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This book is a thoroughly revised result, updated to mid-1995, of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on "Intelligent Learning Environments: the case of geometry", held in Grenoble, France, November 13-16, 1989. The main aim of the workshop was to foster exchanges among researchers who were concerned with the design of intelligent learning environments for geometry. The problem of student modelling was chosen as a central theme of the workshop, insofar as geometry cannot be reduced to procedural knowledge and because the significance of its complexity makes it of interest for intelligent tutoring system (ITS) development. The workshop centred around the following themes: modelling the knowledge domain, modelling student knowledge, design ing "didactic interaction", and learner control. This book contains revised versions of the papers presented at the workshop. All of the chapters that follow have been written by participants at the workshop. Each formed the basis for a scheduled presentation and discussion. Many are suggestive of research directions that will be carried out in the future. There are four main issues running through the papers presented in this book: ¿ knowledge about geometry is not knowledge about the real world, and materialization of geometrical objects implies a reification of geometry which is amplified in the case of its implementation in a computer, since objects can be manipulated directly and relations are the results of actions (Laborde, Schumann). This aspect is well exemplified by research projects focusing on the design of geometric microworlds (Guin, Laborde).
The Marktoberdorf Summer School 1995 'Logic of Computation' was the 16th in a series of Advanced Study Institutes under the sponsorship of the NATO Scientific Affairs Division held in Marktoberdorf. Its scientific goal was to survey recent progress on the impact of logical methods in software development. The courses dealt with many different aspects of this interplay, where major progress has been made. Of particular importance were the following. ¿ The proofs-as-programs paradigm, which makes it possible to extract verified programs directly from proofs. Here a higher order logic or type theoretic setup of the underlying language has developed into a standard. ¿ Extensions of logic programming, e.g. by allowing more general formulas and/or higher order languages. ¿ Proof theoretic methods, which provide tools to deal with questions of feasibility of computations and also to develop a general mathematical understanding of complexity questions. ¿ Rewrite systems and unification, again in a higher order context. Closely related is the now well-established Grabner basis theory, which recently has found interesting applications. ¿ Category theoretic and more generally algebraic methods and techniques to analyze the semantics of programming languages. All these issues were covered by a team of leading researchers. Their courses were grouped under the following headings.
Despite its increasing importance, the verification andvalidation of the human-machine interface is perhaps themost overlooked aspect of system development. Although muchhas been written about the design and developmentprocess,very little organized information is available on how toverifyand validate highly complex and highly coupleddynamic systems. Inability toevaluate such systemsadequately may become the limiting factor in our ability toemploy systems that our technology and knowledge allow us todesign.This volume, based on a NATO Advanced Science Institute heldin 1992, is designed to provide guidance for theverification and validation of all highly complex andcoupled systems. Air traffic control isused an an exampleto ensure that the theory is described in terms that willallow its implementation, but the results can be applied toall complex and coupled systems.The volume presents the knowledge and theory ina formatthat will allow readers from a wide variety of backgroundsto apply it to the systems for which they are responsible.The emphasis is on domains where significant advances havebeen made in the methods of identifying potential problemsand in new testing methods and tools. Also emphasized aretechniques to identify the assumptions on which a system isbuilt and to spot their weaknesses.
The understanding of parallel processing and of the mechanisms underlying neural networks in the brain is certainly one of the most challenging problems of contemporary science. During the last decades significant progress has been made by the combination of different techniques, which have elucidated properties at a cellular and molecular level. However, in order to make significant progress in this field, it is necessary to gather more direct experimental data on the parallel processing occurring in the nervous system. Indeed the nervous system overcomes the limitations of its elementary components by employing a massive degree of parallelism, through the extremely rich set of synaptic interconnections between neurons. This book gathers a selection of the contributions presented during the NATO ASI School "e;Neuronal Circuits and Networks"e; held at the Ettore Majorana Center in Erice, Sicily, from June 15 to 27, 1997. The purpose of the School was to present an overview of recent results on single cell properties, the dynamics of neuronal networks and modelling of the nervous system. The School and the present book propose an interdisciplinary approach of experimental and theoretical aspects of brain functions combining different techniques and methodologies.
Soft computing is a consortium of computing methodologies that provide a foundation for the conception, design, and deployment of intelligent systems and aims to formalize the human ability to make rational decisions in an environment of uncertainty and imprecision. This book is based on a NATO Advanced Study Institute held in 1996 on soft computing and its applications. The distinguished contributors consider the principal constituents of soft computing, namely fuzzy logic, neurocomputing, genetic computing, and probabilistic reasoning, the relations between them, and their fusion in industrial applications. Two areas emphasized in the book are how to achieve a synergistic combination of the main constituents of soft computing and how the combination can be used to achieve a high Machine Intelligence Quotient.
Recent developments in computer science clearly show the need for a better theoretical foundation for some central issues. Methods and results from mathematical logic, in particular proof theory and model theory, are of great help here and will be used much more in future than previously. This book provides an excellent introduction to the interplay of mathematical logic and computer science. It contains extensively reworked versions of the lectures given at the 1997 Marktoberdorf Summer School by leading researchers in the field.Topics covered include: proof theory and specification of computation (J.-Y. Girard, D. Miller), complexity of proofs and programs (S. R. Buss, S. S. Wainer), computational content of proofs (H. Schwichtenberg), constructive type theory (P. Aczel, H. Barendregt, R. L. Constable), computational mathematics, (U. Martin), rewriting logic (J. Meseguer), and game semantics (S. Abramski).