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This book explains why the finite topological space known as abstract cell complex is important for successful image processing and presents image processing methods based on abstract cell complex, especially for tracing and encoding of boundaries of homogeneous regions. Many examples are provided in the book, some teach you how to trace and encode boundaries in binary, indexed and colour images. Other examples explain how to encode a boundary as a sequence of straight-line segments which is important for shape recognition. A new method of edge detection in two- and three-dimensional images is suggested. Also, a discussion problem is included in the book: A derivative is defined as the limit of the relation of the increment of the function to the increment of the argument as the latter tends to zero. Is it not better to estimate derivatives as the relation of the increment of the function to the optimal increment of the argument instead of taking exceedingly small increment which leads to errors? This book addresses all above questions and provide the answers.
This monograph explores the concept of the Brouwer degree and its continuing impact on the development of important areas of nonlinear analysis. The authors define the degree using an analytical approach proposed by Heinz in 1959 and further developed by Mawhin in 2004, linking it to the Kronecker index and employing the language of differential forms. The chapters are organized so that they can be approached in various ways depending on the interests of the reader. Unifying this structure is the central role the Brouwer degree plays in nonlinear analysis, which is illustrated with existence, surjectivity, and fixed point theorems for nonlinear mappings. Special attention is paid to the computation of the degree, as well as to the wide array of applications, such as linking, differential and partial differential equations, difference equations, variational and hemivariational inequalities, game theory, and mechanics. Each chapter features bibliographic and historical notes, and the final chapter examines the full history. Brouwer Degree will serve as an authoritative reference on the topic and will be of interest to professional mathematicians, researchers, and graduate students.
This second volume of Research in Computational Topology is a celebration and promotion of research by women in applied and computational topology, containing the proceedings of the second workshop for Women in Computational Topology (WinCompTop) as well as papers solicited from the broader WinCompTop community. The multidisciplinary and international WinCompTop workshop provided an exciting and unique opportunity for women in diverse locations and research specializations to interact extensively and collectively contribute to new and active research directions in the field. The prestigious senior researchers that signed on to head projects at the workshop are global leaders in the discipline, and two of them were authors on some of the first papers in the field. Some of the featured topics include topological data analysis of power law structure in neural data; a nerve theorem for directional graph covers; topological or homotopical invariants for directed graphs encoding connections among a network of neurons; and the issue of approximation of objects by digital grids, including precise relations between the persistent homology of dual cubical complexes.
This book discusses the invertibility of fuzzy topological spaces and related topics. Certain types of fuzzy topological spaces are introduced, and interrelations between them are brought forth. Various properties of invertible fuzzy topological spaces are presented, and characterizations for completely invertible fuzzy topological spaces are discussed. The relationship between homogeneity and invertibility is examined, and, subsequently, the orbits in an invertible fuzzy topological space are studied. The structure of invertible fuzzy topological spaces is investigated, and a clear picture of the inverting pairs in an invertible fuzzy topological space is introduced. Further, the related spaces such as sums, subspaces, simple extensions, quotient spaces, and product spaces of invertible fuzzy topological spaces are examined. In addition, the effect of invertibility on fuzzy topological properties like separation axioms, axioms of countability, compactness, and fuzzy connectedness in invertible fuzzy topological spaces is established. The book sketches ideas extended to the bigger canvas of L-topology in a very interesting manner.
This book consists of five chapters presenting problems of current research in mathematics, with its history and development, current state, and possible future direction. Four of the chapters are expository in nature while one is based more directly on research. All deal with important areas of mathematics, however, such as algebraic geometry, topology, partial differential equations, Riemannian geometry, and harmonic analysis. This book is addressed to researchers who are interested in those subject areas. Young-Hoon Kiem discusses classical enumerative geometry before string theory and improvements after string theory as well as some recent advances in quantum singularity theory, Donaldson-Thomas theory for Calabi-Yau 4-folds, and Vafa-Witten invariants. Dongho Chae discusses the finite-time singularity problem for three-dimensional incompressible Euler equations. He presents Kato's classical local well-posedness results, Beale-Kato-Majda's blow-up criterion, and recent studies on the singularity problem for the 2D Boussinesq equations. Simon Brendle discusses recent developments that have led to a complete classification of all the singularity models in a three-dimensional Riemannian manifold. He gives an alternative proof of the classification of noncollapsed steady gradient Ricci solitons in dimension 3. Hyeonbae Kang reviews some of the developments in the Neumann-Poincare operator (NPO). His topics include visibility and invisibility via polarization tensors, the decay rate of eigenvalues and surface localization of plasmon, singular geometry and the essential spectrum, analysis of stress, and the structure of the elastic NPO.Danny Calegari provides an explicit description of the shift locus as a complex of spaces over a contractible building. He describes the pieces in terms of dynamically extended laminations and of certain explicit "e;discriminant-like"e; ai ne algebraic varieties.
This book, which is the first of two volumes, presents, in a unique way, some of the most relevant research tools of modern analysis. This work empowers young researchers with all the necessary techniques to explore the various subfields of this broad subject, and introduces relevant frameworks where these tools can be immediately deployed.Volume I starts with the foundations of modern analysis. The first three chapters are devoted to topology, measure theory, and functional analysis. Chapter 4 offers a comprehensive analysis of the main function spaces, while Chapter 5 covers more concrete subjects, like multivariate analysis, which are closely related to applications and more difficult to find in compact form. Chapter 6 deals with smooth and non-smooth calculus of functions; Chapter 7 introduces certain important classes of nonlinear operators; and Chapter 8 complements the previous three chapters with topics of variational analysis. Each chapter of this volume finishes with a list of problems - handy for understanding and self-study - and historical notes that give the reader a more vivid picture of how the theory developed. Volume II consists of various applications using the tools and techniques developed in this volume.By offering a clear and wide picture of the tools and applications of modern analysis, this work can be of great benefit not only to mature graduate students seeking topics for research, but also to experienced researchers with an interest in this vast and rich field of mathematics.
This monograph provides a comprehensive introduction to the theory of complex normal surface singularities, with a special emphasis on connections to low-dimensional topology. In this way, it unites the analytic approach with the more recent topological one, combining their tools and methods.In the first chapters, the book sets out the foundations of the theory of normal surface singularities. This includes a comprehensive presentation of the properties of the link (as an oriented 3-manifold) and of the invariants associated with a resolution, combined with the structure and special properties of the line bundles defined on a resolution. A recurring theme is the comparison of analytic and topological invariants. For example, the Poincare series of the divisorial filtration is compared to a topological zeta function associated with the resolution graph, and the sheaf cohomologies of the line bundles are compared to the Seiberg-Witten invariants of the link. Equivariant Ehrhart theory is introduced to establish surgery-additivity formulae of these invariants, as well as for the regularization procedures of multivariable series.In addition to recent research, the book also provides expositions of more classical subjects such as the classification of plane and cuspidal curves, Milnor fibrations and smoothing invariants, the local divisor class group, and the Hilbert-Samuel function. It contains a large number of examples of key families of germs: rational, elliptic, weighted homogeneous, superisolated and splice-quotient. It provides concrete computations of the topological invariants of their links (Casson(-Walker) and Seiberg-Witten invariants, Turaev torsion) and of the analytic invariants (geometric genus, Hilbert function of the divisorial filtration, and the analytic semigroup associated with the resolution). The book culminates in a discussion of the topological and analytic lattice cohomologies (as categorifications of the Seiberg-Witten invariant and of the geometric genus respectively) and of the graded roots. Several open problems and conjectures are also formulated.Normal Surface Singularities provides researchers in algebraic and differential geometry, singularity theory, complex analysis, and low-dimensional topology with an invaluable reference on this rich topic, offering a unified presentation of the major results and approaches.
This book gives an intuitive and hands-on introduction to Topological Data Analysis (TDA). Covering a wide range of topics at levels of sophistication varying from elementary (matrix algebra) to esoteric (Grothendieck spectral sequence), it offers a mirror of data science aimed at a general mathematical audience. The required algebraic background is developed in detail. The first third of the book reviews several core areas of mathematics, beginning with basic linear algebra and applications to data fitting and web search algorithms, followed by quick primers on algebra and topology. The middle third introduces algebraic topology, along with applications to sensor networks and voter ranking. The last third covers key contemporary tools in TDA: persistent and multiparameter persistent homology. Also included is a user's guide to derived functors and spectral sequences (useful but somewhat technical tools which have recently found applications in TDA), and an appendix illustrating a number of software packages used in the field. Based on a course given as part of a masters degree in statistics, the book is appropriate for graduate students.
This monograph uses braids to explore dynamics on surfaces, with an eye towards applications to mixing in fluids. The text uses the particular example of taffy pulling devices to represent pseudo-Anosov maps in practice. In addition, its final chapters also briefly discuss current applications in the emerging field of analyzing braids created from trajectory data. While written with beginning graduate students, advanced undergraduates, or practicing applied mathematicians in mind, the book is also suitable for pure mathematicians seeking real-world examples. Readers can benefit from some knowledge of homotopy and homology groups, but these concepts are briefly reviewed. Some familiarity with Matlab is also helpful for the computational examples.
This volume provides a unified and accessible account of recent developments regarding the real homotopy type of configuration spaces of manifolds. Configuration spaces consist of collections of pairwise distinct points in a given manifold, the study of which is a classical topic in algebraic topology. One of this theory's most important questions concerns homotopy invariance: if a manifold can be continuously deformed into another one, then can the configuration spaces of the first manifold be continuously deformed into the configuration spaces of the second? This conjecture remains open for simply connected closed manifolds. Here, it is proved in characteristic zero (i.e. restricted to algebrotopological invariants with real coefficients), using ideas from the theory of operads. A generalization to manifolds with boundary is then considered. Based on the work of Campos, Ducoulombier, Lambrechts, Willwacher, and the author, the book covers a vast array of topics, including rational homotopy theory, compactifications, PA forms, propagators, Kontsevich integrals, and graph complexes, and will be of interest to a wide audience.
This volume is devoted to various aspects of Alexandrov Geometry for those wishing to get a detailed picture of the advances in the field. It contains enhanced versions of the lecture notes of the two mini-courses plus those of one research talk given at CIMAT.Peter Petersen's part aims at presenting various rigidity results about Alexandrov spaces in a way that facilitates the understanding by a larger audience of geometers of some of the current research in the subject. They contain a brief overview of the fundamental aspects of the theory of Alexandrov spaces with lower curvature bounds, as well as the aforementioned rigidity results with complete proofs.The text from Fernando Galaz-Garcia's minicourse was completed in collaboration with Jesus Nunez-Zimbron. It presents an up-to-date and panoramic view of the topology and geometry of 3-dimensional Alexandrov spaces, including the classification of positively and non-negatively curved spaces and the geometrization theorem. They also present Lie group actions and their topological and equivariant classifications as well as a brief account of results on collapsing Alexandrov spaces.Jesus Nunez-Zimbron's contribution surveys two recent developments in the understanding of the topological and geometric rigidity of singular spaces with curvature bounded below.
This book provides a comprehensive survey of the Sharkovsky ordering, its different aspects and its role in dynamical systems theory and applications. It addresses the coexistence of cycles for continuous interval maps and one-dimensional spaces, combinatorial dynamics on the interval and multidimensional dynamical systems. Also featured is a short chapter of personal remarks by O.M. Sharkovsky on the history of the Sharkovsky ordering, the discovery of which almost 60 years ago led to the inception of combinatorial dynamics. Now one of cornerstones of dynamics, bifurcation theory and chaos theory, the Sharkovsky ordering is an important tool for the investigation of dynamical processes in nature. Assuming only a basic mathematical background, the book will appeal to students, researchers and anyone who is interested in the subject.
This book describes about unlike usual differential dynamics common in mathematical physics, heterogenesis is based on the assemblage of differential constraints that are different from point to point. The construction of differential assemblages will be introduced in the present study from the mathematical point of view, outlining the heterogeneity of the differential constraints and of the associated phase spaces, that are continuously changing in space and time. If homogeneous constraints well describe a form of swarm intelligence or crowd behaviour, it reduces dynamics to automatisms, by excluding any form of imaginative and creative aspect. With this study we aim to problematize the procedure of homogeneization that is dominant in life and social science and to outline the dynamical heterogeneity of life and its affective, semiotic, social, historical aspects. Particularly, the use of sub-Riemannian geometry instead of Riemannian one allows to introduce disjointed and autonomous areas in the virtual plane. Our purpose is to free up the dynamic becoming from any form of unitary and totalizing symmetry and to develop forms, action, thought by means of proliferation, juxtaposition, and disjunction devices. After stating the concept of differential heterogenesis with the language of contemporary mathematics, we will face the problem of the emergence of the semiotic function, recalling the limitation of classical approaches (Hjelmslev, Saussure, Husserl) and proposing a possible genesis of it from the heterogenetic flow previously defined. We consider the conditions under which this process can be polarized to constitute different planes of Content (C) and Expression (E), each one equipped with its own formed substances. A possible (but not unique) process of polarization is constructed by means of spectral analysis, that is introduced to individuate E/C planes and their evolution. The heterogenetic flow, solution of differential assemblages, gives rise to forms that are projected onto the planes, offering a first referring system for the flow, that constitutes a first degree of semiosis.
This interdisciplinary volume collects contributions from experts in their respective fields with as common theme diagrams.Diagrams play a fundamental role in the mathematical visualization and philosophical analysis of forms in space. Some of the most interesting and profound recent developments in contemporary sciences, whether in topology, geometry, dynamic systems theory, quantum field theory or string theory, have been made possible by the introduction of new types of diagrams, which, in addition to their essential role in the discovery of new classes of spaces and phenomena, have contributed to enriching and clarifying the meaning of the operations, structures and properties that are at the heart of these spaces and phenomena.The volume gives a closer look at the scope and the nature of diagrams as constituents of mathematical and physical thought, their function in contemporary artistic work, and appraise, in particular, the actual importance of the diagrams of knots, of braids, of fields, of interaction, of strings in topology and geometry, in quantum physics and in cosmology, but also in theory of perception, in plastic arts and in philosophy. The editors carefully curated this volume to be an inspiration to students and researchers in philosophy, phenomenology, mathematics and the sciences, as well as artists, musicians and the general interested audience.
This is the second volume of the Handbook of the Geometry and Topology of Singularities, a series which aims to provide an accessible account of the state-of-the-art of the subject, its frontiers, and its interactions with other areas of research. This volume consists of ten chapters which provide an in-depth and reader-friendly survey of some of the foundational aspects of singularity theory and related topics.Singularities are ubiquitous in mathematics and science in general. Singularity theory interacts energetically with the rest of mathematics, acting as a crucible where different types of mathematical problems interact, surprising connections are born and simple questions lead to ideas which resonate in other parts of the subject, and in other subjects. Authored by world experts, the various contributions deal with both classical material and modern developments, covering a wide range of topics which are linked to each other in fundamental ways.The book is addressed to graduate students and newcomers to the theory, as well as to specialists who can use it as a guidebook.