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Folkeoplysningens historie i Danmark, Norge og Sverige. Hvordan blev de nordiske landes succes skabt? Hvad er dannelse? - How do societies go through major technological, economic and structural changes peacefully? The ways in which Denmark, Norway and Sweden went from feudal agricultural societies to industrialized democracies were exceptionally peaceful. In the process, they climbed from the bottom of the European economy around 1860 to the very top as of the 1930s and have remained prosperous and progressive ever since. Finland made a similar journey after 1918 in just 30 years. They also invented Scandinavian design and are often ranked among the world's happiest peoples. This book explores how they did it.
Dannelse er moralsk og følelsesmæssig modenhed. Dannelse er også at have den uddannelse og viden, som gør, at man kan trives i sit samfund; dannelse er at være dybt integreret i kulturen og samfundet, samtidig med at man har autonomi. Dannelse er altid personlig og unik. Dannelsesbegrebet forstået som en sekulær form for indre udvikling blev skabt af tyske filosoffer fra og med 1770’erne, og dannelse blev derefter populært i borgerskabet. I Danmark indså Grundtvig, at dannelse også var nødvendig for bønderne, og han opfandt idéen om folkehøjskolerne. Det blev dog Christen Kold, der for alvor fandt ud af, hvordan man underviser, så det bliver til dannelse, også for bønderkarle og -piger. Kold læste historier for dem og lod dem stille spørgsmål. Når først han havde fanget deres opmærksomhed, kunne han give dem kundskab og diskutere nye landbrugsteknikker, videnskab, filosofi, historie, religion, litteratur, kunst, økonomi og politik. Norge, Sverige og Finland kopierede folkehøjskolerne fra 1860’erne. Omkring 1900 havde så mange unge været på højskole og fået forbedret deres viden og tænkning, at Norden havde udviklet sig fra at være blandt de fattigste lande i Europa til at være blandt de rigeste. Denne udvikling og den dannelse, der bar den, betød også, at Norden gik fredeligt gennem overgangen fra feudale landbrugssamfund til moderne, demokratiske, industrialiserede nationalstater. Nu står vi ansigt til ansigt med nye udfordringer fra digitalisering, globalisering, pandemi og miljøforandringer, og vi har brug for en dannelse, der matcher det 21. århundrede. Bogens sidste del filosoferer over, hvordan en sådan kan se ud.
The Trump presidency is the symptom of something much bigger and it is not the first time it has happened. Our meaning-making has not been able to keep up with technology and globalization. We navigate an increasingly complex world using models that were developed for industrialization—at a time when traditional industry is disappearing. This kind of mismatch between our real world and our understanding of it has happened before. The Reformation, the French Revolution and World War II were all results of old epistemologies reaching their limit and new ones not being able to emerge without a bloodbath. Given that we have the knowledge we have, can we avoid the bloodbath and go straight to the peace negotiations? Can we develop the culture, education, aesthetics, and institutions that we need in order to handle the complexities of the 21st century? Based on recurring historical patterns, moral and developmental psychology and complex-systems theory, Lene Rachel Andersen analyzes the current state of Western politics and makes a strong case for hope and a better future.
Bildung is moral and emotional maturity. Bildung is also to have the education and knowledge necessary to thrive in your society; bildung is to be deeply embedded in culture and community while having the autonomy to carve your own path in life. Bildung is always personal and unique. Bildung is a German word that has no word in English. Beginning in the 1770s, German philosophers explored bildung as a secular form of inner development and it became popular among the bourgeoisie. In Denmark, a pastor realized in the 1830s that the peasants needed bildung too, and he envisioned a new kind of school: the folk-high-school. In 1851, a Danish teacher, Christen Kold, figured out how to teach in such a way that young farmhands learned to think for themselves: he told them moving stories and let them ask questions. Once he had their attention, he could teach them new farming techniques, science, philosophy, history, religion, literature, art, economic theory, and political science. Norway, Sweden and Finland copied the folk-high-school concept in the 1860s and by 1900, a critical mass of youngsters in the Nordic countries had upgraded their skills and their thinking, and the Nordics had gone from being among the poorest countries in Europe to being among the richest. This development and the bildung that carried it also meant that the Nordics made the transition from agricultural feudal societies to modern, democratic, industrialized nation-states peacefully. As we are facing new challenges from digitization, globalization, a pandemic and environmental changes we need bildung for the 21st century and the book concludes by exploring what that might look like.
The world is changing. Our old knowledge and general understanding of the world do not provide sufficient answers anymore. As our old understandings and the answers we get from them are insufficient, the ways we are used to react and behave do not work well anymore either. Social norms that used to make us come across as polite and friendly are suddenly offensive to some; a good education that used to lead to a good job is outdated when you receive your diploma. Our cultural compass cannot contain and judge the world properly because the challenges we are facing were not a part of our world when we came of age and learned what the world was like.Metamodernity provides us with a framework for understanding ourselves and our societies in a more complex way. Metamodernity is a way of strengthening local, national, continental, and global cultural heritage among all. It thus has the potential to dismantle the fear of losing one’s culture as the global economy as well as the internet and exponential technologies are disrupting our current modes of societal organization and governance.