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This book discusses the background of Kashmir dispute and the origins of India-Pakistan hostilities over the issue. This issue led the two countries to war in 1947-48, this war followed by another war over Kashmir in 1965. The analysis of views of India, Pakistan and the people of Kashmir has also been done. It also highlighted the efforts made by United Nations for the resolution of Kashmir Dispute. This book also examined the role played by the major powers for the settlement of decade long issue. It also presented an overview of armed struggle for the liberation of Kashmir.The book also outlines the efforts of NGOs and think tanks for settling Kashmir issue. Due importance has been given to the will and aspiration of the people of Kashmir regarding their land. This book also attempted to analyse different prospects of settlement and the existing options to resolve Kashmir Dispute. Dr.Mamnoon Ahmad Khan has been formulized a peace process ¿Slow but Steady Process¿ to pull out the people of Kashmir from the perpetual miseries and atrocities faced by them since 1947 and and to save the people of the world from the constant threat of nuclear war.
Many historians in recent years have sought alternatives to national histories, and Ukrainian history invited approaches that looked beyond a national paradigm. Multiethnic history recognizes the numerous peoples in Ukraine; transnational history portrays Ukraine as a border zone for various empires; and area studies categorize Ukraine as part of Eurasia, or more often as part of East-Central Europe. Looking beyond the country's national history has made possible a richer understanding of Ukraine, its people, and the surrounding regions. After 1991, historical memory was a powerful tool in the political mobilization and legitimation of the post-Soviet Ukrainian state, as well as the division of selectively used memory along the lines of the political division of Ukrainian society. Ukraine did not experience the restoration¿s paradigm typical of some other post-Soviet nations, including the Baltic States, although the multifaceted history of independence, the Orthodox Church in Ukraine, Soviet-era repressions, mass famine, and World War II collaboration were used to provide a different constitutive frame for the new Ukrainian nation.
The Zazas, (also known as Kird, Kirmanc or Dimili) are a people in eastern Anatolia who natively speak the Zaza language. Their heartland, the Dersim region, consists of Tunceli, Bingöl provinces and parts of Elaz¿¿, Erzincan and Diyarbak¿r provinces. The majority of Zazas consider themselves ethnic Kurds, part of the Kurdish nation,Among Kurdish Social groups, However, Zazas identify themselves with different names changing from region to region. Kirmancs, Kirds, Dimili/Dumbili and Zazas. And the dialect carry the names of their different regions - Kirmanchki, Kirdki, Dimilki and Zazaki. Compared to other Kurdish dialects, their dialect alone retains characteristics from ancient languages which have been preserved through time. Zazas originated in eastern Anatolia and are genetically indistinguishable from their Kurmanji neighbors, although linguistically connected to the region south of the Caspian Sea. The future of the Zaza will greatly be determined by the political processes in Turkey through the Government policies in Turkey. and through the prospective of Kurdish movement and the activity of Zaza intellectuals themselves.
The Igboland located in the southern part of Nigeria believes in one supreme god called Chukwu Abiama or Chineke which means God who created all things. The concept of chukwu (the supreme god) was largely propagated by the Aros of Arochukwu in Eastern Niger Delta in the 18th century due to their operating of the Ibini ukpabi oracle. The Igbo's believe that the supreme God who cannot be seen or reached directly could be approached through other lesser gods or spirits called arusi or agbara which are in form of natural objects. Dibia and High Priests are the mouth piece of the god's and are the mystic mediators between the human world and the spirit world and act as healers, scribes, teachers, diviners and advisors of people in the community. The Igbo's believe that their ancestors live in the spirit world where they can be contacted. Below the arusis are the minor and more general spirits known as mmuo loosely defined by their perceived malevolent or benign nature. These minor spirits are not venerated and are sometimes considered the lost souls of the deadSome of the Igbo religion still practiced today includes harvest ceremonies such as new yam festival, ekpe, ekpo and mmanwu.
The book analyzes the main strategic guidelines of the Ukrainian women¿s organizations of the Eastern Galicia of the first third of the twentieth-century: socio-cultural education, suffrage, legal forms of activity, the avoidance of overly radical expressions and actions, emphasized the national character. Organizational and ideological models of women¿s organizations are defined: liberal as the main, conservative, social-democratic.
The study tried to establish the effects of the interregional migration and its causes, and consequence in Majang administrative zone. As a result, push and pull factors have been the driving forces that force people to migrate to other areas, mainly to the lowland area of Gambella Majang Zone.The extent in which resource conflict and social differentiation contributed to the population displacement in the context of resource scarcity and ethnicity has been discovered. Besides economic reason that attracted migrants, push factors that drive interregional migration into MAZ are in fact environmentally related. Particularly, the recurrent drought, land, and soil degradation, and declining of soil productivity in the northern part of the country. However, interregional migration led to conflict between the settlers and the indigenous Majang people. This also caused population displacement and loss of properties of local people from their ancestor land. It also puts future livelihood of Majang people at risk because it fostered unprecedented forest and land degradation.
Cornishman, the Revd William Woon, 1803-1858, between 1830 and 1853 served as a Wesleyan missionary printer in Tonga and New Zealand using his day's advanced iron Albion and Columbian presses. Though not of the top rank of missionaries, his printing output was prodigious. In New Zealand it was second in importance only to that of another Cornishman, the Revd William Colenso of the Church Missionary Society, who had a similar eight year long printing career. Despite the oppressive heat and humidity, in Tonga, in two years Woon produced about 25,000 booklets of some 54,000 pages. In New Zealand between 1836 and 1844, from the Wesleyans' Mangungu press Woon produced some 60,000 items or around three million pages in the Maori language of New Testament Gospels, small booklets on divinity, first readers, school exercise books, class tickets, and farming almanacs, some of which are of particular importance for their literary preservation of distinctive Maori dialects. A genial and laid-back giant, Woon won the affection of his Maori charges, one Hokianga chief taking the baptised name of Wiremu Wunu (William Woon). But Woon died in 1858 believing his missionary work had been in vain.
This book deals with an environmental history of Mätäkäl, a region located along Ethiopiäs northwest, from the late 1880s to the early 1990s. The late 1880s forms an important watershed in the environmental history of Mätäkäl since it witnessed a major transformation in the demographic structure and environmental features of the region due to the conjuncture of a major cattle epizootic, locust invasion and failure of the rains. These ecological shocks were played out against the backdrop of major political disturbances and local and regional and cross-border warfare that deepened the vulnerability of the population to these disasters. The early 1990s, on the other hand, marked the end of a decade of intensive projects of social and ecological engineering initiated by the Derg socialist government that primariy consisted of the resettlement of tens of thousands of agrarian populations from the southern and northern highlands in the lowlands of Mätäkäl as well as its large-scale socialist agrarian projects that depended on the operation of large state farms.
The book is about the management of the Apostolic Faith Mission in Zimbabwe (AFMZ) culled from the Apostolic Vision which is based on influencing the world for the glory of God. The book speaks, among other things against the commercialisation of faith which is fast paving the way for possible external interference in the church governance today. The book endeavours to awaken church leadership across denominations to be strong, ethical, and doctrinal sound in barring exceptions, self-enrichment, and materialism strategies of managing the church of God. The book draws from the success of the very Early Apostolic Church which was built on the principle of making disciples of men based on the Gospel of Jesus Christ.
The question of land has become the most burning topic in our contemporary politics and debates. However, these street altercations, formal and informal debates surrounding the question of land, have a long history within the politics of our continent (Africa). In actual fact it is safe to prematurely conclude in this premise that the history of the African struggle is centered around the land question. Whether it is the expropriation, exploitation, extraction from or ¿acquisition¿ of the African land. Although the history of land dispossession dates centuries back, its severity is still felt till date. This investigation will primarily focus on the prospects and challenges that the land reform programme of South Africa presents, using Ga-Sekgopo Village as a case study of the research. The investigation will employ a qualitative research methodology to determine the opportunities and challenges that come with the land reform question.
Banaba (/b¿¿n¿¿b¿/; also Ocean Island), an island of Kiribati in the Pacific Ocean, and as a solitary raised coral island west of the Gilbert Island chain, it is the Westernmost of Kiribati, that is 185 miles (298 km) east of Nauru. It has an area of 6.0 km and the highest point on the island is also the highest point in Kiribati, at 81 metres (266 ft) high. Along with Nauru and Makatea (French Polynesia), it is one of the important elevated phosphate-rich islands of the Pacific. Banabans are Micronesians with a language that is very similar to the Gilbertese language of Kiribati. The Banaban population was moved from the island of Banaba (Ocean Island), then in the Gilbert and Ellice Islands and now in Kiribati, to Rabi in eastern Fiji in 1942, when the British Phosphate Commission was mining it. Between 1900 and 1979 almost Ocean Island¿s entire surface was removed. Many Banabans remain on the island of Rabi (Vanua Levu), though others have migrated to Suva and elsewhere.
This monograph investigates the educational path of the great famous Tajik, Uzbek writer and educator Sadriddin Aini exactly in the early years of his activity from 1895 to 1917. The monograph begins - with the historical situation in the Bukhara Emirate in the late 19th early 20th century. It is social and economic conditions and cultural life in Bukhara Emirate. Young Bukharians and the beginning of Sadriddin Aini's creative activity. The origin of the Young Bukhara movement and the activity of each of its members is disclosed. The most prominent representatives of socio-philosophical thought of this period in Bukhara were Ahmad Donish, Kori Rakhmatullo Voseh, Shamsiddin Shohin, Abdulkodir Savdo, Mirzo Azim Bustoni and others, who clearly understood that in conditions of colonial isolation, ignorance and impatience, it is very difficult to expect spiritual awakening of people. The enlightenment ideology of the Maladobukhars had a very strong influence on all of Aini's works. The circle of Sadri Ziyo, which included not only famous scholars and public figures of Bukhara, like Donish, but also young talents, had a great influence on the perfection of Aini's ideological views.