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Dette kompendium er målrettet medicin- og tandlægestuderende på 1. semester og har først og fremmest til formål at skabe et overblik over og en forståelse af den kemi, der er grundlaget for senere kurser på medicin- og tandlægestudiet – især biokemi og cellebiologi. Faget kemi er for manges vedkommende forbundet med en generel uforståelighed, og hvis man som studerende har holdt et eller flere sabbatår efter gymnasiet, kan kemi være ekstra udfordrende. Kompendiet indledes derfor med en repetition af vigtige begreber fra gymnasiet. Der er lagt stor vægt på at formidle kemien på en pædagogisk og overskuelig måde, og derfor rummer kompendiet mange illustrationer og oversigter. Desuden er perspektivering af kemien til de kurser, den er grundlag for, vægtet højt. Kompendiet er pensumdækkende for kurset “Cellens Kemiske Komponenter” (CKK). Det indeholder de relevante henvisninger til tabelværket “Kemiske data og oversigter” (kendt som “KDO”), som må medbringes til eksamen. Kompendiets form og indhold er resultatet af mange års erfaring med undervisning af medicin- og tandlægestuderende i kemi, og de studerendes input gennem årene har været af stor betydning.
This volume highlights natural products, molecular methods for identifying, and current trends in designing non-natural natural products. Chapters guide readers through protocols on heterologous expression techniques, gene disruption, modified pathway regulators, and in-vitro studies. Written in the format of the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series, each chapter includes an introduction to the topic, lists necessary materials and reagents, includes tips on troubleshooting and known pitfalls, and step-by-step, readily reproducible protocols.Authoritative and cutting-edge, Engineering Natural Product Biosynthesis: Methods and Protocols aims to be a useful and practical guide to new researchers and experts looking to expand their knowledge. Chapter 13 is available open access under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License via link.springer.com.
This volume focuses on the potential use of probiotics in treating metabolic disorders such as diabetes mellitus, metabolic acidosis, and gut dysbiosis. Chapters draw an association between gut microbiota and its diversity with metabolic diseases like diabetes, obesity, related liver and gut disorders; gut-brain axis; increased inflammation, and a compromised immune system resulting from these manifestations and scope of intervention with probiotics. Special attention is laid on describing the mechanisms of action of such beneficial effects of probiotic administration. The ability of probiotics to decrease metabolic endotoxemia by restoring the disrupted intestinal mucosal barrier is also included.The volume is a comprehensive compilation describing the scope and application of probiotic and prebiotic therapy in treating metabolic disorders. Readers will discover how probiotics are not just confined to the microbiology industry but are showing promising results in the medical and pharmaceutical sectors.
This book introduces the recent development in Japan of diamond electrodes, which has attracted much attention in the world. For example, electrochemical sensors using diamond electrodes are now being utilized commercially. Newly developing applications such as electrochemical organic synthesis including CO2 reduction are also expected to form an important future technology. Those emerging applications to various fields which are receiving increasing attention are described in detail here.This book is useful not only for students who would like to begin their study of diamond electrodes but also for industries that are exploring novel electrochemical applications.
This book focuses on the principles, methods, and interpretation involved in establishing the safety, risk, and hazard assessment of small molecules. It presents the regulatory requirements for risk and hazard identification as per the guidelines of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Paris, and the International Council for Harmonisation (ICH) of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use ICH and Schedule 'Y', India. It serves as reference material for undergraduate and postgraduate pharmacy degree students as well as senior researchers to learn about the principles, methods, and interpretations of systemic dosage (acute and repeated dose) and genotoxicity (in vitro and in vivo), special toxicological investigations such as reproductive and developmental toxicology, carcinogenicity, and toxicokinetics using animal models or in vitro methods, as applicable. This book is the first of its kind in providing information on the principles and methods of implementation of Good Laboratory Practice based on the guidelines of OECD. It includes detailed chapters about the regulatory requirements and guidelines in pharmaceutical products and agrochemicals. It also describes the infrastructure needed for preclinical studies, including in vivo and in vitro facilities.
This book describes recent advances in translational research in breast cancer and presents emerging applications of this research that promise to have meaningful impacts on diagnosis and treatment. It introduces ideas and materials derived from the clinic that have been brought to "the bench" for basic research, as well as findings that have been applied back to "the bedside". Detailed attention is devoted to breast cancer biology and cell signaling pathways and to cancer stem cell and tumor heterogeneity in breast cancer. Various patient-derived research models are discussed, and a further focus is the role of biomarkers in precision medicine for breast cancer patients. Next-generation clinical research receives detailed attention, addressing the increasingly important role of big data in breast cancer research and a wide range of other emerging developments. An entire section is also devoted to the management of women with high-risk breast cancer. Translational Research in Breast Cancer will help clinicians and scientists to optimize their collaboration in order to achieve the common goal of conquering breast cancer.
This monograph compiles updated information about forskolin, a labdane diterpene that is produced by the Coleus plant. Forskolin has a large number of practical uses and the book delves into the various aspects of this chemical. It includes topics such as the botanical source of forskolin and the cultivation of Coleus forskohlii, source. It also covers the biosynthetic pathways in natural sources and also through different biotechnological applications. Chapters include the potential and products in the Forskolin market. The book also covers the methods for enhanced production of forskolin from natural sources and through tissue culture methods for improvement of the plant for higher content of forskolin. It discusses the role of endophytes in the production of forskolin.The book is useful for students and researchers in the field of botany, pharmacology and biochemistry. It also serves scientists in various pharmaceutical industries.
This book provides an overview of the latest developments and future challenges in enzyme inhibitor research. It discusses the general enzyme inhibitory principles and mechanisms in enzyme activity regulation and application of enzyme inhibitors in different areas and sectors. The major areas of applications of enzyme inhibitors covered in this book are human health management, agriculture, food processing and research, which leads to drug discovery or enzyme activity mechanisms. The book also identifies the gaps in the existing knowledge and opens up new research ideas in this important area. Currently, most enzyme inhibitors are reported to inhibit various classes of enzymes. These enzyme inhibitors are the focus of the scientific community because they may answer an increasing array of questions in the research area of biological sciences, including biochemistry, medicine, physiology, pharmacy, agriculture, ecology etc. It also serves as a useful tool in the study of enzyme structures and reaction mechanisms and in the development of technologies in agriculture, food processing, and health management. Chapters in this book cover topics such as plant-derived inhibitors of serine proteases, pancreatic lipase (PL) inhibitors from indigenous medicinal plants, amylase inhibitors and their applications in agriculture and food processing industries and advances in silico techniques used in the study of enzyme inhibitors. The book will serve as a valuable resource for students and researchers in Life Sciences, agriculture, medicine, food processing, and allied industries.
The book provides essential information on some of the promising edible medicinal plants and how these possess both nutritional as well as therapeutic value. The significance of the edible plants in traditional medicine and the importance of the distribution of their chemical constituents are discussed systematically concerning the role of these plants in ethnomedicine in different regions of the world. The current volume deals with the individual plants' phytochemical and pharmacological properties, emphasizing human health. The title would demonstrate the value of natural edible plants and introduce readers to state-of-the-art developments and trends in omics-driven research.This book is a single-source scientific reference to explore the specific factors that contribute to these potential health benefits and discuss how to maximize those potential benefits. Chemists, food technologists, pharmacologists, phytochemists, and all professionals involved with quality control and standardization will find in this book a valuable and updated basis for their work.
This book presents the principle, strengths and weaknesses, and progress of various vaccine technologies against COVID-19. Additionally, important terms such as clinical phases, efficacy and sterilizing immunity are explained. In this second edition, the already approved vaccines are also presented and the importance of viral variants is explained
This volume builds upon the successful book Lanthanide Luminescence published in the Springer Series on Fluorescence in 2011. Since its publication, the field of lanthanide spectroscopy and the areas in which the light emission properties of the f-elements are used have experienced substantial advances. The luminescence properties of lanthanide ions make them unique candidates for a myriad of optical applications. This book highlights and reviews the latest research in areas ranging from luminescence thermometry to imaging, sensing and photonic applications of these fascinating elements. Each chapter provides a comprehensive introduction to a specific area of application of lanthanide luminescence and extensively reviews seminal papers and current research literature. Given its interdisciplinary scope, the book appeals to scientists and advanced students in physics, chemistry and materials science interested in compounds and materials with optical properties.
Molecular farming is a biotechnological approach that includes the genetic adjustment of agricultural products to create proteins and chemicals for profitable and pharmaceutical purposes. Plant molecular farming describes the manufacture of recombinant proteins and other biologically active product in plants. This approach depends on a genetic transformation of plants that can be accomplished by the methods of stable gene transfer, such as gene transfer to nuclei and chloroplasts, and unstable transfer methods like viral vectors. The requirement for recombinant proteins in terms of quality, quantity, and diversity is increasing exponentially This demand is traditionally met by recombinant protein construction technologies and the engineering of orthodox expression systems based on bacteria or mammalian cell cultures. However, majority of developing countries cannot afford the high costs of medicine derived from such existing methods. Hence, we need to produce not only the new drugs but also the cheaper versions of those already present in the market. Plant molecular farming is considered as a cost-effective technology that has grown and advanced tremendously over the past two decades.This book summarizes the advances and challenges of plant molecular farming for all those who are working on or have an interest in this rapidly emerging area of research.
Billions of people worldwide take medicines every day to treat important diseases. In many cases, however, neither the doctor nor the pharmacist has the time to explain to the patient why a particular drug should be taken, how the drug works and what side effects to expect. Of course, the patient can find "e;everything"e; about a particular drug on the Internet. But how reliable and understandable is this information? In addition, most Internet sources do not point out the interrelationships between different diseases and drug interactions. Written by an experienced and well-known textbook author, this book provides an overview of the most common diseases and the drugs used to treat them. The book is designed for a general audience. It provides patients with essential information about how medications work and what side effects and interactions to expect. Finally, the book gives patients advice on what they can do themselves to improve drug therapy and safety. Summaries, bullet points, tables and diagrams support the information process.
This contributed volume focuses on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), and explores the ways in which signaling mechanisms at the biochemical, molecular, and cellular levels in the blood vessels (vascular) and heart contribute to the underlying causes of development and progression of the CVDs. This volume covers unique topics such as oxidant signaling in vascular and heart diseases and health, cytoskeletal signaling in vascular health and disease, phospholipase signaling in CVDs, lipid signaling in vascular and myocardial health and diseases, and drug discovery in cellular signaling for cardiovascular diseases.This book assembles the most important discoveries made by leaders on the cellular signaling mechanisms operating behind the development and progression of life-threatening CVDs. It is an extremely useful resource for the investigators in the field of CVDs, and opens the discussion for further discovery of efficient management and effective treatment of the CVDs.
This volume highlights the potentials as well as the limits and challenges of human breath analysis and describes the current efforts made to advance this promising technology from bench to bed. Human breath analysis is a young, interdisciplinary and innovative research field aiming to provide a smart and non-invasive diagnostic tool, which can be used for screening, detecting and monitoring of diseases or metabolic disorders. This book presents different approaches for breath analysis including real-time and offline mass spectrometry as well as optical and semiconductor gas sensing methods. Besides, the role of smart algorithms to improve the performance of those technologies and the importance of pulmonary function diagnostics for more reliable and meaningful breath analysis are highlighted. Finally, current application scenarios and future perspectives of breath analysis and pulmonary functioning tests are addressed.The volume is useful for researchers, who are new in the field, to easily get an overview of the current status and the challenges present in human breath analysis. Topics from fundamental research over targeted sensor development and application scenarios are described. Thus, this volume covers all development stages providing support and inspiration for engineers, medical doctors and scientists from various fields.
This book reviews new promising drug targets for Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs), with a special focus on antiprotozoal drugs against trpyanosomatids Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. The book offers a comprehensive overview of the most recent studied targets, and it outlines classical and new treatments and delivery strategies. Expert contributors describe new methods of analysis and bio-prospecting for new compounds, and provide a critical perspective of the translational process used in the research and development of new drug candidates.The book will appeal not only to researchers, students and professionals interested in drug development to protozoan diseases, but also to medicinal chemists in general.
There is a growing interest in unmet needs for the development of a new discipline in drug discovery and in university education on polypharmacology. However, there has not been a book with the comprehensive compilation of basic knowledge and advanced methodology that is needed. This book aims to meet the needs making Polypharmacology a new sub-discipline of Pharmacology, not only being a hot area of pharmacological research and education but also a new paradigm for drug discovery. It contains the contents covering the entire scope of Polypharmacology including systemic in-depth exposition of basic knowledge, novel concepts, innovative technologies, and translational and clinical applications by showcasing state-of-the-art strategies and step-by-step instructions of cutting-edge methods. The contents of this book targets broad readerships including scientists in pharmacology research and drug development, and university teachers and graduates in medical school or school of pharmacy.