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"The Post-Secular City" is the first attempt to systematically map and assess the recent debate about secularization."The Post-Secular City" examines the alleged shift from a "secular" to a "post-secular" dispensation from the perspective of the ongoing de-construction of the secularization "theorem" (as Hans Blumenberg called it). Accordingly, the new secularization debate is described as being polarized between the "de-constructors" and the "maintainers" of the standard thesis of secularization. This is the assumption underlying an ambitious effort to map the field, which consists of a long introduction where "secularization" is analyzed as a deeply problematic concept-of-process and of eight chapters in which several protagonists of the recent debate are discussed as crucial junctions of a multidisciplinary conversation.
What literary and social functions do self-annotations (i.e. footnotes and endnotes that authors appended to their own works) serve? Focussing on Alexander Pope's "Dunciad"s and a wide selection of Lord Byron's poems, Lahrsow shows that literary self-annotations rarely just explain a text. Rather, they multiply meanings and pit different voices against each other. Self-annotations serve to ambiguate the author's self-presentation as well as the genre, tone, and overall interpretation of a text.The study also examines how notes were employed for 'social networking' and how authors used self-annotations to address, and differentiate between, various groups of readerships.Additionally, the volume sheds light on the wider literary and cultural context of self-annotations: How common were they during the long eighteenth century? What conventions governed them? And were they even read? The study hence combines literary analysis with insights into book history and the history of reading.
In this volume, distinguished theologians and servants of the Church present their contributions as a sign of appreciation for His Beatitude Patriarch Daniel of Romania, on the occasion of his 70th anniversary. A prominent personality, professor of Pastoral and Dogmatic Theology, honorary member of the Romanian Academy, a tireless servant of the Church, His Beatitude Daniel is well known worldwide as a vivid witness for a vibrant, dynamic and open theology, one that is profound and accessible, faithful and renovative, mystical and missionary. His extensive theological work deals with most of the fundamental aspects of theology and is grounded on the living connection between theology and spirituality, the liturgical and missionary life of the Church.
Wewelsburg Castle in Germany figures prominently in right-wing conspiracy theories and popular culture. This book sheds light onto the background and impact of these myths for the first time. During the Nazi era, this Westphalian castle became a key venue for gatherings of high ranking SS leaders. After World War II, rumors about occult SS rituals made the place a pilgrimage site of the extreme right. The northern tower's ornamental sun wheel design, today known as the "Black Sun," appears in thrillers, comic books, and in the right-wing music scene. It has morphed into a dubious visual element of today's pop culture and is now familiar to people throughout the world as a symbol of neofascist and alt-right groups. The lavishly illustrated volume traces facts and fiction about the origins and current reception of the myths related to Wewelsburg Castle and the sun wheel symbol.
The book presents the life, visions and activities of the nascent Roma civic elite who initiated the movement for Roma civic emancipation. The book Roma Portraits in History, in the form of individual portraits, presents the life trajectory, visions and specific actions put forward by the nascent Roma elite and its leading representatives concerning the present and future of their community. The book is based on a rich source base of key original archival documents, in multiple languages, including Romani language, discovered in countries across the region of Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe, all of which showcase 'Roma elite' visions and action. To fulfil the general picture case studies of representatives from Spain and the US are also included.
This is a book about people caught between home and abroad, crossing imperial boundaries in southeastern Europe at the beginning of the modern age. Through a series of life stories, which the author reconstructs with the aid of many new sources, readers discover how certain men and women defined and adapted their loyalties and affiliations, how they fashioned their identities, how they enrolled their linguistic, political, economic, and social resources to build a family and a career. Travelling between Istanbul, Vienna, Trieste, Moscow, Bucharest, or Iasi, individuals of different backgrounds built their networks across borders, linking people and objects and facilitating cultural transfer and material and social change.
Die vorliegende Edition ist eine umfangreiche Dokumentation der Politik der europäischen Großmächte gegenüber dem Osmanischen Reich zwischen den zwei großen Krisen des Krimkriegs 1853/56 und der Orientkrise 1875/78. Diese beiden Krisen sind in der internationalen Forschung überaus intensiv behandelt worden; die dazwischenliegenden 20 Jahre wurden dagegen nur punktuell und nie in großem Zusammenhang dokumentiert oder interpretiert. Die Edition ermöglicht es, diese Lücke zu schließen, oder zumindest eine breite Grundlage dafür bereitzustellen.
In his last monumental organ piece, "Livre du Saint Sacrement," the French composer Olivier Messiaen (1908-92) approaches the mystery of the eucharistic presence, using all elements of his extraordinary compositional language: Gregorian chants, birdsongs, Greek and Hindu rhythms, serialism, and sound-colors. In this book, the "Livre du Saint Sacrement," which premiered in 1986, is fully analyzed and theologically interpreted for the first time. The influence of the eucharistic hymns of Thomas Aquinas, among other sources, on the work's conception and the composer's theology is explored, and the author points out the ways in which Messiaen's musico-theological dedication to the Eucharist can inspire actual theology.The original dissertation that was the basis for this book received the Award of Excellence from the Austrian Ministry for Science, Research, and Economy, as well as the Roland-Atefie-Prize from the Austrian Academy of Sciences. For the first time, the book is now available in English translation.
This issue takes an inclusive approach to the multidimensional topic of Mediterranean movement, as the themes to be discussed include migration, trade, travelling objects, knowledge exchange, and dissemination of books. The case studies demonstrate the impact of movement on the processes of identity building, whether social, cultural, or religious.Apart from textual sources, the articles included in this issue explore the movement of objects that are characterised by temporal continuity, embodying a prior existence with lingering effects. As objects transform through time and space, so do the values and functions attributed to them. The process of mapping out itineraries of value in the realm of the material allows us to grasp the nature of a given social formation through the shape and meaning taken on by them. It also provides insights into the nature of dynamic synergy between the world of material objects and the realm of beliefs, knowledge, and identities.
Why are conceptions of afterlife so diverse in both Jewish and Christian antiquity? This collection of essays offers explanations for this diversity through the lens of social memory theory. The contributors attempt to understand how and why received traditions about the afterlife needed to be altered, invented and even forgotten if they were to have relevance in the present. Select ancient texts conveying the hopes and fears of the afterlife are viewed as products of transmission processes that appropriated the past in conformity with identity constructs of each community. The range of literature in this collection spans from the earliest receptions of Israelite traditions within early Judaism to the Patristic/Rabbinic period.
Classification is an inherent feature of all societies. The distinction between Jews and non-Jews has been a major theme of Western society for over two millennia. In the middle of the twentieth century, dire consequences were associated with being Jew ish. Even after the Shoah, the labelling of Jews as "other" continued. In this book, leading historians including Michael Brenner, Elisheva Carlebach and Michael Miller illuminate the meaning of Jewishness from pre-modern and early-modern times to the present day. Their studies offer new perspectives on constructing and experiencing Jewish identity.
This volume takes us back to the roots of Christianity and exemplifies the significance of Syriac Theology for our time. Bringing together articles by scholars from diverse disciplines, this volume aims at a deeper understanding of the legacy, importance, and challenges of Syriac Theology. The articles in the first part of the volume focus on the biblical, exegetical, and christological tradition of the Syriac Orthodox Church. The articles in the second part of the volume explore the dialogical intertextuality between Syriac Christianity, Rabbinic Judaism, and the Quran.
Christianity did not reach the modern age by straight paths, but by crooked ones: For two centuries after the Reformation, Catholics and Protestants fought over the truth of their religion. They waged merciless wars and concluded fragile peace treaties. They invested in education and culture. They professionalized clerics and civil servants and tried harder than ever to shape the everyday lives of ordinary people in the villages and towns. They persecuted witches and learned to control the fear of magic.The Enlightenment, the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars created completely new conditions for making Christianity plausible for the modern era.The book describes the enormous efforts under which Catholic and Protestant men and women faced the upheavals between the Reformation and the Revolution. Many of these efforts were similar. But their respective 'religious knowledge' developed significantly different.
Der polnische Königshof in der Zeit Sigismunds III. Wasa war eine wichtige Plattform europäischen Informationsaustauschs, dynastischer Netzwerke und der Koordination konfessionell geprägter Politik.Am Hof fielen auch in Polen-Litauen die Verwaltung des herrscherlichen Haushaltes und damit auch dynastischer Interessen sowie Teile der Verwaltung des Herrschaftsverbandes zusammen. Im Spannungsfeld zwischen den politischen Ansprüchen der Ständeversammlung des Sejms und den Interessen des Monarchen entspann sich in Hinblick auf die Außenbeziehungen damit ein Handlungsfeld, dessen Analyse einen Blick auf das Funktionieren europäischer Verflechtungen ermöglicht und zugleich zeigt, welche Handlungsoptionen dem Monarchen und dessen Umgebung im Rahmen der polnisch-litauischen Mischverfassung zukamen.
During the Second Temple period (516 BCE-70 CE), Jews became reticent to speak and write the divine name, YHWH, also known by its four letters in Greek as the tetragrammaton. Priestly, pious, and scribal circles limitted the use of God's name, and then it disappeared. The variables are poorly understood and the evidence is scattered. This study brings together all ancient Jewish literary and epigraphic evidence in Aramaic, Hebrew, and Greek to describe how, when, and in what sources Jews either used or avoided the divine name. Instead of a diachronic contrast from use to avoidance, as is often the scholarly assumption, the evidence suggests diverse and overlapping naming practices that draw specific meaning from linguistic, geographic, and social contexts.
From a global perspective, the historical relationship between war and communism throughout the 20th century is discussed in this book.Communist theory was supposed to lead to a classless society that would thereby overcome nationalism, imperialism, violence, and eventually war itself. Regardless of the theoretical assumption that a communist utopia would end wars forever, communism very often related to war, not only in a theoretical sense, but also in the actual historical process. How communist theorists interpreted war, argued for or against it and tried to sanction the use of violence in the name of a communist utopia are questions for this anthology about an "unnatural interrelationship". At the same time, the contributions of this volume take a closer look at violent responses against communism during the 20th century.
This is the first book available in English to comprehensively address the complicated subject of Polish-Ukrainian relations during and immediately after World War II. Polish-Ukrainian relations in the twentieth century are a topic that invariably engages historians, politicians, and public opinion in Poland and Ukraine. Many valuable works have been written on the subject, but many are distorting historical truth and collective memories, sometimes making today's mutual relations problematic. Grzegorz Motyka's book is a careful account of the most difficult period in Polish-Ukrainian relations, beginning in 1943 with the start of the Volhynian massacre and ending with the "Vistula" action in 1947. By discussing episodes of common history in an accessible manner, Professor Motyka presents an impartial picture of Polish-Ukrainian relations, devoid of national martyrology. In extremely difficult times, it builds a bridge for mutual understanding across historical divides.
The world as seen by a Qur'an specialist in late imperial and early Soviet Russia. Our book tells a dramatic story of 'Abd al-Majid al-Qadiri, a Muslim individual born in the Kazakh lands and brought up in the Sufi environment of the South Urals, who memorized the entire Qur'an at the Mosque of the Prophet. In Russia he travelled widely, performing the Qur'an recitations. The Stalinist terror was merciless to him: in total, he spent fifteen years of his life in labour camps in Solovki, in the North, and Tashkent, in the south. At the end of his life, al-Qadiri wrote the fascinating memoirs that we analysed and translated in this book for the first time. Al-Qadiri's life account allows us to look at the history of Islam in Russia from a new angle. His lively language provides access to everyday concerns of Russia's Muslims, their personal interactions, their emotions, and the material world that surrounded them. Al-Qadiri's book is a book of memory, full of personal drama and hope.
Can geographers actually create their fatherlands? The story of the territorial reconstruction of East Central Europe in the wake of WWI gives an affirmative answer.The protagonists of this book were a cohort of young, talented and exceedingly ambitious people fascinated by the modernity of late 19th century German geographical sciences. During wartime they proved particularly successful in scholarship and in scientifically based national propaganda. Some of them succeeded in influencing the spatial idea of 'just borders' that allegedly corresponded best to geographical and ethnical realities. They offered ready-made solutions to questions of the self-determination of nations formulated by US President Wilson. But already during the Paris Peace Conference, geographers moved to concepts of a 'natural', 'biological' border, to ideas of the subjugation of entire ethnic groups. They now cherished visions of a demographic and geographical utopia of states that were ethnically homogeneous.
"Courtly Gifts and Cultural Diplomacy" explores the history of British-Russian state relations from the perspective of art and material culture. This richly illustrated book presents manifold practices of courtly gift-giving and vivid case studies of British-Russian artistic diplomacy over the centuries. It traces a visual and material history of cross-cultural dialogue that starts with an early English map of Russia made in the 16th century and ends with gifts of Fabergé art objects and domestic photographs exchanged between the British royal family and the family of Tsar Nicholas II in late Imperial Russia. Twelve expert authors from academia, the arts, and the museum sectors in Britain, Russia, Australia, and the United States present new narratives and critical interpretations based on material from previously unexplored archives. Their diverse approaches reveal the importance of artistic diplomacy and the agency of gifts of art and material culture in courtly and state relations.
Kriegsschädigungen waren kein gesellschaftliches Randphänomen, sondern ein zentrales Merkmal europäischer Kriegsfolgengesellschaften des 20. Jahrhunderts. Insbesondere die beiden Weltkriege waren durch die Senkung der Gewaltschwellen von einer bis dahin unvorstellbaren Vernichtung von Material und Menschen geprägt. Dabei trug eine außerordentlich hohe Anzahl von Menschen physische und psychische Verletzungen davon. In den sozialen wie auch den gesundheitlichen Folgeschäden blieb die körperliche und seelische Gewalt als Kern militärischen Handelns präsent. An diese Beobachtung anknüpfend, versteht sich dieser Band als ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Fortdauerns des Krieges in der Zeit nach dem Krieg. Das Buch widmet sich dieser Nachgeschichte als einer beispiellosen europäischen Kollektiverfahrung von Gewalt. Die Autorinnen und Autoren fragen nach dem Umgang mit Kriegsgeschädigten im Rahmen sozialpolitischer Programme, der komplexen Beziehung von Rehabilitation und Integration, den politischen, sozialen wie medizintechnischen Interventionen zur Normalisierung körperlicher Schädigung sowie den medialen Repräsentationen von Kriegsschädigungen und deren Bedeutung für europäische Erinnerungskulturen.
Elites should be regarded and approached as gregarious social entities (groups, networks) rather than as outstanding individuals.The volume aims to explore the elites in East-Central and South-Eastern Europe during the long nineteenth century from the perspective of their gregarious tendencies (i.e., groupness), to assess the role of the latter in the elite's decisions and agenda, and to observe the transformations brought in this regard by the changing social and political landscape.While the gregarious tendencies of the members of the elite were rooted in their shared perspectives, in their mutual interests or in the communion of cultural patterns, it is clear that during the process of group formation, kinship ties played an unassailable part, although they were likely never a causal factor.The volume covers the research on elites from the early 18th century to the interwar period, focussing on the Banat, Bessarabia, Bohemia, Bulgaria, Dalmatia, Hungary, Rumania, Serbia, Slovenia, as well as looking into Austria and Austria-Hungary in total.
This book shows that education does not only prepare war, but defines its character for future generations. Pointing out the intricate interconnetion with the various practices of education this volume offers in-depth studies of war and education in several chronological and geographical contexts. Tying in with the latest state of the art the authors offer examples for education for war, education in war and education for reconciliation in the aftermath of wars from a global perspective.
Beata Halicka's masterly narrated biography is the story of an extraordinary man and leading intellectual in the Polish-American community. Z. Anthony Kruszewski was first a Polish scout fighting in World War II against the Nazi occupiers, then a Prisoner of War/Displaced Person in Western Europe. He was stranded as a penniless immigrant in post-war America and eventually became a world-renowned academic.Kruszewski's almost incredible life stands out from his entire generation. His story is a microcosm of 20th-century history, covering various theatres and incorporating key events and individuals. Kruszewski walks a stage very few people have even stood on, both as an eye-witness at the centre of the Second World War, and later as vice-president of the Polish American Congress, and a professor and political scientist at world-class universities in the USA. Not only did he become a pioneer and a leading figure in Borderland Studies, but he is a borderlander in every sense of the word.