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En moderne klassiker, som har slået alle udgivelsesrekorder med 237 uger på bestsellerlisten. ”Denne bog er en forening af et barns undren og et genis intellekt. Vi rejser med ind i Hawkings univers med dyb fascination.” Sunday Time ”En af de mest fremragende videnskabelige begavelser siden Einstein.” Daily Express ”Hawking forklarer kompleks kosmologisk fysik med en medrivende blanding af klarhed og humor … en hjerne af usædvanlig kraft.” Observer
Den 20. juli 1969 kl. 03.56 dansk tid satte Neil Armstrong som det første menneske sin fod på Månen. I denne bog med mere end 100 fotos fortæller Danmarks førerende astrofysiker, Anja C. Andersen hele den spændende historie om Jordens nærmeste nabo i rummet; kendsgerninger og konspirationsteorier, myter, fup og fakta. Frem til 1972 gennemførte NASA yderligere 5 bemandede månelandinger, og i alt 12 astronauter har betrådt Månen. Derudover har der været et utal af ubemandede månelandinger - senest den 3. januar 2019, da et kinesisk rumfartøj landede på Månens bagside. Men der er stadig meget, vi ikke ved: Hvordan er Månen opstået, og hvorfor har den kun vand på den side, der vender mod Jorden? Hvordan påvirker Månen os mennesker?
Der sker hele tiden noget nyt og spændende inden for rumforskningen. I 2022 lykkedes det forskerholdet Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration at optage et billede af det sorte hul i Mælkevejen. James Webb Teleskopet leverer billeder af galakser, der ligger 13 milliarder lysår borte. De opdagelser, som den danske forsker Albert Sneppen har gjort omkring neutronstjerners sammenstød, kan måske bruges til at beregne universets udvidelseshastighed. I ”Det gådefulde univers” giver Danmarks mest anerkendte astrofysiker et overblik over himmelrummet fra Solsystemet og ud til de fjerneste galakser og over universets udvikling fra Big Bang frem til i dag.Universet blev skabt for 13,7 milliarder år siden. Et lysår er ca. 9,5 billioner kilometer, og afstanden til de fjerne kvasarer er 12 milliarder lysår. Når man beskæftiger sig med universet, handler det om svimlende tidshorisonter og afstande; men Anja C. Andersen formår at gøre det uoverskuelige begribeligt. Stor gavebog med fantastisk billedmateriale.
Der er ikke otte, men milliarder af planeter i Universet, og mange af dem ligger i et lunt smørhul, hvor de potentielt kan huse liv. Den opdagelse er en af de største i den moderne astronomi, og vi er kun lige begyndt at forstå, hvad der egentlig gemmer sig derude i kosmos af bizarre kloder. 'Fjerne kloder' beskriver erkendelsesrejsen, fra Giordano Bruno blev brændt på bålet i år 1600 for sin kætterske idé om uendelig mange planeter – og til konstruktionen af små satellitter, som måske kan besøge de nærmeste af disse exoplaneter og lede efter livstegn på dem. Undervejs møder vi forskerne ved fronten, som kigger hinsides solsystemet og kæmper for at besvare det ultimative spørgsmål: Er vi alene?
Every night, above our heads, a drama of epic proportions is playing out. Diamond planets, zombie stars, black holes heavier than a billion Suns. The cast of characters is extraordinary, and each one has its own incredible story to tell.
NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER • Stephen Hawking’s closest collaborator offers the intellectual superstar’s final thoughts on the cosmos—a dramatic revision of the theory he put forward in A Brief History of Time.“This superbly written book offers insight into an extraordinary individual, the creative process, and the scope and limits of our current understanding of the cosmos.”—Lord Martin ReesPerhaps the biggest question Stephen Hawking tried to answer in his extraordinary life was how the universe could have created conditions so perfectly hospitable to life. In order to solve this mystery, Hawking studied the big bang origin of the universe, but his early work ran into a crisis when the math predicted many big bangs producing a multiverse—countless different universes, most of which would be far too bizarre to harbor life. Holed up in the theoretical physics department at Cambridge, Stephen Hawking and his friend and collaborator Thomas Hertog worked on this problem for twenty years, developing a new theory of the cosmos that could account for the emergence of life. Peering into the extreme quantum physics of cosmic holograms and venturing far back in time to our deepest roots, they were startled to find a deeper level of evolution in which the physical laws themselves transform and simplify until particles, forces, and even time itself fades away. This discovery led them to a revolutionary idea: The laws of physics are not set in stone but are born and co-evolve as the universe they govern takes shape. As Hawking’s final days drew near, the two collaborators published their theory, which proposed a radical new Darwinian perspective on the origins of our universe. On the Origin of Time offers a striking new vision of the universe’s birth that will profoundly transform the way we think about our place in the order of the cosmos and may ultimately prove to be Hawking’s greatest legacy.
Do we have free will? Is the universe compatible with God? Do we live in a computer simulation? Does the universe think?Physicists are great at complicated research, but they are less good at telling us why it matters. In this entertaining and groundbreaking book, theoretical physicist Sabine Hossenfelder breaks down why we should care. Drawing on the latest research in quantum mechanics, black holes, string theory and particle physics, Existential Physics explains what modern physics can tell us about the big questions.Filled with counterintuitive insights and including interviews with other leading scientists, this clear and yet profound book will reshape your understanding of science and the limits of what we can know.
"The discovery that the universe has been expanding from its fiery beginning fourteen billion years ago and has developed into stars, galaxies, life, and human consciousness is one of the most significant of human history. It is taught throughout the world and has become our common creation story for every culture with modern educational processes. It holds the promise of a new human unity. In terms of this story of the universe's development, we humans are not primarily French or Chinese, Democrat or Republican. We are primarily cosmological beings. Though An Unveiling of the Expanding Universe narrates the same cosmological events as thousands of other books, it has one unique feature. It tells the story of the universe while simultaneously telling the story of the storyteller. If indeed cosmogenesis is one of the greatest discoveries of human history, it will necessarily have an immense impact on humanity, at least as profound as the Copernican revolution. And yet, to my knowledge, none of the science books published in English explores the effects cosmogenesis has on human consciousness. An Unveiling of the Expanding Universe tells the story of how my mind was deconstructed by the impact of this new story and then reassembled. In shorthand: I began with the mind of a cartesian scientist and ended with a mind aligned with the creativity of the universe"--
"A concise and accessible introduction to exoplanets that explains the cutting-edge science behind recent discoveries. For centuries, people have speculated about the possibility of planets orbiting distant stars, but only since the 1990s has technology allowed astronomers to detect them. At this point, more than five thousand such exoplanets have been identified, with the pace of discovery accelerating after the launch of NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Satellite Survey and the Webb Space Telescope. In The Little Book of Exoplanets, Princeton astrophysicist Joshua Winn offers a brief and engaging introduction to the search for exoplanets and the cutting-edge science behind recent findings. In doing so, he chronicles the dawn of a new age of discovery-one that has rapidly transformed astronomy and our broader understanding of the universe. Scientists now know that many Sun-like stars host their own systems of planets, some of which may resemble our solar system and include planets similar to the Earth. But, Winn tells us, the most remarkable discoveries so far have been of planets with unexpected and decidedly un-Earth-like properties, which have upended what we thought we knew about the origins of planetary systems. Winn provides an inside view of the sophisticated detective work astronomers perform as they find and study exoplanets and describes the surprising-sometimes downright bizarre-planets and systems they have found. He explains how these discoveries are revolutionizing astronomy, and he explores the current status and possible future of the search for another Earth. Finally, drawing on his own and other scientists' work, he considers how the discovery of exoplanets and their faraway solar systems changes our perspectives on the universe and our place in it"--
"Stephen Hawking's closest collaborator offers the intellectual superstar's final thoughts on the cosmos-a dramatic revision of the theory that made him the heir to Einstein's legacy. Perhaps the biggest question Stephen Hawking tried to answer in his extraordinary life was how the universe could have created conditions so perfectly hospitable to life. Pondering this mystery led Hawking to study the big bang origin of the universe, but his early work ran into a crisis when the math predicted many big bangs producing a multiverse-countless different universes, most far too bizarre to harbor life. Holed up in the theoretical physics department at Cambridge, Stephen Hawking and his friend and collaborator Thomas Hertog worked shoulder to shoulder for twenty years on a new quantum theory of the cosmos. As their journey took them deeper into the big bang, they were startled to find a deeper level of evolution in which the physical laws themselves transform and simplify until particles, forces, and even time itself fades away. Once upon a time, perhaps, there was no time. This led them to a revolutionary idea: the laws of physics are not set in stone but are born and co-evolve as the universe they govern takes shape. On the Origin of Time takes the reader on a quest to understand questions bigger than our universe, peering into the extreme quantum physics of black holes and the big bang and drawing on the latest developments in string theory. As Hawking's final days drew near, the two collaborators developed a final theory proposing their radical new Darwinian perspective on the origins of our universe. Hertog offers a striking new vision that ties together more deeply than ever the nature of the universe's birth with our existence. This new theory profoundly transforms the way we think about our place in the order of the cosmos and may ultimately prove Hawking's biggest legacy"--
Stephen Hawking var et enestående menneske. På én gang en ikonisk skikkelse i vores populærkultur, skelsættende forfatter og formidler af videnskabeligt stof til den almene læser, en dreven spøgefugl – og sidst, men ikke mindst en helt afgørende forsker, der bidrog med grundlæggende indsigter til vores forståelse af, hvordan den verden og det univers, som har skabt os, er dannet og fungerer.Fysikeren og forfatteren Leonard Mlodinow mødte første gang Stephen Hawking, da de skrev deres første bog sammen. Leonard og Stephen blev venner – og Mlodinow har været personligt og professionelt tæt på både Hawking, menneskene omkring ham og hans videnskabelige resultater. I ‘Stephen Hawking’ beskriver Leonard Mlodinow i seks kapitler, hvorfor Stephen Hawking var så stor og vigtig en videnskabsmand – og forklarer det, så vi alle kan være med. Det bliver en rejse, hvor vi bevæger os med Hawking ind i det mærkværdige og de vilde sorte huller, ser ham bevise, at tiden måske slet ikke findes og følger ham i hans arbejde med teorien om, at der findes mange verdener og parallelle universer. Og hvor vi samtidig møder ham som menneske. Medrivende, bevægende og storslået. Et indblik i et rigt sind og en stor ånds univers.
Stellar Motions: With Special Reference To Motions Determined By Means Of The Spectrograph (1913) is a book written by William Wallace Campbell. The book is a comprehensive guide to the study of the motion of stars, with a particular focus on the use of spectrographs to determine these motions. The book is divided into several chapters, each of which covers a specific aspect of stellar motion. The first chapter provides an introduction to the subject, while the subsequent chapters cover topics such as the measurement of radial velocities, the determination of proper motions, and the study of binary stars. The book also includes a detailed discussion of the use of the Doppler effect in determining the motion of stars, as well as a discussion of the limitations of spectroscopic methods. Throughout the book, Campbell draws on his extensive experience in the field to provide practical advice and guidance to astronomers and astrophysicists. Overall, Stellar Motions is an important work in the history of astronomy, and remains a valuable resource for anyone interested in the study of stellar motion.This scarce antiquarian book is a facsimile reprint of the old original and may contain some imperfections such as library marks and notations. Because we believe this work is culturally important, we have made it available as part of our commitment for protecting, preserving, and promoting the world's literature in affordable, high quality, modern editions, that are true to their original work.
Universe of Particles: Size, Forces, and Invisible DancersHave you ever wondered what lies beneath the world we live in? What microscopic universe in which atoms also become huge and the game of unique dance of particles takes place? This book is an attempt to take you on a journey into that invisible world, where we will step into the exciting world of particle physics and see the fundamental bricks from which our universe is made.The Magic of Size: A Journey from the Micro to the MicroscopicOur eyes are accustomed to seeing huge mountains, shining stars, and flowing rivers. But do you know that these are made up of the smallest particles, atoms? And even smaller worlds are hidden inside atoms, where particles dance. These particles are so small that a hair looks like a giant planet in comparison to them!Let's take a walk in this microscopic world. Divide one centimeter into a hundred million parts, then divide each of them again into a hundred million parts. Now you are close to the size of particles! In this unimaginably small world, the seeds of the secrets of the universe are hidden.The Game of Forces: The Invisible Shackles that Hold the Universe TogetherThe world of particles is like a complex play, in which four fundamental forces play the role of playwrights. Gravity is the invisible shackle that pulls everything together. The electromagnetic force is the magician behind the lightning and the attraction of magnets. The strong nuclear force holds quarks together at the center of the atom, and the weak nuclear force causes radioactivity. These forces control the dance of particles in this microscopic world and give the universe its shape.
This scarce antiquarian book is included in our special Legacy Reprint Series. In the interest of creating a more extensive selection of rare historical book reprints, we have chosen to reproduce this title even though it may possibly have occasional imperfections such as missing and blurred pages, missing text, poor pictures, markings, dark backgrounds and other reproduction issues beyond our control. Because this work is culturally important, we have made it available as a part of our commitment to protecting, preserving and promoting the world's literature.
The book presents a broad and in-depth overview of recent achievements and the current state of research in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) oscillatory and wave phenomena in the coronae of the Sun and stars. Major progress in coronal wave studies has been achieved thanks to the combination of high-precision multi-wavelength observations with spaceborne and ground-based facilities, elaborated theory of the interaction of MHD waves with plasma non-uniformities, state-of-the-art numerical simulations, and novel data analysis techniques. It has allowed the research community to reach a new look at the role played by MHD wave processes in the enigmatic phenomena of coronal plasma heating and wind acceleration as well as powerful energy releases such as flares and coronal mass ejections. In addition, the waves are intensively used as natural probes in the remote diagnostics of the coronal plasma parameters and physical processes operating in solar and stellar coronae via the method of MHD seismology. Individual chapters cover recent cutting-edge results obtained on the analysis and theoretical modelling of several most intensively studied coronal MHD wave phenomena, namely, kink and sausage oscillations of coronal loops and other field-aligned plasma structures, plus running and standing slow magnetoacoustic waves. A dedicated chapter assesses the reliability of proposed theoretical mechanisms for heating of the coronal plasma by MHD waves. Another chapter summarizes the current state of our understanding of the physical mechanisms and observational properties of quasi-periodic pulsations in solar flares, considers their analogy with similar processes detected in stellar flares, and thus establishes solid ground for the further exploitation of the solar-stellar analogy. An important discussion of novel data analysis techniques designed recently for MHD seismology applications is presented in a devoted chapter. The direction of future advances in the designated research areas are discussed.The book is a spin-off from the Topical Collection "Oscillatory Processes in Solar and Stellar Coronae" of the journal Space Science Reviews.
The current theory for the early universe centers around the Standard Model's vision of fields, forces, and particles inexplicably popping into existence within the first second of the Big Bang. That conjecture has worked for many years and has inspired an edifice of theoretical support, but it stretches credulity and leaves too many unanswered questions.What if the initial nugget of energy did not instantaneously turn into particles but was left to expand and lose density? As it thinned, isolated density fluctuations would swirl and grow by accretion, eventually creating thick-density supermassive blackholes, light-density particles, and a thin-density medium of dark energy. The support for this seemingly wild hypothesis is in the observational evidence demonstrating that everything we know of in the universe, including fields, forces, matter, and time, naturally evolves from relationships between those three energy densities. This is the story of those relationships.That profound realization comes through in the Second Edition of A New Vision of the Early Universe. It's the culmination of forty years of research and study by the author, Robert J. Conover. The depth of his research, attention to detail, clear prose, and philosophical approach to analyzing difficult issues conspire to make this a well-respected treatise. The work is supported by numerous citations, quotes, and observations from many leading physicists, cosmologists, and mathematicians.
The main theme of the book is the presentation of techniques used to identify chaotic behavior in the evolution of conservative mechanical systems and their application to astronomical systems. It results from graduate courses given by the author over the years both at university and at several international summer schools.Along the book surfaces of section, Lyapunov characteristic exponents, frequency maps, MEGNO, dense grid maps, etc., are presented and discussed in connection with the applications. The initial chapter is devoted to the presentation of the main ideas of the chaotic dynamics of conservative systems in plain language so that they can be accessible to a wide range of professionals and students of physical sciences. The applications are mainly related to the motions in the solar system and extrasolar planetary systems.Another chapter is devoted to the applications to asteroids showing how the asteroidal belt is sculpted by chaos and resonances. The contrasting existence of gaps in the distribution of the asteroids and groups of asteroids in resonances is thoroughly discussed. The interest in applications to planetary systems is growing since the discovery of systems of resonant planets around some stars of the solar neighborhood. Exoplanets added a lot of cases to a problem that was before restricted to the planets of our solar system. The book includes an account of results already existing about compact systems.
These Transactions provide a record of the organisational and administrative activities of the IAU XXX General Assembly, which took place in Vienna, Austria, in August 2018. They report and record all of the essential decisions taken by the governing body of the IAU. These include the approval of the financial accounts and of the proposed budget for the next three years, the admission of new national and individual members, the Divisions, Commissions, and Working Groups, the new Officers and Executive Committee, and the approval of Resolutions, as well as opening and closing ceremonies and other events. Focus Meetings are published in the 'Astronomy in Focus' series, and each of the six Symposia that took place has its own Proceedings. The world was forever changed by the COVID-19 pandemic shortly after this General Assembly, contributing to the delay in this volume's publication.
Cosmic masers have been employed as unique probes of various astronomical objects and environments, ranging from newly born stars and evolved stars, the interstellar medium to active galactic nuclei. The maser scientific community is diverse and multidisciplinary but has long been tied together through the common background of physics and observational techniques. Time-domain studies from daily to decade-long monitoring of maser sources are also in progress with various telescopes from many different research teams in the world. Multiwavelength studies on maser sources have also proliferated, involving strong synergies with large facilities such as ALMA, JVLA, Gaia, and various VLBI networks. This volume gives a comprehensive, up-to-date review of cosmic masers as presented at IAU Symposium 380, the sixth international maser symposium. It also describes intensive discussion about ongoing and future projects relevant to maser science, such as global and new regional VLBI networks, SKA, and ngVLA.
Welcome to the exciting world of particle physics! In this subchapter, we will delve into the fascinating topic of the Standard Model-a fundamental theory that has revolutionized our understanding of the universe. Whether you are an enthusiast, a student, or simply curious about the wonders of the cosmos, this brief overview will provide you with a solid foundation to appreciate the intricacies of particle physics.The Standard Model is a remarkable framework that describes the fundamental building blocks of matter and their interactions. It encompasses three of the four fundamental forces of nature: electromagnetism, the weak nuclear force, and the strong nuclear force. This comprehensive theory has been meticulously developed over the course of several decades, combining the efforts of brilliant minds and countless experimental observations.At its core, the Standard Model consists of two main classes of particles: fermions and bosons. Fermions are the building blocks of matter and include particles such as quarks and leptons. Quarks are the constituents of protons and neutrons, while leptons include familiar particles like electrons and neutrinos. These fermions interact through the exchange of bosons, which are force-carrying particles. For instance, photons mediate electromagnetic interactions, while W and Z bosons are responsible for the weak nuclear force.One of the most intriguing aspects of the Standard Model is its prediction of the Higgs boson-a particle that gained substantial attention with the discovery at CERN's Large Hadron Collider in 2012. The Higgs boson is associated with the Higgs field, which permeates the universe and endows particles with mass. Its discovery was a significant milestone, confirming a key component of the Standard Model and shedding light on the origin of mass in the universe.While the Standard Model has been incredibly successful in explaining a vast array of experimental observations, it is not without its limitations. For example, it does not incorporate gravity, which is described by Einstein's general theory of relativity. Additionally, the existence of dark matter and dark energy remains unexplained within the framework of the Standard Model.
This symposium honors the contributions of Charlotte Moore Sitterly as a pioneer of spectroscopy, and astronomical spectroscopy in particular. The need for precise and accurate laboratory data in astrophysics has not diminished. Every time better spectrographs are built or new wavelength domains explored, we find critical information missing that is needed for analyses to derive abundances or to compare models of stars and planets to observations, in order to more fully understand the universe that we observe. IAU Symposium 371 encompassed nearly all the science themes that the IAU covers, from near to far in the universe, and at all wavelengths. But it concerned more than lab work in and of itself and brought together laboratory astrophysicists with the people who use that information, to learn about current advances and limitations, and future needs. A broad spectrum of the IAU's membership can benefit from these proceedings.
This book presents novel observational evidence toward detecting and characterizing the products of massive, interacting binary stars. As a majority of massive stars are born in close binary systems, a large number of so-called massive binary interaction products are predicted to exist; however, few have been identified so far. Based on observations with the largest telescopes around the world, equipped with state-of-the-art instrumentation, this book helps to remedy this situation. In her outstanding PhD-thesis Julia Bodensteiner identifies a new class of post-interaction binaries in a short-lived phase just briefly after the initially more massive star has been stripped of part of its envelope. She further provides new evidence for the Be phenomenon to largely result from binary interactions. These results represented a new and testable prediction for the evolution of these stars and opened up a new way forward for identifying hundreds of post-interaction products.Finally, using the MUSE integral field spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope in Chile, the author presents a novel spectroscopic campaign focusing on the 40 Myr-old star cluster NGC 330 in the Small Magellanic Clouds. Combined with photometric observations from the Hubble Space Telescope, the MUSE data allow to characterize the entire massive star population of NGC 330, revealing their multiplicity properties and rotational velocities and providing unique observational constraints on their (binary) evolution history. This is made possible by the developments of novel numerical methods allowing to extract star spectra from the MUSE integral field spectroscopic data and to characterize their properties by the simultaneous comparison of MUSE spectroscopy and Hubble photometry with atmospheric models.This book is a partly re-written version of the author's thesis offering a highly readable coherent text presenting not only new insights into the properties of binary interaction products but also giving students an excellent introduction into the field.
Our comprehension of the assembly and evolution of galaxies has witnessed remarkable advancements in recent years. While the Gaia spacecraft has provided unprecedented knowledge of the Milky Way's assembly, the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) has propelled the study of galaxy evolution into an exciting new era. Early discoveries of JWST have revealed high-redshift galaxies that defy our expectations. These conundrums must be resolved through multi-wavelength observations, simulations, and theoretical models as emphasized in this volume, which contains a selection of papers presented at IAU Symposium 377, held about two years after the launch of JWST. These papers showcase studies of galaxy formation, evolution, interaction, chemical abundances and stellar populations from cosmic down to the Milky Way. These proceedings offer an updated view of recent advances and current problems and is suitable for both active researchers in the field and graduate students.