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I brugerundersøgelser ved Københavns Universitet får ”Kemiske data og oversigter” de allerbedste skudsmål med på vejen. Her anvendes bogen ved undervisningen i medicinsk kemi. Bogen vil generelt være til hjælp ved en række uddannelser og kurser, rettet mod basal almen og organisk kemi. Her tænkes på kemiundervisningen i både gymnasier, seminarier samt ved laborant- bioanalytiker og ernæringsuddannelserne. Bogen kan anvendes uden noget større kendskab til matematik. Dansk nomenklatur og danske fagudtryk er anvendt i videst muligt omfang. I denne 3. udgave af bogen er afsnittet om radioaktivitet væsentligt forbedret.
This book presents the observation and the control of spin-polarized electrons in Rashba thin films and topological insulators, including the first observations of a weak topological insulator (WTI) and a higher-order topological insulator (HOTI) in bismuth halides. It begins with a general review of electronic structures at the solid surface and mentions that an electron spin at a surface is polarized due to the Rashba effect or topological insulator states with strong spin-orbit coupling. Subsequently it describes the experimental techniques used to study these effects, that is, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Further it moves its focus onto the experimental investigations, in which mainly two different systems-noble metal thin films with the Rashba effects and bismuth halides topological insulators-are used. The study of the first system discusses the role of wavefunctions in spin-splitting and demonstrates a scaling law for the Rashba effect in quantum well films for the first time. High-resolution spin-resolved ARPES plays a vital role in systematically trace the thickness-evolution of the effect. The study of the latter material is the first experimental demonstration of both a WTI and HOTI state in bismuth iodide and bismuth bromide, respectively. Importantly, nano-ARPES with high spatial resolution is used to confirm the topological surface states on the side surface of the crystal, which is the hallmark of WTIs.The description of the basic and recently-developed ARPES technique with spin-resolution or spatial-resolution, essential in investigating spin-polarized electrons at a crystal surface, makes the book a valuable source for researchers not only in surface physics or topological materials but also in spintronics and other condensed-matter physics.
This book constructs a non-Bloch band theory and studies physics described by non-Hermitian Hamiltonian in terms of the theory proposed here.In non-Hermitian crystals, the author introduces the non-Bloch band theory which produces an energy spectrum in the limit of a large system size. The energy spectrum is then calculated from a generalized Brillouin zone for a complex Bloch wave number. While a generalized Brillouin zone becomes a unit circle on a complex plane in Hermitian systems, it becomes a circle with cusps in non-Hermitian systems. Such unique features of the generalized Brillouin zone realize remarkable phenomena peculiar in non-Hermitian systems. Further the author reveals rich aspects of non-Hermitian physics in terms of the non-Bloch band theory. First, a topological invariant defined by a generalized Brillouin zone implies the appearance of topological edge states. Second, a topological semimetal phase with exceptional points appears, The topological semimetal phase is unique to non-Hermitian systems because it is caused by the deformation of the generalized Brillouin zone by changes of system parameters. Third, the author reveals a certain relationship between the non-Bloch waves and non-Hermitian topology.
This book presents scientific and technological innovations and advancements already developed or under development in academia, industry, and research communities. It includes fundamental ideas and advancement in terahertz technology covering high intensity terahertz wave generation, THz detection, different modes of THz wave generation, THz modulation system, and terahertz propagation channel modeling. It highlights methodologies for the design of terahertz components and system technologies including emerging applications. The chapter contents are based on theoretical, methodological, well-established, and validated empirical work dealing with different topics in the terahertz domain. The book covers a very broad audience ranging from basic sciences to experts and learners in engineering and technology. It would be a good reference for advanced ideas and concepts in THz technology which will best suit microwave, biomedical, and electrical and communication engineers working towards next-generation technology.
This book presents the new discovery of the origin of turbulence from Navier-Stokes equations. The fully developed turbulence is found to be composed of singularities of flow field. The mechanisms of flow stability and turbulent transition are described using the energy gradient theory, which states all the flow instability and breakdown resulted from the gradient of the total mechanical energy normal to the flow direction. This approach is universal for flow instability in Newtonian flow and non-Newtonian flow. The theory has been used to solve several problems, such as plane and pipe Poiseuille flows, plane Couette flow, Taylor-Couette flow, flows in straight coaxial annulus, flows in curved pipes and ducts, thermal convection flow, viscoelastic flow, and magnet fluid flow, etc. The theory is in agreement with results from numerical simulations and experiments. The analytical method used in this book is novel and is different from the traditional approaches. This book includes the fundamental basics of flow stability and turbulent transition, the essentials of the energy gradient theory, and the applications of the theory to several practical problems. This book is suitable for researchers and graduate students.
This book highlights a comprehensive introduction of graphene and graphene-based two-dimensional nanomaterials, covering topics from their atomic structures, electronic band structures, and fundamental properties to technological applications. The book provides fundamental physics knowledge covering quantum mechanics, the theory of relativity, solid-state physics, and topology geometry necessary to understand electronic band structure of graphene. Other topics including microscopy techniques and preparation methods of graphene are also presented. Adopting an easy-to-read style, the book is a valuable resource for researchers in physics, chemistry, materials science, and engineers who are interested in the field of graphene-based nanomaterials.
This book examines the topics of magnetohydrodynamics and plasma oscillations, in addition to the standard topics discussed to cover courses in electromagnestism, electrodynamics, and fundamentals of physics, to name a few. This textbook on electricity and magnetism is primarily targeted at graduate students of physics. The undergraduate students of physics also find the treatment of the subject useful. The treatment of the special theory of relativity clearly emphasises the Lorentz covariance of Maxwell's equations. The rather abstruse topic of radiation reaction is covered at an elementary level, and the Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory has been dwelt upon briefly in the book.
The study of quantum disorder has generated considerable research activity in mathematics and physics over past 40 years. While single-particle models have been extensively studied at a rigorous mathematical level, little was known about systems of several interacting particles, let alone systems with positive spatial particle density. Creating a consistent theory of disorder in multi-particle quantum systems is an important and challenging problem that largely remains open. Multi-scale Analysis for Random Quantum Systems with Interaction presents the progress that had been recently achieved in this area. The main focus of the book is on a rigorous derivation of the multi-particle localization in a strong random external potential field. To make the presentation accessible to a wider audience, the authors restrict attention to a relatively simple tight-binding Anderson model on a cubic lattice Zd. This book includes the following cutting-edge features: an introduction to the state-of-the-art single-particle localization theory an extensive discussion of relevant technical aspects of the localization theorya thorough comparison of the multi-particle model with its single-particle counterpart a self-contained rigorous derivation of both spectral and dynamical localization in the multi-particle tight-binding Anderson model. Required mathematical background for the book includes a knowledge of functional calculus, spectral theory (essentially reduced to the case of finite matrices) and basic probability theory. This is an excellent text for a year-long graduate course or seminar in mathematical physics. It also can serve as a standard reference for specialists.
This book highlights the proceedings of the International Conference on Atomic, Molecular, Optical and Nano-Physics with Applications (CAMNP 2019), organized by the Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, New Delhi, India. It presents experimental and theoretical studies of atoms, ions, molecules and nanostructures both at the fundamental level and on the application side using advanced technology. It highlights how modern tools of high-field and ultra-fast physics are no longer merely used to observe nature but can be used to reshape and redirect atoms, molecules, particles or radiation. It brings together leading researchers and professionals on the field to present and discuss the latest finding in the following areas, but not limited to: Atomic and Molecular Structure, Collision Processes, Data Production and Applications Spectroscopy of Solar and Stellar Plasma Intense Field, Short Pulse Laser and Atto-Second Physics Laser Technology, Quantum Optics and applications Bose Einstein condensation Nanomaterials and Nanoscience Nanobiotechnolgy and Nanophotonics Nano and Micro-Electronics Computational Condensed Matter Physics
This book provides a comprehensive description of topological polymers, an emerging research area in polymer science and polymer materials engineering. The precision polymer topology designing is critical to realizing the unique polymer properties and functions leading to their eventual applications. The prominent contributors are led by Principal Editor Yasuyuki Tezuka and Co-Editor Tetsuo Deguchi. Important ongoing achievements and anticipated breakthroughs in topological polymers are presented with an emphasis on the spectacular diversification of polymer constructions. The book serves readers collectively to acquire comprehensive insights over exciting innovations ongoing in topological polymer chemistry, encompassing topological geometry analysis, classification, physical characterization by simulation and the eventual chemical syntheses, with the supplementary focus on the polymer folding, invoked with the ongoing breakthrough of the precision AI prediction of protein folding. The current revolutionary developments in synthetic approaches specifically for single cyclic (ring) polymers and the topology-directed properties/functions uncovered thereby are outlined as a showcase example. This book is especially beneficial to academic personnel in universities and to researchers working in relevant institutions and companies. Although the level of the book is advanced, it can serve as a good reference book for graduate students and postdocs as a source of valuable knowledge of cutting-edge topics and progress in polymer chemistry.
This book highlights the state-of-the-art research and discovery in the use of MOFs in catalysis, highlighting the scope to which these novel materials have been incorporated by the community. It provides an exceptional insight into the strategies for the synthesis and functionalization of MOFs, their use as CO2 and chemical warfare agents capture, their role in bio-catalysis and applications in photocatalysis, asymmetric catalysis, nano-catalysis, etc. This book will also emphasize the challenges with previous signs of progress and way for further research, details relating to the current pioneering technology, and future perspectives with a multidisciplinary approach. Furthermore, it presents up-to-date information on the economics, toxicity, and regulations related to these novel materials.
This book provides insights into the 3rd International Conference on Communication, Devices and Computing (ICCDC 2021), which was held in Haldia, India, on August 16-18, 2021. It covers new ideas, applications, and the experiences of research engineers, scientists, industrialists, scholars, and students from around the globe. The proceedings highlight cutting-edge research on communication, electronic devices, and computing and address diverse areas such as 5G communication, spread spectrum systems, wireless sensor networks, and signal processing for secure communication, error control coding, printed antennas, analysis of wireless networks, antenna array systems, analog and digital signal processing for communication systems, frequency selective surfaces, radar communication, and substrate integrated waveguide and microwave passive components, which are key to state-of-the-art innovations in communication technologies.
This book gathers outstanding research papers presented in the 2nd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence: Advances and Application (ICAIAA 2021), held in Poornima College of Engineering, Jaipur, India during 27-28 March 2021. This book covers research works carried out by various students such as bachelor, master and doctoral scholars, faculty and industry persons in the area of artificial intelligence, machine learning, deep learning applications in healthcare, agriculture, business, security, etc. It will also cover research in core concepts of computer networks, intelligent system design and deployment, real time systems, WSN, sensors and sensor nodes, SDN, NFV, etc.
This book comprehensively summarizes the recent achievements and trends in encapsulation of micro- and nanocontainers for applications in smart materials. It covers the fundamentals of processing and techniques for encapsulation with emphasis on preparation, properties, application, and future prospects of encapsulation process for smart applications in pharmaceuticals, textiles, biomedical, food packaging, composites, friction/wear, phase change materials, and coatings. Academics, researchers, scientists, engineers, and students in the field of smart materials will benefit from this book.
This book serves as a quick guide on the latest material systems including their synthesis, fabrication and characterization techniques. It discusses recent developments in different material systems and discusses their novel applications in various branches of science and engineering. The book briefs latest computational tools and techniques that are used to discover new material systems. The book also briefs applications of new emerging materials in various fields including, healthcare, sensors, opto-electronics, high power devices and nano-electronics. This book helps to create a synergy between computational and experimental research methods to better understand a particular material system.
This book describes the history of and recent developments in cobaltite and the spin-crossover (SC) phenomena. It offers readers an overview of essential research conducted on cobaltite and introduces them to the fundamentals of condensed matter physics research.The book consists of two parts. The first part reviews SC phenomena, covering the fundamental physics of SC phenomena and basic material properties of cobaltite. The second part focuses on recent topics in SC cobaltite, including the optical and dynamical features of cobaltite, thin material fabrication, and thermoelectric properties. The comprehensive coverage and clearly structured topics will especially appeal to newcomers to the field of state-of-the-art research on cobaltite and SC physics.
This book focuses on chemical reactions and processing under extreme conditions-how materials react with highly concentrated active species and/or in a very confined high-temperature and high-pressure volume. Those ultimate reaction environments created by a focused laser beam, discharges, ion bombardments, or microwaves provide characteristic nano- and submicron-sized products and functional nanostructures. The book explores the chemistry and processing of metals and non-metals as well as molecules that are strongly dependent on the energy deposition processes and character of the materials. Descriptions of a wide range of topics are given from the perspective of a variety of research methodologies, material preparations, and applications. The reader is led to consider and review how a high-energy source interacts with materials, and what the key factors are that determine the quality and quantity of nanoproducts and nano-processing.