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Reinforcement learning is a learning paradigm concerned with learning to control a system so as to maximize a numerical performance measure that expresses a long-term objective. What distinguishes reinforcement learning from supervised learning is that only partial feedback is given to the learner about the learner's predictions. Further, the predictions may have long term effects through influencing the future state of the controlled system. Thus, time plays a special role. The goal in reinforcement learning is to develop efficient learning algorithms, as well as to understand the algorithms' merits and limitations. Reinforcement learning is of great interest because of the large number of practical applications that it can be used to address, ranging from problems in artificial intelligence to operations research or control engineering. In this book, we focus on those algorithms of reinforcement learning that build on the powerful theory of dynamic programming. We give a fairly comprehensive catalog of learning problems, describe the core ideas, note a large number of state of the art algorithms, followed by the discussion of their theoretical properties and limitations. Table of Contents: Markov Decision Processes / Value Prediction Problems / Control / For Further Exploration
This book gathers peer-reviewed contributions submitted to the 21st European Conference on Mathematics for Industry, ECMI 2021, which was virtually held online, hosted by the University of Wuppertal, Germany, from April 13th to April 15th, 2021. The works explore mathematics in a wide variety of applications, ranging from problems in electronics, energy and the environment, to mechanics and mechatronics. Topics covered include: Applied Physics, Biology and Medicine, Cybersecurity, Data Science, Economics, Finance and Insurance, Energy, Production Systems, Social Challenges, and Vehicles and Transportation.The goal of the European Consortium for Mathematics in Industry (ECMI) conference series is to promote interaction between academia and industry, leading to innovations in both fields. These events have attracted leading experts from business, science and academia, and have promoted the application of novel mathematical technologies to industry. They have also encouraged industrial sectors to share challenging problems where mathematicians can provide fresh insights and perspectives. Lastly, the ECMI conferences are one of the main forums in which significant advances in industrial mathematics are presented, bringing together prominent figures from business, science and academia to promote the use of innovative mathematics in industry.
This book discusses state-of-the-art stochastic optimization algorithms for distributed machine learning and analyzes their convergence speed. The book first introduces stochastic gradient descent (SGD) and its distributed version, synchronous SGD, where the task of computing gradients is divided across several worker nodes. The author discusses several algorithms that improve the scalability and communication efficiency of synchronous SGD, such as asynchronous SGD, local-update SGD, quantized and sparsified SGD, and decentralized SGD. For each of these algorithms, the book analyzes its error versus iterations convergence, and the runtime spent per iteration. The author shows that each of these strategies to reduce communication or synchronization delays encounters a fundamental trade-off between error and runtime.
This textbook provides a comprehensive overview of noncooperative and cooperative dynamic games involving uncertain parameter values, with the stochastic process being described by an event tree. Primarily intended for graduate students of economics, management science and engineering, the book is self-contained, as it defines and illustrates all relevant concepts originally introduced in static games before extending them to a dynamic framework. It subsequently addresses the sustainability of cooperative contracts over time and introduces a range of mechanisms to help avoid such agreements breaking down before reaching maturity. To illustrate the concepts discussed, the book provides various examples of how dynamic games played over event trees can be applied to environmental economics, management science, and engineering.
* Contains computer algebra worksheets or "recipes" designed using MAPLE (System 10); no prior knowledge of MAPLE is assumed* Effective computational science text for first- and second-year undergraduates in mathematics, physics, engineering, chemistry, economics, biology, and pre-medicine* Examples and problems provide basis for both self-study and on-line course
This book explores certain social and environmental drivers of sustainable economic growth for European Union countries (EU-27) and United Kingdom (UK) in the context of the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The author provides a comprehensive overview of the factors that impact and facilitate sustainable economic growth and discusses the complex set of factors involved in sustainable economic development. Special attention is given to quantitative frameworks and empirical modelling, with the main focus on panel data regression models and vector error correction model approach. Furthermore, the book develops ratings of sustainable economic growth for each of the explored countries, by employing data mining techniques such as principal component analysis. Also, the data envelopment analysis non-parametric methodology towards assessing sustainable economic growth is investigated, as well as the cluster analysis in order to classify the selected nations according to sustainable economic growth. The book appeals to policy-makers and academics targeting to learn more about the characteristics of sustainable economic growth.
This book goes into a detailed investigation of adapting artificial neural network (ANN) and structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques in marketing and consumer research. The aim of using a dual-stage SEM and ANN approach is to obtain linear and non-compensated relationships because the ANN method captures non-compensated relationships based on the black box technology of artificial intelligence. Hence, the ANN approach validates the results of the SEM method. In addition, such the novel emerging approach increases the validity of the prediction by determining the importance of the variables. Consequently, the number of studies using SEM-ANN has increased, but the different types of study cases that show customization of different processes in ANNs method combination with SEM are still unknown, and this aspect will be affecting to the generation results. Thus, there is a need for further investigation in marketing and consumer research. This book bridges the significant gap in this research area. The adoption of SEM and ANN techniques in social commerce and consumer research is massive all over the world. Such an expansion has generated more need to learn how to capture linear and non-compensatory relationships in such area. This book would be a valuable reading companion mainly for business and management students in higher academic organizations, professionals, policy-makers, and planners in the field of marketing. This book would also be appreciated by researchers who are keenly interested in social commerce and consumer research.
This third volume of the book series shows R-calculus is a Gentzen-typed deduction system which is non-monotonic, and is a concrete belief revision operator which is proved to satisfy the AGM postulates and the DP postulates. In this book, R-calculus is taken as Tableau-based/sequent-based/multisequent-based to preserve the satisfiability of the Theory/sequent/multisequent to revise, or sequent-based, to preserve the satisfiability of the sequent to revise. The R-calculi for Post and three-valued logic is given. This book offers a rich blend of theory and practice. It is suitable for students, researchers and practitioners in the field of logic.
This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the foundations and frontiers of graph neural networks. In addition, the book introduces the basic concepts and definitions in graph representation learning and discusses the development of advanced graph representation learning methods with a focus on graph neural networks. The book providers researchers and practitioners with an understanding of the fundamental issues as well as a launch point for discussing the latest trends in the science. The authors emphasize several frontier aspects of graph neural networks and utilize graph data to describe pairwise relations for real-world data from many different domains, including social science, chemistry, and biology. Several frontiers of graph neural networks are introduced, which enable readers to acquire the needed techniques of advances in graph neural networks via theoretical models and real-world applications.
The book constitutes an introduction to stochastic calculus, stochastic differential equations and related topics such as Malliavin calculus. On the other hand it focuses on the techniques of stochastic integration and calculus via regularization initiated by the authors. The definitions relies on a smoothing procedure of the integrator process, they generalize the usual Ito and Stratonovich integrals for Brownian motion but the integrator could also not be a semimartingale and the integrand is allowed to be anticipating. The resulting calculus requires a simple formalism: nevertheless it entails pathwise techniques even though it takes into account randomness. It allows connecting different types of pathwise and non pathwise integrals such as Young, fractional, Skorohod integrals, enlargement of filtration and rough paths. The covariation, but also high order variations, play a fundamental role in the calculus via regularization, which can also be applied for irregular integrators. A large class of Gaussian processes, various generalizations of semimartingales such that Dirichlet and weak Dirichlet processes are revisited. Stochastic calculus via regularization has been successfully used in applications, for instance in robust finance and on modeling vortex filaments in turbulence. The book is addressed to PhD students and researchers in stochastic analysis and applications to various fields.
This book gathers contributions from the fourth edition of the Conference on "e;Philosophy and Theory of Artificial Intelligence"e; (PT-AI), held on 27-28th of September 2021 at Chalmers University of Technology, in Gothenburg, Sweden. It covers topics at the interface between philosophy, cognitive science, ethics and computing. It discusses advanced theories fostering the understanding of human cognition, human autonomy, dignity and morality, and the development of corresponding artificial cognitive structures, analyzing important aspects of the relationship between humans and AI systems, including the ethics of AI. This book offers a thought-provoking snapshot of what is currently going on, and what are the main challenges, in the multidisciplinary field of the philosophy of artificial intelligence.
This book examines the issues of ensuring anti-terrorist security of an aviation enterprise, provides a history of terrorism in the aviation sector, and analyzes the legal regulations. This book provides mathematical and mathematical-psychological models for reducing the risk of terrorist threats, which makes it possible to objectively increase the safety of air transport facilities, reduce the likelihood of terrorist attacks, save human lives and prevent significant material losses. The solutions of general humanistic problems proposed in the book-preventing accidents and preserving the world-are an original feature of the book, which allows one to treat it with the necessary attention and interest for the reader. The concept of anti-terrorist security of an aviation enterprise presented in this book has been widely tested and introduced into the activities of leading aviation enterprises, including the Interstate Aviation Committee (IAC), and has been used in the investigation of aviation accidents.This book is written for a wide range of audience associated with ensuring aviation transport security and for the end users of airlines-passengers, in order to expand their knowledge about the reliability of using air transport.
This textbook provides an introduction to methods for solving nonlinear partial differential equations (NLPDEs). After the introduction of several PDEs drawn from science and engineering, readers are introduced to techniques to obtain exact solutions of NLPDEs. The chapters include the following topics: Nonlinear PDEs are Everywhere; Differential Substitutions; Point and Contact Transformations; First Integrals; and Functional Separability. Readers are guided through these chapters and are provided with several detailed examples. Each chapter ends with a series of exercises illustrating the material presented in each chapter. This Second Edition includes a new method of generating contact transformations and focuses on a solution method (parametric Legendre transformations) to solve a particular class of two nonlinear PDEs.
This book provides up-to-date developments in the stability analysis and (anti-)synchronization control area for complex-valued neural networks systems with time delay. It brings out the characteristic systematism in them and points out further insight to solve relevant problems. It presents a comprehensive, up-to-date, and detailed treatment of dynamical behaviors including stability analysis and (anti-)synchronization control. The materials included in the book are mainly based on the recent research work carried on by the authors in this domain.The book is a useful reference for all those from senior undergraduates, graduate students, to senior researchers interested in or working with control theory, applied mathematics, system analysis and integration, automation, nonlinear science, computer and other related fields, especially those relevant scientific and technical workers in the research of complex-valued neural network systems, dynamic systems, and intelligent control theory.
"e;Mathematics of the Weather"e; details the mathematical techniques used to create numerical models of the atmosphere. It explains methods which are currently considered for practical use in models for the exaflop computers (10**19 operations per seconds). This book is a guide to developing and modifying the mathematical methods used in such models. This includes Implementations in spherical geometry. The books also concentrates on elements of Numerical Weather Predication (NWP) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD).
This book develops limit theorems for a natural class of long range random walks on finitely generated torsion free nilpotent groups. The limits in these limit theorems are Lévy processes on some simply connected nilpotent Lie groups. Both the limit Lévy process and the limit Lie group carrying this process are determined by and depend on the law of the original random walk. The book offers the first systematic study of such limit theorems involving stable-like random walks and stable limit Lévy processes in the context of (non-commutative) nilpotent groups.
This book discusses the systems of interacting particles evolving in the random media. The focus is on the study of both the finite subsystems motion and the flow, describing motion of all particles in the space. The integral characteristics of the system and mass distribution are also covered and results are illustrated with examples from turbulence theory, synchronization and DNA evolution.
This book emphasizes the use of stochastic orders as motivational tools for developing new statistical procedures. Stochastic orders have found useful applications in many disciplines, including reliability theory, survival analysis, risk theory, finance, nonparametric methods, economics and actuarial science. Written by a statistician, this volume clarifies the connection between stochastic orders and nonparametric methods.The importance of order statistics and spacings is well recognized. Classically, they mainly focus on the case when the observations are independent and identically distributed, however, several new developments have extended the comparison of order statistics to the case of non-identically distributed or non-independent observations. In addition to giving a detailed discussion of various topics in the general area of stochastic orders, a substantial part of the book is devoted to recent research on stochastic comparisons of order statistics and spacings, including a long chapter on dependence among them. The book will be useful for graduate students and researchers in statistics, economics, actuarial science and other related disciplines. In particular, with close to 300 references, it will be a valuable resource for reliability theorists, applied probabilists and statisticians. Readers are expected to have taken a first-year graduate level course in mathematical statistics or in applied probability.
The Objective of Peter Chew Theorem is to make it easier and faster to solve the problem of quadratic roots, by converting any value of the Quadratic Surds ¿¿into the sum or difference of two real numbers or the sum or difference of two complex number. Peter Chew theorem is AI age knowledge because the theorem can help convert all Quadratic Surds. In addition, the theorem can help convert easier and faster than current method. This will increase the effectiveness of mathematics teaching and learning. When the future epidemics such as Covid-19 occur in the future, it can effectively help mathematics teaching, especially for students studying at home. 3rd Edition adds Application of Peter Chew Theorem In Aerospace Engineering. The application of Peter Chew theorem in Engineering can make the teaching and learning of Engineering easier. Objectives Peter Chew Theorem is the same as Albert Einstein's famous quote everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler.
Basierend auf Grundkenntnissen aus der Schulzeit oder aus dem ersten Band des Gesamtwerks ¿Mathematik verstehen und anwenden¿ führt dieser zweite Band in die Vektoranalysis, in das Gebiet der Differenzialgleichungen und in die Fourier-Analysis einschließlich der Laplace-Transformation ein und beinhaltet außerdem eine Einführung in die Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung und Statistik. Damit er unabhängig vom ersten Band gelesen werden kann, beginnt er mit einer kurzen Zusammenfassung der wichtigsten Begriffe und Ergebnisse der Differenzial- und Integralrechnung sowie der Linearen Algebra.Zielgruppe sind Studierende der Ingenieur- und Naturwissenschaften an Fachhochschulen und Universitäten. Trotz der verständlichen Darstellung für ein Bachelor-Studium geht die mathematische Exaktheit nicht verloren. Hintergrundinformationen und Beweise ergänzen die sehr umfangreiche Stoffauswahl und bieten Anknüpfungspunkte für ein Masterstudium. Daneben erleichtern sie auch den Einstieg in Spezialvorlesungen der Mathematik wie beispielsweise die Numerik, die Funktionalanalysis und insbesondere die Fourier-Analysis.In der vierten Auflage wurden viele Anwendungsbeispiele ergänzt und der Text grundlegend überarbeitet.Stimmen zur ersten Auflage:¿Sowohl mathematisch exakt als auch äußerst anschaulich. Eine echte Bereicherung der großen Auswahl an Büchern zum Thema Ingenieurmathematik.¿Prof. Dr. Andreas Gessinger, Rheinische Fachhochschule Köln¿Der Spagat zwischen Verständlichkeit und mathematischer Tiefe ist hervorragend gelungen. Eine breite Palette von praxisorientierten Beispielen wirkt motivationsfördernd.¿Prof. Dr. Helga Tecklenburg, Hochschule für Technik, Wirtschaft und Kultur Leipzig
This proceedings book covers a wide range of topics related to uncertainty analysis and its application in various fields of engineering and science. It explores uncertainties in numerical simulations for soil liquefaction potential, the toughness properties of construction materials, experimental tests on cyclic liquefaction potential, and the estimation of geotechnical engineering properties for aerogenerator foundation design. Additionally, the book delves into uncertainties in concrete compressive strength, bio-inspired shape optimization using isogeometric analysis, stochastic damping in rotordynamics, and the hygro-thermal properties of raw earth building materials. It also addresses dynamic analysis with uncertainties in structural parameters, reliability-based design optimization of steel frames, and calibration methods for models with dependent parameters. The book further explores mechanical property characterization in 3D printing, stochastic analysis in computational simulations, probability distribution in branching processes, data assimilation in ocean circulation modeling, uncertainty quantification in climate prediction, and applications of uncertainty quantification in decision problems and disaster management. This comprehensive collection provides insights into the challenges and solutions related to uncertainty in various scientific and engineering contexts.
This book offers a self-contained introduction to partial differential equations (PDEs), primarily focusing on linear equations, and also providing perspective on nonlinear equations. The treatment is mathematically rigorous with a generally theoretical layout, with indications to some of the physical origins of PDEs. The Second Edition is rewritten to incorporate years of classroom feedback, to correct errors and to improve clarity. The exposition offers many examples, problems and solutions to enhance understanding. Requiring only advanced differential calculus and some basic Lp theory, the book will appeal to advanced undergraduates and graduate students, and to applied mathematicians and mathematical physicists.
Interaction of Disturbances in Shear Flows aims to provide a comprehensive, in-depth overview of the current state of knowledge on the subject. Authored by a highly reputed expert with decades of experience and many software patents to his credit, the volume explores the state of the art in computational fluid dynamics to demonstrate how physical measurements and visualization patterns can be applied in solving various aero- and hydrodynamic problems. It also delves into analytical methodologies to compare and contrast with the theoretical models most commonly used in the field. Additionally, it demonstrates the significance of comprehending and managing disturbances in shear flows, with discussions of applications of the research to optimize the design of aircraft, automotive vehicles, and marine vessels, with a strong emphasis on enhancing aero- and hydrodynamic efficiency, fuel economy, and the reduction of harmful emissions. Academic and industry-based readers alike will find this a useful resource to equip themselves with the tools to understand and address practical engineering and modelling challenges they are faced with in their research or work.
This book is an enlarged second edition of a monograph published in the Springer AGEM2-Series, 2009. It presents, in a consistent and unified overview, a setup of the theory of spherical functions of mathematical (geo-)sciences. The content shows a twofold transition: First, the natural transition from scalar to vectorial and tensorial theory of spherical harmonics is given in a coordinate-free context, based on variants of the addition theorem, Funk-Hecke formulas, and Helmholtz as well as Hardy-Hodge decompositions. Second, the canonical transition from spherical harmonics via zonal (kernel) functions to the Dirac kernel is given in close orientation to an uncertainty principle classifying the space/frequency (momentum) behavior of the functions for purposes of data analysis and (geo-)application. The whole palette of spherical functions is collected in a well-structured form for modeling and simulating the phenomena and processes occurring in the Earth's system. The result is a work which, while reflecting the present state of knowledge in a time-related manner, claims to be of largely timeless significance in (geo-)mathematical research and teaching.
This book deals with several types of multi-dimensional control problems in the face of data uncertainty for vector cases-multi-dimensional multi-objective control problem with uncertain objective functionals, uncertain constraint functionals, and uncertain objective as well as constraint functionals, uncertain multi-dimensional multi-objective control problem with semi-infinite constraints, uncertain dual multi-dimensional multi-objective variational control problem, and second-order PDE&PDI constrained robust optimization problem. The book provides the solution approaches-an exact l1 penalty function approach, modified objective approach, robust approach-in the simplest way to solve the recent developing optimization problems in the sense of uncertainty.