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Det europæiske forår er et dystopisk billede af Europas fremtid. Vi følger fire mennesker i begyndelsen af et nyt årtusinde. Lolland er blevet opkøbt af et internationalt konsortium, og nu skal øen omdannes til et økologisk drømmeland, hvor rige mennesker kan nyde lokale råvarer og en smuk – og slet ikke så naturlig – natur. For at bevare idyllen i Europa sætter danskerne hårdt ind over for terror, og med militærets hjælp deporteres samtlige urostiftere og utilpassede med muslimsk baggrund til en containerby i Mozambique. Forfatteren eksperimenterer med grænserne for, hvad man kan tillade sig i kunstens navn og med etikkens sande væsen. Idealer, udnyttelse og realitet går hånd i hånd i denne tankevækkende roman, som tvinger læseren til at forholde sig til store dilemmaer, som trods deres fiktive afsæt slet ikke føles langt væk fra den verden, vi lever i.
This book explores the interactions between nanomaterials/nanoparticles and plants and unveils potential applications. The chapters emphasize the implications of nanoparticles in cross-discipline approaches, including agricultural science, plant physiology, plant biotechnology, material science, environmental science, food chemistry, biomedical science, etc. It presents recent advances in experimental and theoretical studies and gives in-depth insights into the interaction between nanoparticles and plant cells. In addition, it discusses the potential applications and concerns of nanoparticles comprehensively. The research field of plant nanotechnology has great potential within plant sciences and agriculture and the related research is getting increased at present. The study of plant nanotechnology receives an advantage from the great progress of nanotechnology in biomedical sciences particularly the well-development of a variety of biocompatible nanoparticles (NPs) and advanced analytical techniques. Nowadays, although some NPs have been applied in the studies of plant and agronomic sciences, the knowledge regarding physiology and underlying mechanisms within the plant cell remains limited. This book offers a critical reference for students, teachers, professionals, and a wide array of researchers in plant science, plant physiology, plant biotechnology, material science, environmental science, food chemistry, nanotechnology, and biomedical science. It could also benefit the related field of plant nanotechnology for designing and organizing future research.
This book is a compilation of advancements and achievements in the field of sugar beet cultivation. It covers recent research and up-to-date information on this crop. It discusses essential aspects for high production and good yield, development and crop management, such as origin, breeding, seed production, physiology, pathology, entomology, biotechnology, and post-harvest technology. Sugar beet is known as an alternative crop for sugar production. A versatile crop having numerous uses, besides being raw material for sugar production, its molasses contain high amount of betaine which is used as a feed supplement. Due to its value profile it has attracted the millers and farmers alike. This book is of interest to teachers, researchers, agriculture scientists, capacity builders and policymakers. Also the book serves as additional reading material for graduate students of agriculture, forestry, ecology and soil science. National and international agricultural scientists, policy makers will also find this to be a useful read.
This book details the frontier technologies in the area of bovine reproduction. It describes the importance and significance of different technologies for improving reproduction efficiency in bovines. The book delineates the advancements in the technologies that are currently in use for faster multiplication of elite germ plasm including multiple ovulation and embryo transfer, ovum-pick-up, in vitro fertilization and embryo production, and semen sexing. Other emerging technologies, having potential for improving reproductive efficiency in bovines, including stem cells are also discussed with special reference to spermatogonial stem cells. Simple but effective tools having a great scope for day-to-day application in bovine farms for effective reproductive management like ultrasonography and thermal imaging are also covered in this book. The chapters on sperm transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics provide current developments in these areas and use of integrated approach for identification of fertility biomarkers. The chapters also describe technological advancements for early pregnancy diagnosis and offspring sex pre-selection in bovines. Additionally, this book discusses different sperm selection procedures including application of nanotechnology to obtain superior spermatozoa for assisted reproduction. Futuristic technologies including genomic selection and transgenesis are also discussed in detail. Finally, the book also elucidates a comprehensive description of challenges perceived with bovine reproduction and how effectively these technologies can help in improving fertility in bovines.
This book explores the ways in which individuals construct and integrate self-positions in a transcultural context, by adopting a pluralist theoretical and methodological approach that includes both Western post-modern viewpoints and ancient Chinese philosophical ideas.The book starts with stories of two second-generation Chinese young people and their mothers' life experiences in the UK, which can be seen as an epitome of individuals living in the modern and complex environment of the time. Using social constructionist viewpoints, it then analyzes the overt interaction between the individual and outside environment and interprets the recessive interaction, such as the individual's psychological response to the outside environment, which might be unknown to him or herself, using the psychodynamic approach based on object relations theory and other psychoanalytic concepts, such as defense mechanisms. The book uses Confucian philosophy to show how Chinese people think about the relation between other people and themselves and also integrates different and even opposing theories and viewpoints from Taoist philosophy.This creative book provides a theoretical and practical approach to explore the conception of "e;self"e; and the way in which individuals construct their self-positions in a complex context. Combining cutting-edge Western psycho-social viewpoints and ancient Chinese philosophy, it appeals to readers interested in "e;self,"e; psycho-social approaches, psychoanalytic viewpoints and Chinese philosophy.
This book collates various aspects of stress tolerance in crop plants. It primarily focuses on the heat and temperature related stress, starting from the severity of the problem on quantity and quality of yield under the threat of global climate change. The content also explores other mechanistic dimensions such as physiochemical and molecular mechanism underlying thermotolerance, signaling mechanism under heat stress, role of heat shock proteins in modulating thermotolerance, omics approach for development of climate smart-crop. Chapters discuss different approaches used in the past to develop heat stress tolerant crop plants, list of developed thermotolerant agriculturally important crop plants, redox homeostasis under heat stress, nutrient uptake and use efficiency in plants under heat stress and much more. The book is a useful compilation for researchers working in the area of abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants, as well as for students of plant physiology and agricultural sciences.
This book provides an updated knowledge on the biohydrogen production from industrial and municipal organic waste materials. Microbes are increasingly being included in the hydrogen based biofuel production and this book covers the processes and protocols for biohydrogen production. There is an urgent need of alternative energy research to fulfill the global energy demand. Biohydrogen is a promising source of sustainable and clean energy as it harnessed by biological means. Biohydrogen may be produced by utilizing different waste materials as a substrate, and by optimization of various parameters of bioreactors such as temperature, pH, partial pressure etc. The waste materials used in hydrogen production are categorized as agricultural waste, municipal waste, industrial waste, and other hazardous wastes. Biohydrogen production from wastes materials opened a new opportunity for the widespread use of everlasting renewable energy source. This book is useful for professional scientists, academicians, biotechnologist and environmentalist along with research scholars in various biotechnology and bioenergy industries by addressing the latest research going on in the field of renewal bioenergy production from waste and their global impact on the environment.
This book presents up-to-date information on various vector-less/direct (physical, chemical) and vector-mediated/indirect (Agrobacterium-mediated) plant transformation techniques. It summarizes various strategies that facilitate a gene from lower organism to be expressed in higher plants and also in silico designing of synthetic gene for higher expression. It also highlights the importance of strong promoters to drive the expression of transgene(s). This book encompasses the advantages and drawbacks of cisgenesis and transgenesis, their implications towards sustainable crop improvement, and their future prospects. The importance, limitations, challenges, recent developments, and future prospects of molecular pharming is also discussed. The book concludes with a chapter that summarizes the major contribution of GM-crops towards global food security and economy, advances in genome editing for crop improvement, challenges and risk associated with the release of GM-crops, and the future of GM technology.This book is meant for students and researchers in the field of life sciences, food science, and agriculture.
This book explores the nature of marine conservation based on the case study of Hinase, a fishing village in Okayama, Japan. It focuses on the fishers' self-motivated eelgrass restoration activity which has been continued for more than 30 years. This activity in Hinase recently attracted international attention as a case under the name "e;Satoumi"e; and "e;Marine Protected Areas"e; in several governmental reports, but detailed information, such as the historical background and social structure of Hinase, has not yet been analyzed. This book, therefore, fulfills this gap by providing its ethnographic information. In addition, this book offers some points for critical thinking by concluding that marine conservation activities cannot always be evaluated or arranged under the standardized approach with limited time and space. This viewpoint reaffirms the importance of local initiative and highlights the value of qualitative research to seek the way forward for promising marine conservation. This book is suitable for an academic audience in the field of social sciences, such as applied anthropology, as well as ecologists, government officials, environmentalists, and citizens who are interested or engaged in environmental issues or natural resource management.
This book compiles the relevant information related to genome editing tools and their roles in crop improvement. The book contains a brief introduction about various genome editing tools and their application in major crops. It discusses the genome editing approaches and the strategies used for genome editing in different crops. Some of the chapters cover the detailed methodology of sgRNA design, vector construction and transformation in different crops followed by data analysis. A few chapters focus on the applications of genome editing tools towards crop improvement. This book will be of particular interest to plant biologists working in the field of genome editing and crop breeders. It will provide valuable information and useful material for our readers' experimental work.
This book discusses genetic engineering of both plants and microbes for making agricultural practices more productive and sustainable. It chapters explore the understanding of the interaction between plants and microbes, and genomic information to modify the metabolism of plants or microbes to further enhance the beneficial interaction. The book covers the development of commercial inoculants including selection of appropriate plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria/ phosphate solubilize bacteria based on target host plant, soil type, indigenous microbial communities, environmental conditions, inoculant density, suitability of carriers and compatibility with integrated crop management. This is a relevant content for scientists and researchers working on soil biology, sustainable agricultural and plant physiology. Also, this book is a useful read for graduate and post graduate students of agriculture, botany and microbiology.
The book covers an overview of fungal polymers, fungal mycelial biomass, and their applications besides providing a detailed account of various opportunities. This book also includes information on developments in mycotechnology related to fashion, furnishing, construction, packaging, mycelial-based bricks, construction binder, cementing materials, and so on. Other aspects include the value of chitin, chitosan, hydrophobins, lignocellulosic composites, oil recovery, biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers, nanofibers from pullulan, exopolymeric substances, bioresins, and biocomposites. Additional topics covered in the book include self-healing fungal concrete (which could help to build repairs) and recipe to inhibit fruit body formation, for living fungal biomaterial manufacture. There is no comprehensive book other than - some reviews, which addressed very brief historical developments and preliminary aspects of fungal biopolymers. Written by experts in their field from countries like Australia, India, USA, Germany, Turkey, Philippines, Oman, Belgium, Italy, Egypt, Brazil, and the United Kingdom, the chapters discuss at length applications of filamentous fungi in sustainable industrial pursuits and industrial developments with environmental safety. This book will be useful for students, teachers, researchers, and scientists in botany, microbiology, life sciences, biotechnology, agriculture and, industries that extensively use fungi for the production of value-added products.
This book presents basic principles and discusses the state-of-the-art methods of sperm sexing in livestock. It reviews the challenges and critical opinions on the conventional sperm sexing methods and characteristic features of spermatozoa of farm animals which could help to develop novel methods of sperm sexing. The book also presents principles and applications of flow cytometry for sperm separation. The chapters of the book elucidate methods and difficulties in developing sperm sexing methods. Notably, it covers recent research on immunological and nanotechnology-based sperm sexing methods. The book also provides information on the development of semen extenders. Towards the end, the book examines ethical and commercial aspects of sperm sexing. It is an ideal reference book for students, researchers and professionals working towards improving livestock production.
This book presents tools and techniques for the development of miniature biosensors and their applications. The initial chapters discuss the advancements in the development of the transduction techniques, including optical, electrochemical, and piezoelectric, which are used for miniaturized biosensors. The book also reviews several technologies, such as nanotechnology, nanobiotechnology, immune-technology, DNA-technology, micro-manufacturing technology, electronic-circuit technology to increase the miniaturization and sensitivity of the biosensor platform. Subsequently, the chapters illustrate the applications of miniaturized biosensing systems in point-of-care monitoring of treatment and disease progression, environmental monitoring, food control, drug discovery, forensics, and biomedical research. Towards the end, the book discusses the advanced applications of biosensors in water quality monitoring, especially on-line detection systems and on-site detection of pesticides, heavy metals and bacteria in water. This book is an invaluable source for scientists working in biochemical engineering, bioengineering, and biomedical engineering in academia and industry.
This edited book is focusing on the novel and innovative procedures in tissue culture for large scale production of plantation and horticulture crops. It is bringing out a comprehensive collection of information on commercial scale tissue culture with the objective of producing high quality, disease-free and uniform planting material. Developing low cost commercial tissue culture can be one of the best possible way to attain the goal of sustainable agriculture. Tissue culture provides a means for rapid clonal propagation of desired cultivars, and a mechanism for somatic hybridization and in vitro selection of novel genotypes. Application of plant tissue culture technology in horticulture and plantation crops provides an efficient method to improve the quality and nutrition of the crops. This book includes a description of highly efficient, low cost in vitro regeneration protocols of important plantation and horticulture crops with a detailed guideline to establish a commercial plant tissue culture facility including certification, packaging and transportation of plantlets. The book discusses somatic embryogenesis, virus elimination, genetic transformation, protoplast fusion, haploid production, coculture of endophytic fungi, effects of light and ionizing radiation as well as the application of bioreactors. This book is useful for a wide range of readers such as, academicians, students, research scientists, horticulturists, agriculturists, industrial entrepreneurs, and agro-industry employees.
This book provides updated information on the current concepts in bovine reproduction. It describes the complex issues associated with fertility and infertility in bovines and suggests strategies for achieving high reproductive efficiency. It discusses topics related to the fertility trend in bovines, estrus detection, controlled breeding, postpartum uterine health, uterine infections, and its therapeutic management. The essential roles of metabolic hormones on gonadal functions and fertility are also covered. Additionally, the book presents new insights in maternal recognition of pregnancy in bovines and suggest nutritional strategies to improve reproductive efficiency. The chapters on male fertility provide current information on semen cryopreservation, sperm quality assessment and measures to improve sperm fertility. A special chapter on intricacies in buffalo semen cryopreservation and measures to improve the quality of cryopreserved sperm is also included in this book. Lastly, the book introduces the immunobiological roles of anti-microbial peptides during sperm transport in reproductive tract and epigenetic bearing on fertility. This book is an invaluable resource for veterinary scientists, students and practitioners to understand the current developments in bovine reproduction for improving reproductive efficiency.
This contributed volume aims at bringing together all the genetic engineering tools for managing various types of crop pests. The main focus of this book is to explore the application of these tools in pest management. Major pest groups covered in this book are insects, mites and nematodes.The first section covers all major genetic tools and molecular approaches. The second section deals with genetic tools for of beneficial containing three chapters involving honey bees, silkworms and natural enemies. Next section deals with genetic interactions against pests in diverse geographical regions with special focus on Africa, Vietnam and Sri Lanka. Sections four and five addresses diverse aspects as management of pests, genetic behavior, gene expression, plasticity, pathways and interactions and options for mitigation of pests.It serves as a useful resource for professionals in the fields of entomology, agronomy, horticulture, ecology, and environmental sciences, as well as to agricultural producers and plant biotechnologists.
This book gives an overview of applications of Machine Learning (ML) in diverse fields of biological sciences, including healthcare, animal sciences, agriculture, and plant sciences. Machine learning has major applications in process modelling, computer vision, signal processing, speech recognition, and language understanding and processing and life, and health sciences. It is increasingly used in understanding DNA patterns and in precision medicine. This book is divided into eight major sections, each containing chapters that describe the application of ML in a certain field. The book begins by giving an introduction to ML and the various ML methods. It then covers interesting and timely aspects such as applications in genetics, cell biology, the study of plant-pathogen interactions, and animal behavior. The book discusses computational methods for toxicity prediction of environmental chemicals and drugs, which forms a major domain of research in the field of biology. It is of relevance to post-graduate students and researchers interested in exploring the interdisciplinary areas of use of machine learning and deep learning in life sciences.
This edited book focuses on the application and implementation of bioremediation and other strategies to create a sustainable and healthy environment. It provides a collection of approaches to environmental biotechnology for wastewater treatment, removal of soil heavy metals, degradation of pesticides, removal of dyes, waste management, and microbial conversion of environmental pollutants. This book brings to the fore contributions of certain globally important environmental biotechnologist. Bioremediation is a popular branch of biotechnology that involves the use of living organisms such as microorganisms (microbial remediation), bacteria, fungus (mycoremediation), and plants (phytoremediation) to bind, extract, and clean up contaminants, pollutants, and toxins from soil, groundwater, and other environments. This book is of interest to researchers, scientists, and academic faculty in environmental sciences. Also, it serves as additional reading and reference material for undergraduate and graduate students as well as postdocs in environmental, agriculture, ecology, and soil sciences. National and International policy makers will also find valuable information from this book.
This book is an advanced textbook and a reference book for the post-graduate plant-breeding students and the plant breeders. It consolidates fundamental concepts and also the latest advances in plant-breeding practices including development in crop genomics. It contains crop wise explanation on origin, reproduction, genetics of yield contributing traits, biotic and abiotic stresses, nutritional improvement and crop specific plant-breeding procedures and techniques. The chapters are planned to describe crop-focused breeding procedure for the major crop plants as per their economic importance. The recent developments in breeding of field crops have been reported. The recent progress made in mapping traits of economic importance has been critically reviewed for each crop. The progress made in markers assisted selected in few crops has been summarized. This book bridges the knowledge gap and bring to the researchers and students information on modern breeding tools for developing biotic and abiotic stress tolerant, climate resilient and micronutrient rich varieties of field crops. The chapters in book are contributed by experienced Plant Breeders.
This volume 'Agrochemicals in Soil and Environment: Impacts and Remediation' is a comprehensive collection of important literature on agrochemical contamination. The main focus of this book is to point out undesirable changes in biological, physical and chemical characteristics of agricultural soils and its impacts on global agricultural crop productivity. Soil is one of the important resources of basic needs for our sustenance but due to various anthropogenic activities like urbanization and industrialization, the soil is losing its basic quality characteristics. Soil microorganisms, water holding capacity, minerals, salts and nutrients are under the direct threat due to agrochemicals therefore, agricultural sector is facing a serious challenge. Lack of proper knowledge and luxurious applications of agrochemicals resulting into degradation and deterioration of soil quality, loss of soil and crop productivity and threatening the food security. Therefore, it is imperative to develop indices, indicators and soil parameters for the monitoring and impact assessment of agricultural contaminants. Further, biotic and abiotic stresses and their tolerance mechanisms in plants in relation to the soil contaminants such as toxic pollutants, heavy metals, inorganic and organic matters, variety of pesticides, insecticides, herbicides, agricultural runoffs and solid wastes, and chemical fertilizers are also highlighted in this volume. This book also discusses causes of reduced agriculture productivity and suggests sustainable measures such as plant-based technologies, bioremediation and nanotechnology, that can be used to overcome the crop losses. The book is interest to research students, teachers, agricultural scientists, agronomists, environmentalists as well as policy makers.
This edited book discusses the latest advancements in the area of biofuel development. It covers extensive information regarding different aspects and types of biofuels. The book provides a road map of the various kinds of biofuels available for consideration. It focuses on microbial based power generation, applications of nanotechnology in biofuel development, advancements in molecular techniques, economic and life cycle assessments. The book also highlights the commercialization prospects and economics of the various processes and an overview of the life cycle assessment of the various different kinds of biofuels. The contributors are experienced professors, academicians and scientists associated with renowned laboratories and institutes in India and abroad. This book is of interest to teachers, researchers, biofuel scientists, capacity builders and policymakers. Also the book serves as additional reading material for undergraduate and graduate students. National and international scientists, policy makers will also find this to be a useful read.
This book highlights important aspects of food biotechnology. It is very thoughtfully divided into five sections. The first section introduces the readers to food biotechnology and discusses functional foods, use of plant and animal biotechnology in improving food quality. The second section deals with food microbiology and includes topics such as application of microbial surfactants, use of probiotics, beneficial microorganisms used in food industry etc. The third section describes important macro and micromolecules in foods. It includes chapters on food enzymes, gluten free formulations, use of biopolymers, biofortification of food and other important topics. The next section discusses novel technologies such as use of nanotechnology in food industry, reverse micelle techniques, genome editing in food crops etc. The book culminates with a section on food quality and management. It describes important topics about biosafety and regulatory issues in food biotechnology. This book is meant for students, researchers and course instructors in food science, food technology and biotechnology. It is also useful for industry experts in the area of food technology.
This book provides thorough information on various nanomaterials, techniques for their synthesis and characterization, and examines their agricultural, environmental, biomedical, and clinical applications. The initial part of the book presents different nanomaterials; covers various physical, chemical, and biological methods for their synthesis; and reviews techniques to characterize their physicochemical and biological properties. Subsequently, the chapters of the book focus on the innovative applications of nanomaterials in disease diagnosis, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and cancer therapy. It also explores the green biosynthesis of nanomaterials and highlights their biological applications. Towards the end, the book examines the toxicity and biocompatibility of various nanomaterials. It aims to serve as a resource guide for researchers and biomedical clinicians working with nanomaterials.
This book collates the basic and advanced concepts of plant biotechnology and genomics along with the future trends. It discusses the combination of conventional breeding techniques with genomic tools and approaches leading to a new genomics-based plant breeding technology supporting crop plants that respond better to biotic and abiotic stress, and pathogen attacks. Plant genomics play an important role in developing more efficient plant cultivars which are essential for the neo green revolution needed to feed the world's rapidly growing population. Plant genomic data is being utilized in genetic engineering to ensure that better and resilient varieties of crops are available ensuring food security. This book is of immense interest to teachers, researchers, crop scientists, capacity builders, and policy makers. Also, the book serves as additional reading material for undergraduate and graduate students of agriculture, biotechnology, genomics, soil science, and environmental sciences. National and International agricultural scientists and policy makers will also find this to be a useful read.
This informative book discusses the latest research on the risk factors and therapeutics in dementia. WHO calls dementia a public health priority. Dementia manifests as a group of symptoms associated with decline in memory or other thinking skills and is severe enough to reduce a person's ability to perform everyday activities. It occurs frequently among elderly people, but it is not necessarily part of the normal aging process. The book has been divided into two broad sections. The first section reviews the risk factors involved in developing dementia, including various medical conditions, lifestyle choices, as well as genetics. The latter section describes various therapeutic interventions in dementia. Although there is no known cure for dementia, this book underlines the current treatment strategies that could momentarily reduce the symptoms and improve the quality of life of the patients. This book highlights the global effort to find better ways to halt the progression of dementia and develop novel therapeutic strategies. The book would be an interesting read for advanced graduate students and researchers working in the field of neuroscience, genetics, and medicine. It will generate good interest to neurologists, psychiatrists, geriatricians, cardiologists, internal medicine practitioners, epidemiologist, and public health workers.
Ferns are representative of genetic inheritance of great value as they include species of ancient vascular plants, which have direct connection with the evolution of plant life on Earth. This volume brings a selection of chapters covering a range of themes on fern biology, its development and growth, useful protocols for propagation and conservation purposes, genetic diversity, as well as medicinal and environmental applications.The content is organized into four parts: Biotechnology of Ferns Propagation of Ferns Ferns in Medicines Environmental Regulation This wide spectrum of the contributions provides quick access to information on the enormous potential of this plant group. This book brings together most recent research work and novel techniques, which is far from the traditional perspective usually followed. It is of interest to teachers, researchers, and botanists. Also the book serves as additional reading material for undergraduate and graduate students of agriculture, botany, forestry, and ecology.
This book covers sustainable recycling processes (e.g. physical, biological, chemical, and thermo-chemical) of multiple organic solid wastes, provides methods for material recycle of wastes into value-added products including fuels and commodity chemicals that are able to be directly applied to promote manufacturing processes. Aimed at improving the awareness of effective conversion protocols and for developing innovative biomass conversion processes, this text was conceived as a collection of studies on state-of-art techniques and know-how for production of biofuels and chemicals from sustainable recycling of organic solid wastes. Topics in the text are discussed in terms of addressing recent advances, assessing and highlighting promising new methods or new technological strategies and direct conversion of organic solid wastes to process feeds. Highly-recognized authorities, experts and professionals have contributed individual chapters in selected areas to cover the overall topic in a comprehensive manner.
This book focuses on a broad range of immunomodulators, including both natural and synthetic ones. It highlights their role in human health. The book discusses nanotechnology-based immunomodulators with special emphasis on different types of formulation to boost the immune system. It highlights the role of immunomodulators against different microbes. This book describes important topics such as Classification and uses of various immunomodulators; Potential role of herbs and spices on immune system; Immune booster activity of prebiotics; Recent advances of nutraceutical and functional foods in Immune health; Antioxidants and immunomodulation; Nanotechnology and immunomodulators in cancer; Immunomodulatory role for the treatment and management of tuberculosis; Immunomodulation in autoimmune disorders; Herbal immunomodulators and COVID-19; Role of Cytokines as Immunomodulators and Immunomodulatory effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals. This book covers various aspects of product innovation, development, and launching of nutritional and pharmaceutical products with reference to immunomodulators. This book is meant for researchers and students in the field of immunology and pharmaceutical sciences.