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This book presents short papers of participants of the 7th International Scientific Conference-School for Young Scientists "Physical and Mathematical Modeling of Earth and Environment Processes" (Ishlinsky Institute for Problems in Mechanics of the Russian Academy of Sciences). The book includes theoretical and experimental studies of processes in the atmosphere, oceans, the lithosphere, and their interaction; environmental issues; problems of human impact on the environment; and methods of geophysical research.
Volcanoes have terrified and, at the same time, fascinated civilizations for thousands of years. Many aspects of volcanoes, most notably the eruptive processes and the compositional variations of magma, have been widely investigated for several decades and today constitute the core of any volcanology textbook. Nevertheless, in the last two decades, boosted by the availability of volcano monitoring data, there has been an increasing interest in the pre-eruptive processes related to the shallow accumulation and to the transfer of magma approaching the surface, as well as in the resulting structure of volcanoes. These are innovative and essential aspects of modern volcanology and, as driving volcanic unrest, their understanding also improves hazard assessment and eruption forecasting. So far, the significant progress made in unravelling these volcano-tectonic processes has not been supported by a comprehensive overview.This monograph aims at filling this gap, describing the pre-eruptive processes related to the structure, deformation and tectonics of volcanoes, at the local and regional scale, in any tectonic setting. The monograph is organized into three sections (¿Fundamentals¿, ¿Magma migration towards the surface¿ and ¿The regional perspective¿), consisting of thirteen chapters that are lavishly illustrated. The reader is accompanied in a journey within the volcano factory, discovering the processes associated with the shallow accumulation of magma and its transfer towards the surface, how these control the structure of volcanoes and their activity and, ultimately, improve our ability to estimate hazard and forecast eruption.The potential readership includes any academic, researcher and upper undergraduate student interested in volcanology, magma intrusions, structural geology, tectonics, geodesy, as well as geology and geophysics in general.
This book focuses on proposing a tsunami early warning system using data assimilation of offshore data. First, Green's Function-based Tsunami Data Assimilation (GFTDA) is proposed to reduce the computation time for assimilation. It can forecast the waveform at Points of Interest (PoIs) by superposing Green's functions between observational stations and PoIs. GFTDA achieves an equivalently high accuracy of tsunami forecasting to the previous approaches, while saving sufficient time to achieve an early warning. Second, a modified tsunami data assimilation method is explored for regions with a sparse observation network. The method uses interpolated waveforms at virtual stations to construct the complete wavefront for tsunami propagation. Its application to the 2009 Dusky Sound, New Zealand earthquake, and the 2015 Illapel earthquake revealed that adopting virtual stations greatly improved the tsunami forecasting accuracy for regions without a dense observation network. Finally, a real-time tsunami detection algorithm using Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) is presented. The tsunami signals of the offshore bottom pressure gauge can be automatically separated from the tidal components, seismic waves, and background noise. The algorithm could detect tsunami arrival with a short detection delay and accurately characterize the tsunami amplitude. Furthermore, the tsunami data assimilation approach is combined with the real-time tsunami detection algorithm, which is applied to the tsunami of the 2016 Fukushima earthquake. The proposed tsunami data assimilation approach can be put into practice with the help of the real-time tsunami detection algorithm.
Meso- to Neoarchean is a critical transitional period for the formation and evolution of continental crust and the corresponding geodynamic mechanisms, during which the average composition of continental crust gradually shifted from Na-enriched to K-enriched. However, the ultimate source of K and its enrichment mechanism in continental crust are still enigmatic. Moreover, fierce controversies remain on the Precambrian subdivision and late Archean geodynamic models of the North China Craton (NCC). Archean basement terranes in the Eastern Hebei-Western Liaoning Provinces, northern NCC display characteristic lithological zonation similar to those developed in modern convergent plate margins, and from northwest to southeast can be subdivided into the MORB-type tholeiite belt, oceanic arc tectonic belt, and K-rich granitoid belt. This book reports systematic field geological, petrographic, structural, whole-rock geochemical, and zircon U-Pb-Hf-O isotopic data for the various late Neoarchean lithological assemblages of the K-rich granitoid belt. Their deformational characteristics and petrogenesis are discussed in detail, and integrated with their spatiotemporal relationships and metamorphic features, a late Neoarchean active continental margin setting with multi-stage trench retreats and subsequent arc-continent collision is proposed to account for the formation and evolution of the K-rich granitoid belt. It also throws light upon the ultimate source and enrichment mechanism of K in the late Archean continental crust by comparing K-rich granitoid belt with the adjacent oceanic arc tectonic belt.
The recent understandings about global earth mechanics are widely based on huge amounts of monitoring data accumulated using global networks of precise seismic stations, satellite monitoring of gravity, very large baseline interferometry, and the Global Positioning System. New discoveries in materials sciences of rocks and minerals and of rock deformation with fluid water in the earth also provide essential information. This book presents recent work on natural geometry, spatial and temporal distribution patterns of various cracks sealed by minerals, and time scales of their crack sealing in the plate boundary. Furthermore, the book includes a challenging investigation of stochastic earthquake prediction testing by means of the updated deep machine learning of a convolutional neural network with multi-labeling of large earthquakes and of the generative autoencoder modeling of global correlated seismicity. Their manifestation in this book contributes to the development of human society resilient from natural hazards. Presented here are (1) mechanics of natural crack sealing and fluid flow in the plate boundary regions, (2) large-scale permeable convection of the plate boundary, (3) the rapid process of massive extrusion of plate boundary rocks, (4) synchronous satellite gravity and global correlated seismicity, (5) Gaussian network dynamics of global correlated seismicity, and (6) prediction testing of plate boundary earthquakes by machine learning and generative autoencoders.
Research on historical earthquakes and tsunamis in the Iberian Peninsula has made great strides in recent years, from diverse scientific fields ranging from geology to archaeology. In addition to the famous earthquake and tsunami of 1755, which intensely affected the peninsula, researchers are conducting a growing number of surveys and case studies on seismic episodes and extreme wave events of possible tsunamigenic origin in Portugal and Spain during the ancient, medieval, and modern eras. However, the development of these studies has suffered due to a certain lack of communication among the different fields of research, which are focused on their own methodologies and interests. The aim of this book is to promote interdisciplinary dialogue by linking the results of the most recent research into historical earthquakes and tsunamis in Iberia from the fields of geology, history and archaeology. The volume, which devotes special attention to tsunamis and to events that occurred in the Iberian Peninsula before 1755, offers synthetic insights, updates, and case studies of maximum interest for knowledge of the historical seismology of Portugal and Spain.
This book introduces an integrated conceptual framework of the China Seismic Experimental Site (CSES), describes its scientific challenges and research priorities, and reports preliminary results coming out of observational infrastructure in seismology, tectonophysics, geodesy, geophysics and geochemistry. Preliminary community fault model, community velocity model, and community strain rate model in the CSES are described in this book. A multidisciplinary test observation system includes GNSS, seismic array, and deep drilling system under construct around middle segment of the Xiansuihe-Xiaojiang fault and other seismogenic faults in the CSES which are also introduced. This book introduces multidisciplinary topics and a wide spectrum of solid earth system to describe various disciplines, methods, and techniques through the CSES. This book presents a vision of the CSES that is dedicated to deepen the scientific understanding of continental earthquake preparation and occurrence and enhance the disaster resilience of the society. It aims at establishing a field laboratory of earthquake science, in which international and interdisciplinary cooperation could be fostered and supported. Contents of this book include the following:* History of Seismic Experiment Sites in the World.* Launching of CSES Project: Seismicity, Existed Earthquake Monitoring Networks, and Historical Seismic Disasters.* Seismotectonics and Geodynamics of the Eastern Margin of the Tibetan Plateau with Implication for the CSES.* Theoretical Framework of CSES in View of Natural Science and in view of Social Science.* Updated Earthquake Monitoring Network in China.* CSES Community Models of Geology, Structure, and Deformation.* Earthquake Forecasting Models.* CSES Products: Massive Data Procession and Distribution.* A Review of the Field Expedition of the June 17, 2019, Changning, Sichuan, M6.0 Earthquake.* Rupture Structure and Earthquake Risk of the South Longmenshan Fault Viewed by Guided Waves.* Seismic Risk Assessment.* Model of a Seismic Experimental Site with Application to the Comparative Study between CSES and ASES.
This book presents the kinematic earthquake rupture studies from moment tenor to spatial-temporal rupture imaging. For real-time seismic hazard monitoring, the new stable automatic moment tensor (AutoBATS) algorithm is developed and implemented for the real-time MT reports by the Taiwan Earthquake Science Information System (TESIS). In order to understand the rupture behavior of the 2013 Mw 8.3 Okhotsk deep earthquake sequence, the 3D MUltiple SIgnal Classification Back Projection (MUSIC BP) with P and pP phases is applied. The combined P- and pP-wave BP imaging of the mainshock shows two stages of anti-parallel ruptures along two depths separating for about 10~15 km. Unusual super-shear ruptures are observed through the 3D BP images of two Mw 6.7 aftershocks. In last two chapters, the 3D BP imaging reveals similar rupture properties of two shallow catastrophic earthquakes (Mw=6.4) in southwestern Taiwan. Both the 2010 Jiashian and 2016 Meinong earthquakes ruptured westward with similar velocity of ~2.5 km/s along a NE-ward shallow dipping blind fault. The rupture similarities of the doublet suggest two parallel elongate asperities along the causative fault. After several decades of seismic quiescence, the 2010 Jiashian event initiated the rupture at the deeper asperity and triggered the shallower asperity which caused catastrophes six years later.
This volume proposes an integral approach to studying the geophysics of Earth. It is motivated by a variety of phenomena from nature with deep and direct impacts in our lives. Such events may evolve across a large range of spatial and time scales and may be observed in the ocean, the atmosphere, the volcanic surface as well as underground.The physical laws dictating the evolution of such phenomena lead to the unifying theme of this manuscript, that is, the mathematical and computational modeling of flows and waves. Consequently, the underlying models are given in terms of Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) whose solutions are approximated using numerical methods, thus providing simulations of the aforementioned phenomena, as well as the appropriate geophysical validation and interpretation.
This textbook presents the principles and methods for the measurement of radioactivity in the environment. In this regard, specific low-level radiation counting and spectrometry or mass spectrometry techniques are discussed, including sources, distribution, levels and dynamics of radioactivity in nature. The author gives an accurate description of the fundamental concepts and laws of radioactivity as well as the different types of detectors and mass spectrometers needed for detection. Special attention is paid to scintillators, semiconductor detectors, and gas ionization detectors. In order to explain radiochemistry, some concepts about chemical separations are introduced as well. The book is meant for graduate and advanced undergraduate students in physics, chemistry or engineering oriented to environmental sciences, and to other disciplines where monitoring of the environment and its management is of great interest.
This book provides the basic know-how and guidance to effectively exploit non-destructive geophysical technologies and apply them in the underground mining environment to optimise mineral extraction and to contribute to safer mining. The effective application of these technologies can enable a better understanding of the unseen orebody and the surrounding rock mass ahead of the mining face; the potential benefits of applying in-mine geophysics is demonstrated through a selection of case studies conducted in deep-level hard rock mines in South Africa. This book also offers valuable insight and training material for students in a variety of relevant mining disciplines like geology, rock engineering, mining engineering, mine planning and mineral resource management.
This book encompasses the most challenging topics in earthquake engineering and seismology aiming at seismic risk reduction and reveals the outstanding progresses made in Europe in the past four years. Earthquakes pose a significant threat to countries around the world. But, equipped with the right knowledge and tools, engineers and seismologists can support policy and decision makers and building officials in creating a safer future for all of us. In this paradigm, the Third European Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (3ECEES) is organized in Bucharest (Romania) in September 2022 by the Romanian Association for Earthquake Engineering, Technical University of Civil Engineering of Bucharest and National Institute for Earth Physics. This outstanding scientific event is the third in a series started in 2006 in Geneva, Switzerland and continued in 2014 in Istanbul, Turkey.The papers included in this book are written by the most prominent contemporary European scholars in the two-folded fields of 3ECEES. The Distinguished Nicholas Ambraseys, along with 28 invited lectures providing the best knowledge in the fields of earthquake engineering and seismology, are shared with the general readership of this book. The book is organized in three parts, as follows: (1) Seismicity, engineering seismology and seismic hazard, (2) Seismic risk assessment and mitigation, and (3) Structural earthquake engineering. The 29 contributed papers for this book are shared among these three parts almost equally.Chapter "e;The Challenge of the Integrated Seismic Strengthening and Environmental Upgrading of Existing Buildings"e; is available open access under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License via link.springer.com.
This Handbook covers non-invase techniques as well as digital technologies to study cultural heritage. It focuses on multidisciplinary approaches that help site managers to deal with their site form conservation to prevention. The book is conceived to foster exchanges of ideas and information and to update innovation on measurements suitable for cultural heritage across several disciplines. Contributions on measurements deriving from the large number of analytical methodologies and tools (spectroscopy, chemometrics, modeling, etc) are also of interest for the scientific community. Considering the tremendous amount of new interactive technologies which inevitably impact traditional arts, the final section of the Handbook focuses on the use of virtual reality systems in museums and archaeological sites. The Handbook will contribute to build an international network of cultural heritage scientists, architects, geophysicists, archaeologists, and soil scientists.
This book focuses on neotectonic movements and river channel evolution of the Indian subcontinent, with special reference to the Himalayan Neotectonics. Neotectonic movements have played an important role in channel evolution in tectonically active zones especially for the mountain chains, foredeeps and active deltas. The book addresses the issues of the channel evolution in neotectonically active domains of India. It aims at readers of India as well as abroad, interested in earth sciences, geomorphology, tectonics, physical geography and river forms and processes of India.
A concise survey of essential topics in geophysical data processing for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in geophysics, environmental science, and engineering. With real-life scenarios and datasets, it shows how data processing techniques can be applied to real-world problems using detailed examples, illustrations, and exercises.