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Fusion Technology R&D Priorities examines the current landscape of fusion technology. With a strong focus on technological advances, this book considers technical challenges and priorities to further the development of fusion research. Beginning with an introduction to fusion technology research and development, this book then presents an overview of basic magnetic fusion concepts and worldwide pathways to fusion energy. Subsequent chapters then take a deep dive into fusion materials R&D, capabilities of potential neutron sources for materials testing, plasma facing components, and plasma diagnostics, heating, and control. Breeding blanket and tritium system, vacuum vessels, and the shielding system are also highlighted, before concluding with safety features and environmental and social issues. Presenting the most advanced developments in nuclear fusion R&D, this is an essential read for researchers and engineers interested in nuclear energy and fusion technology.
This book serves as an introduction to boundary plasma physics, providing an accessible entry point to the topic of plasma exhaust in magnetic confinement devices. While it delivers a concise, rigorous, and comprehensive account of all the major scientific topics relevant to those working on the subject, it also remains accessible and easy to consult due to its modular and compact structure. Beginning with the basic kinetic and fluid descriptions of plasma, and advancing through plasma-surface interactions, filamentary transport and plasma detachment, to conclude with a discussion of divertor configurations, this book represents a necessary and timely addition to the literature on the fast-growing field of boundary plasma physics. It will appeal to experienced theoreticians or experimentalists looking to enter the field as well as graduate students wishing to learn about it.
This book provides a comprehensive introduction to photoelectron angular distributions and their use in the laboratory to study light-matter interactions. Photoelectron angular distribution measurements are useful because they can shed light on atomic and molecular electronic configurations and system dynamics, as well as provide information about quantum transition amplitudes and relative phases that are not obtainable from other types of measurements. For example, recent measurements of molecular-frame photoelectron angular distributions have been used to extract photoelectron emission delays in the attosecond range which can provide ultra-sensitive maps of molecular potentials. Additionally, photoelectron angular distribution measurements are an essential tool for studying negative ions.Here, the author presents a detailed, yet easily accessible, theoretical background necessary for experimentalists performing photoelectron angular distribution measurements to better understand their results. The various physical influences on photoelectron angular distributions are revealed through analytical models with the use of angular momentum coupling algebra and spherical tensor operators. The classical and quantum treatments of photoelectron angular distributions are covered clearly and systematically, and the book includes, as well, a chapter on relativistic interactions. Furthermore, the primary methods used to measure photoelectron angular distributions in the laboratory, such as photodetachment electron spectroscopy, velocity-map imaging, and cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy, are described. This book features introductory material as well as new insights on the topic, such as the use of angular momentum transfer theory to understand the process of photoelectron detachment in atoms and molecules. Including key derivations, worked examples, and additional exercises for readers to try on their own, this book serves as both a critical guide for young researchers entering the field and as a useful reference for experienced practitioners.
This volume focuses on recent developments in metallacrown chemistry. While the field was established in 1989 by Professor Vincent Pecoraro and numerous applications had been proposed, there has been a recent surge in the practical applications for this class of molecules. Written by leaders in the metallacrown chemistry field this book addresses recent developments. The single-molecule magnet properties of metallacrowns are presented along with discussions on their ability to bind DNA, as well as their potency to serve as building blocks for supramolecular structures. The volume is not only intended for those who work directly in the field of metallacrowns but it also appeals to those working in the aligned fields of metallamacrocyclic chemistry, self-assembly chemistry, and supramolecular chemistry. This dedicated volume serves as an encyclopedic reference for those wishing to gain insight into the field.
This book describes the forcefields/interatomic potentials that are used in the atomistic-scale and molecular dynamics simulations. It covers mechanisms, salient features, formulations, important aspects and case studies of various forcefields utilized for characterizing various materials (such as nuclear materials and nanomaterials) and applications. This book gives many help to students and researchers who are studying the forcefield potentials and introduces various applications of atomistic-scale simulations to professors who are researching molecular dynamics.
Non-Abelian gauge theories, such as quantum chromodynamics (QCD) or electroweak theory, are best studied with the aid of Green's functions that are gauge-invariant off-shell, but unlike for the photon in quantum electrodynamics, conventional graphical constructions fail. The pinch technique provides a systematic framework for constructing such Green's functions, and has many useful applications. Beginning with elementary one-loop examples, this book goes on to extend the method to all orders, showing that the pinch technique is equivalent to calculations in the background field Feynman gauge. The Schwinger¿Dyson equations are derived within the pinch technique framework, and are used to show how a dynamical gluon mass arises in QCD. Finally the volume turns to its many applications. This book is ideal for elementary particle theorists and graduate students. This 2011 title has been reissued as an Open Access publication on Cambridge Core.
Originally published in 1977, this book presents an extended introduction to the theory of hadrons, the elementary particles which occur in the atomic nucleus. The main emphasis is on the theory of the complex angular momentum plane 'Regge theory', which has grown from Regge's demonstration in 1959 that it is useful to regard angular momentum as a complex variable when discussing solutions of the Schrodinger equation for non-relativistic potential scattering. This theory helps to classify the many different particles which have been discovered in recent years, to explain the forces between these particles and to predict the results of high-energy scattering experiments. Regge theory thus serves as a unifying concept drawing together many different features of high-energy physics. This monograph is intended primarily for research students just beginning to concern themselves with particle physics, but more experienced workers will also find much to interest them in this detailed survey of the basic ideas and results of Regge theory.
A clear and original introductory 2000 text on the physics of heavy quarks, written by two world leading experts.
This book develops the basic formalism and theoretical techniques for studying relativistic quantum field theory at high temperature and density. Specific physical theories treated include QED, QCD, electroweak theory, and effective nuclear field theories of hadronic and nuclear matter. Topics covered include: functional integral representation of the partition function, diagrammatic expansions, linear response theory, screening and plasma oscillations, spontaneous symmetry breaking, Goldstone theorem, resummation and hard thermal loops, lattice gauge theory, phase transitions, nucleation theory, quark-gluon plasma, and color superconductivity. Applications to astrophysics and cosmology cover white dwarf and neutron stars, neutrino emissivity, baryon number violation in the early universe, and cosmological phase transitions. Applications to relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions are also included. The book is written for theorists in elementary particle physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. Released initially in 2006, this title has been reissued as an Open Access publication on Cambridge Core.
This 2002 book introduces the quantum theory of gauge fields. Emphasis is placed on four non-perturbative methods: path integrals, lattice gauge theories, the 1/N expansion, and reduced matrix models, all of which have important contemporary applications. Written as a textbook, it assumes a knowledge of quantum mechanics and elements of perturbation theory, while many relevant concepts are pedagogically introduced at a basic level in the first half of the book. The second half comprehensively covers large-N Yang-Mills theory. The book uses an approach to gauge theories based on path-dependent phase factors known as the Wilson loops, and contains problems with detailed solutions to aid understanding. Suitable for advanced graduate courses in quantum field theory, the book will also be of interest to researchers in high energy theory and condensed matter physics as a survey of recent developments in gauge theory.
Providing a new perspective on quantum field theory, this book gives a pedagogical and up-to-date exposition of non-perturbative methods in relativistic quantum field theory and introduces the reader to modern research work in theoretical physics. It describes in detail non-perturbative methods in quantum field theory, and explores two- dimensional and four- dimensional gauge dynamics using those methods. The book concludes with a summary emphasizing the interplay between two- and four- dimensional gauge theories. Aimed at graduate students and researchers, this book covers topics from two-dimensional conformal symmetry, affine Lie algebras, solitons, integrable models, bosonization, and 't Hooft model, to four-dimensional conformal invariance, integrability, large N expansion, Skyrme model, monopoles and instantons. Applications, first to simple field theories and gauge dynamics in two dimensions, and then to gauge theories in four dimensions and quantum chromodynamics (QCD) in particular, are thoroughly described.
Fusion power may offer a long-term energy supply with an uninterrupted power delivery, a high power-generation density, and no greenhouse gas emissions, contributing to preventing the worst effects of climate change and making an enduring contribution to future energy supply. However, the intense conditions inside a fusion power plant (extreme temperatures and high magnetic fields necessary for nuclear fusion) call for addressing several potential problems. These include the development of new materials with extremely high heat tolerances and low enough vapor pressure and the design of mechanical structures that can withstand the electromagnetic force generated as well as feedback controllers to measure and counteract the unstable modes of evolution of the plasma, to name a few. The future of nuclear fusion as an efficient alternative energy source depends largely on techniques that enable us to control these instabilities. Mathematical modelling and physical experiments attempt to overcome some of the hindrances posed by these complexities. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the current state of the art in this fascinating and critically important field of pure and applied physics, mathematics, and engineering, presenting some of the most recent developments in theory, modelling, algorithms, experiments, and applications.
Dieses Lehrbuch zur Elementarteilchenphysik bietet eine Einführung von den Grundlagen zu den modernen Experimenten bis hin zu den jüngsten Entwicklungen der Teilchenphysik. Dabei werden auch experimentelle Hilfsmittel wie Beschleuniger und Detektoren sowie die Symmetrieprinzipien und ihre Anwendungen ausführlich vorgestellt. Zudem wird das Standardmodell - das die heutige experimentelle und theoretische Diskussion weitgehend beherrscht - eingeführt. Hierzu werden in diesem Buch wesentliche Bereiche der Quantenelektrodynamik, des Quarkmodells, der Quantenchromodynamik und der elektroschwachen Theorie erläutert. Der Lagrangeformalismus formuliert das Standardmodell als Eichtheorie und der Higgs-Mechnismus wird im Detail beschrieben. Kapitel zur Physik an Hadron-Collidern und Neutrino-Physik knüpfen an aktueller Forschung an und untersuchen darüber hinaus mögliche Erweiterungen des Standardmodells im Lichte jüngster experimenteller Ergebnisse. Die ansprechende Gestaltung des Lehrbuchs und die 187 U¿bungen mit Lösungshinweisen und Ergänzungen als Jupyter Notebooks auf GitHub dienen anschließend zur Vertiefung.
This book presents experimental work conducted on the International Space Station (ISS) in order to characterize metals and alloys in the liquid state. The internationally recognized authors present and discuss experiments performed in microgravity that enabled the study of the relevant volume and surface related properties free of the restrictions of a gravity-based environment. The collection serves also as a handbook of space experiments using electromagnetic levitation techniques. A summary of recent results provides an overview of the wealth of space experiment data, which will ignite further research activities and inspire academics and industrial research departments for their continuous development.
For over 60 years, scientists and engineers have been trying to crack a seemingly intractable problem: how to build practical devices that exploit nuclear fusion. Access to electricity has facilitated a standard of living that was previously unimaginable, but as the world¿s population grows and developing nations increasingly reap the benefits of electrification, we face a serious global problem: burning fossil fuels currently produces about eighty percent of the world's energy, but it produces a greenhouse effect that traps outgoing infrared radiation and warms the planet, risking dire environmental consequences unless we reduce our fossil fuel consumption to near zero in the coming decades. Nuclear fusion, the energy-producing process in the sun and stars, could provide the answer: if it can be successfully harnessed here on Earth, it will produce electricity with near-zero CO2 byproduct by using the nuclei in water as its main fuel. The principles behind fusion are understood, but the technology is far from being fully realized, and governments, universities, and venture capitalists are pumping vast amounts of money into many ideas, some highly speculative, that could lead to functioning fusion reactors. This book puts all of these attempts together in one place, providing clear explanations for readers who are interested in new energy technologies, including those with no formal training in science or engineering. For each of the many approaches to fusion, the reader will learn who pioneered the approach, how the concept works in plain English, how experimental tests were engineered, the future prospects, and comparison with other approaches. From long-established fusion technologies to emerging and exotic methods, the reader will learn all about the idea that could eventually constitute the single greatest engineering advance in human history.
The Case for Nukes is a unique book. In it, world-renowned nuclear and aerospace engineerDr. Robert Zubrin explains how nuclear power works and how much it has to offer humanity. Hedebunks the toxic falsehoods that have been spread to dissuade us from using it by variously theignorant, the fearful, the fanatical, and by cynical political operatives bought and paid for bycompeting interests. He tells about revolutionary developments in the field, including newreactor types that can be cheaply mass produced, that cannot be made to melt down no matterhow hard their operators try, that use a new fuel called thorium far more plentiful than uranium,and still more advanced systems, employing thermonuclear fusion - the power that lights the sun- to extract more energy from a gallon of water than can be obtained from 300 gallons ofgasoline. He tells about the bold entrepreneurs - a totally different breed from the governmentofficials who created the existing types of nuclear reactors - who are leading this revolution inpower technology.But there are broader issues involved in the nuclear debate than technology alone, and Zubrinis not shy about addressing them. He makes clear the critical difference between practicalenvironmentalism, which seeks to improve the environment for the benefit of humanity, andideological environmentalism, which seeks to use instances of human insult to naturalenvironment as evidence for a prosecutorial case against human liberty. He shows how the latterschool of thought is wrong, not only with respect to the catastrophic harm it would do tohumanity, but to nature as well. He also exposes the masters of mercenary environmentalism,who deploy troops of dupes to shut down companies or whole industries in order to eliminatecompetition in return for being suitably rewarded by the beneficiaries of such efforts. He showsthat when it comes to environmental improvement, freedom is not the problem; freedom is thesolution. He makes clear both the possibility and necessity of a nuclear-power-enabledrevolution in the human condition by putting it in a broader historical context of the overall process of development of civilization, whereby new technologies create new resources and new knowledge, which in turn make possible still more technological advance.Finally, Zubrin brings all this to bear to address the greatest threat facing humanity today- which is the possibility that we will turn on each other, as we did in the 20 th century, under thespell of the false idea that resources are finite.Only in a world of unlimited resources can all men and women be brothers and sisters.Only in a world of freedom can resources be unlimited.That is the world we can, and must, create. In The Case for Nukes, Zubrin shows us how.
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