations do emerge from their study, which -- clearly presented and well documented -- will be of interest to both expert and general readers.
This edition of Bibliography of the Prairie Provinces completes a project begun by happenstance twenty-six years ago, with the assistance of the librarians of the leading newspapers in Western Canada the biographical information on several dozen authors in the first edition was enlarged. The scope of this bibliography is books and pamphlets relating to the Prairie Provinces.
In nine studies which make up this book Professor Skilling analyses the development of the communist systems in the various countries of Eastern Europe, with special emphasis on developments following the 22nd Congress in 1961. His conclusion is that the future of communism is, to a large extent, not only out of the control of the West, but out of the control of the Communist leaders as well. For Western policy he advocates a subtle and restrained approach, avoiding both the extreme attitude of regarding communism as a monolithic enemy bloc, and that of seeking openly to divide and separate the communist states from one another. The most likely trend, he predicts, will be evolution within communism, rather than its total replacement by another system.This work has made a distinctive contribution to studies of Russian and East European affairs. Based on scholarly research, it is written in non-technical language, and succeeds admirably in analysing a very complicated subject in relatively simple terms. It will be read with great interest and profit by students as well as by specialists, and by all the wider public interested in international affairs and in the position of communism in the world today.
The National Research Council of Canada is a unique organization, internationally known and regarded. It was first established through a sub-committee of the Privy Council which provided for an Advisory Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, intended to stimulate and coordinate research activities through scholarships, grants, and committees. Today the NRC is a vast and complex body, engaging in research in such fields as physics, chemistry, radio and electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, and medicine, but in the early years the struggle to obtain laboratories was only one of the difficulties experienced during its formation the NRC was faced with administrative and financial problems as well as those resulting from conflicts between and among scientists and administrators. From official files and documents and private papers and correspondence Mr. Thistle has extracted material to provide an intimate picture of this complex organization in its early years (1917 to 1935) -- people as well as policies are brought to life, and readers are able to see as well how some of the major scientific achievements of the NRC came about: the campaign against wheat rust, investigation of the deterioration of concrete in alkali soils, and the effects of smelter fumes on vegetation. The accounts of the people who were associated with the National Research Council in its early days are fascinating too: scientists, university administrators, and government officials were all engaged in the first struggle, and many of them come vividly to life through excerpts from their correspondence and papers. All scientists will find this record an engrossing one, and it will be read with interest too by laymen who are intribued by scientific developments, the relationships between science and government, and the history of science.
For too long the history of Canadian society has been hidden in secondhand bookstores, the dark corners of library stacks, and the privacy of the occasional graduate seminar. Contrary to what often seems the common impression, there is a richness and distinctiveness to our labour history, our urban development, our traditions of regional and cultural conflict, our movements for social reform and justice - to all that vast range of topics, events, issues, and ideas that comprise the social history of a nation. The demands of teachers and students and indeed the general public for material relevant to Canadian social history have been matched only by the frustrations raised by the inaccessibility, sometimes the apparent non-existence, of documents basic to a new understanding of our heritage. It is now time that this heritage be retrieved and made available to everyone. It is the purpose of this new series,a The Social History of Canada,a to help meet these demands. The titles in the series, including The Rapids, will be issued in a common format, in both hardcover and paperback editions, and will deal with all areas of social history. Most of these volumes will consist of a reissue of classic works now out of print - novels, histories, investigations, polemics, tracts; others will contain a compilation of documents in areas where there are no worthwhile book-length studies. Each work will have a new introduction by a scholar who is a specialist in the field. It is hoped that this series will simultaneously enrich our knowledge of the past and lay the groundwork for future advances in scholarship and historical consciousness.
The second volume of Peter Stursberg's absorbing, multi-faceted study of the Chief and his time captures the excitement of the period and chronicles the waning years of Diefenbaker's leadership. Peter Newman said of the first volume of this oral history, Diefenbaker: Leadership Gained, that Stursberg's interviews with the Chief's political associated, opponents, and close observers of the Ottawa scene 'evoke the Diefenbaker magic much more effectively than the Chief ever does.' In this second volume, Douglas Harkness, Howard Green, Eddie Goodman, Pierre Sevigny, Dalton Camp, Judy LaMarsh, David Lewis, and Real Caouette are among those who recall events and emotions. From the bitter near-defeat of the 1962 election to Diefenbaker's last days in leadership, we see the grand orator under fire, whether fending off the threat from the old Tory establishment that never really accepted him, or confronting Lester Pearson over the flag and bilingualism. Diefenbaker: Leadership Lost reveals the inside stories of such matters as the nuclear warhead issue that caused a rebellion in the party ranks and brought down the Conservative government, the nortorious Munsinger case, and Dalton's Camp campaign to unseat the Chief, culminating in the 1967 convention when Diefenbaker was defeated in his attempt to hang on to the party leadership.
Canada's participation in the Paris Peace Conference after the First World War and its consequent membership in the new world organization of the League of Nations were important stages in the development of Canadian autonomy. This study of canadian international diplomacy in its first twenty years treats the subject both from a national point of view -- what was Ottawa hoping to achieve? -- and an international one -- how did external events affect Canadian policy? The focus is mainly on political and security aspects of Canadian objectives and reactions -- the framing of the Covenant, the shapers of Canadian politicies particularly in regard to collective security and minorities, and Canada's role in the Manchurian and Ethiopian disputes that broke up the League -- but it also includes an account of a largely forgotten episoide: an appeal to the League from the Six Nation Indians against Canada. The study is based largely on archival sources recently opened in Ottawa and Geneva, and on the personal papers of those involved, including Walter A. Riddell. The activities and influence of O.D. Skelton are also described. It is hoped that this book will serve as the standard work on the topic of Canada's first steps on the formal international stage.
In 1910, Mrs. Lydia A. Marfteet of Prophetstown, Illinois, endowed this Lectureship in memory of her late husband and as an expression of the regard which she and her husband had for this City and this University. Dorothy Thompson's topic as the Marfleet Lecturer is "e;The Crisis of the West."e; "e;Crisis"e; is defined as a turning point. In what direction does the arrow point?
The last decade has seen a renewal of interest in the works of Erasmus. Much has been written on the educational and editorial writings of that great humanist of the northern Renaissance, but relatively little on his fictional work. This book deals with the fiction of Erasmus and what it contains of instruction and delight. The attention of the study is focused primarily on the four satiric works: The Praise of Folly, the Colloquies, Julius secundus exclusus, and Ciceronianus, although the author, in the process analyzing and appraising, looked for analogues and explanations in the educational exegetical works.Three aspects of Erasmus' throught are considered. The first is his insistence on man's capacity for betterment through good teaching -- the formal teaching of a preceptor, or the incidental teaching of a good satirist or storyteller. The second is his notion of what man is and to what end he is to be educated. (Man is, of course, bent to knowledge and virtue, but one cannot afford to be too simple in one's appraisal of Erasmus' moral emphases -- the moral life involves both doer and spectator and is strongly dependent on the thinking process, althrough not divorced from the act of willing, and, activated by faith and the grade of God, is never far removed from creed and devotion.)The third aspect is Erasmus' special use of irony -- an irony both dramatic and satiric -- subtle and various, and doubly pronges so that it punctures what it praises but also questions the too obvious alternative, and leaves the reader pondering the whereabouts of the right and the perimeters of truth. To quote the atuhor: 'It seems to me that the fictional works are the exempla that give life and specificity to the great theories of a great man, and a study of them should not be without interest.'