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This textbook provides a mathematical introduction to linear systems, with a focus on the continuous-time models that arise in engineering applications such as electrical circuits and signal processing. The book introduces linear systems via block diagrams and the theory of the Laplace transform, using basic complex analysis. The book mainly covers linear systems with finite-dimensional state spaces. Graphical methods such as Nyquist plots and Bode plots are presented alongside computational tools such as MATLAB. Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, which arise in modern telecommunication devices, are discussed in detail. The book also introduces orthogonal polynomials with important examples in signal processing and wireless communication, such as Telatar¿s model for multiple antenna transmission. One of the later chapters introduces infinite-dimensional Hilbert space as a state space, with the canonical model of a linear system. The final chapter covers modern applications to signal processing, Whittaker¿s sampling theorem for band-limited functions, and Shannon¿s wavelet. Based on courses given for many years to upper undergraduate mathematics students, the book provides a systematic, mathematical account of linear systems theory, and as such will also be useful for students and researchers in engineering. The prerequisites are basic linear algebra and complex analysis.
This study guide is designed for students taking a Calculus III course. The textbook includes examples, questions, and practice problems that will help students to review and sharpen their knowledge of the subject and enhance their performance in the classroom. The material covered in the book includes linear algebra and analytical geometry; lines, surfaces, and vector functions in three-dimensional coordinate systems; multiple-variable functions; multiple integrals and their applications; line integrals and their applications. Offering detailed solutions, multiple methods for solving problems, and clear explanations of concepts, this hands-on guide will improve students¿ problem-solving skills and foster a solid understanding of calculus, which will benefit them in all of their calculus-based courses.
This book presents a curated selection of recent research in functional analysis and fixed-point theory, exploring their applications in interdisciplinary fields. The primary objective is to establish a connection between the latest developments in functional analysis and fixed-point theory and the broader interdisciplinary research landscape. By doing so, this book aims to address the needs of researchers and experts seeking to stay up-to-date with the cutting-edge research trends in functional analysis, fixed-point theory and related areas. It also aims to pave the way for applying functional analysis and fixed-point theory to solve interdisciplinary problems in various domains, including but not limited to fractional calculus, integral equations, queuing theory, convex analysis, harmonic analysis and wavelet analysis.
This monograph presents the solution of the classical moment problem, the construction of Jacobi matrices and corresponding polynomials. The cases of strongly,trigonometric, complex and real two-dimensional moment problems are discussed, and the Jacobi-type matrices corresponding to the trigonometric moment problem are shown. The Berezansky theory of the expansion in generalized eigenvectors for corresponding set of commuting operators plays the key role in the proof of results.The book is recommended for researchers in fields of functional analysis, operator theory, mathematical physics, and engineers who deal with problems of coupled pendulums.
This book develops integral identities, mostly involving multidimensional functions and infinite limits of integration, whose evaluations are intractable by common means. It exposes a methodology based on the multivariate power substitution and its variants, assisted by the software tool Mathematica. The approaches introduced comprise the generalized method of exhaustion, the multivariate power substitution and its variants, and the use of permutation symmetry to evaluate definite integrals, which are very important both in their own right, and as necessary intermediate steps towards more involved computation.A key tenet is that such approaches work best when applied to integrals having certain characteristics as a starting point. Most integrals, if used as a starting point, will lead to no result at all, or will lead to a known result. However, there is a special class of integrals (i.e., innovative integrals) which, if used as a starting point for such approaches, will lead to new and useful results, and can also enable the reader to generate many other new results that are not in the book.The reader will find a myriad of novel approaches for evaluating integrals, with a focus on tools such as Mathematica as a means of obtaining useful results, and also checking whether they are already known. Results presented involve the gamma function, the hypergeometric functions, the complementary error function, the exponential integral function, the Riemann zeta function, and others that will be introduced as they arise. The book concludes with selected engineering applications, e.g., involving wave propagation, antenna theory, non-Gaussian and weighted Gaussian distributions, and other areas.The intended audience comprises junior and senior sciences majors planning to continue in the pure and applied sciences at the graduate level, graduate students in mathematics and the sciences, and junior and established researchers in mathematical physics, engineering, and mathematics. Indeed, the pedagogical inclination of the exposition will have students work out, understand, and efficiently use multidimensional integrals from first principles.
This book provides a comprehensive analysis of time domain boundary integral equations and their discretisation by convolution quadrature and the boundary element method.Properties of convolution quadrature, based on both linear multistep and Runge-Kutta methods, are explained in detail, always with wave propagation problems in mind. Main algorithms for implementing the discrete schemes are described and illustrated by short Matlab codes; translation to other languages can be found on the accompanying GitHub page. The codes are used to present numerous numerical examples to give the reader a feeling for the qualitative behaviour of the discrete schemes in practice. Applications to acoustic and electromagnetic scattering are described with an emphasis on the acoustic case where the fully discrete schemes for sound-soft and sound-hard scattering are developed and analysed in detail. A strength of the book is that more advanced applications such as linear and non-linear impedance boundary conditions and FEM/BEM coupling are also covered. While the focus is on wave scattering, a chapter on parabolic problems is included which also covers the relevant fast and oblivious algorithms. Finally, a brief description of data sparse techniques and modified convolution quadrature methods completes the book.Suitable for graduate students and above, this book is essentially self-contained, with background in mathematical analysis listed in the appendix along with other useful facts. Although not strictly necessary, some familiarity with boundary integral equations for steady state problems is desirable.
This textbook introduces readers to the fundamental notions of modern probability theory. The only prerequisite is a working knowledge in real analysis. Highlighting the connections between martingales and Markov chains on one hand, and Brownian motion and harmonic functions on the other, this book provides an introduction to the rich interplay between probability and other areas of analysis.Arranged into three parts, the book begins with a rigorous treatment of measure theory, with applications to probability in mind. The second part of the book focuses on the basic concepts of probability theory such as random variables, independence, conditional expectation, and the different types of convergence of random variables. In the third part, in which all chapters can be read independently, the reader will encounter three important classes of stochastic processes: discrete-time martingales, countable state-space Markov chains, and Brownian motion. Each chapter ends with a selection of illuminating exercises of varying difficulty. Some basic facts from functional analysis, in particular on Hilbert and Banach spaces, are included in the appendix. Measure Theory, Probability, and Stochastic Processes is an ideal text for readers seeking a thorough understanding of basic probability theory. Students interested in learning more about Brownian motion, and other continuous-time stochastic processes, may continue reading the author's more advanced textbook in the same series (GTM 274).
This graduate textbook provides a self-contained introduction to the classical theory of partial differential equations (PDEs). Through its careful selection of topics and engaging tone, readers will also learn how PDEs connect to cutting-edge research and the modeling of physical phenomena. The scope of the Third Edition greatly expands on that of the previous editions by including five new chapters covering additional PDE topics relevant for current areas of active research. This includes coverage of linear parabolic equations with measurable coefficients, parabolic DeGiorgi classes, Navier-Stokes equations, and more. The ¿Problems and Complements¿ sections have also been updated to feature new exercises, examples, and hints toward solutions, making this a timely resource for students.Partial Differential Equations: Third Edition is ideal for graduate students interested in exploring the theory of PDEs and how they connect to contemporary research. It can also serve as a useful tool for more experienced readers who are looking for a comprehensive reference.
This textbook describes selected topics in functional analysis as powerful tools of immediate use in many fields within applied mathematics, physics and engineering. It follows a very reader-friendly structure, with the presentation and the level of exposition especially tailored to those who need functional analysis but don't have a strong background in this branch of mathematics. For every tool, this work emphasizes the motivation, the justification for the choices made, and the right way to employ the techniques. Proofs appear only when necessary for the safe use of the results. The book gently starts with a road map to guide reading. A subsequent chapter recalls definitions and notation for abstract spaces and some function spaces, while Chapter 3 enters dual spaces. Tools from Chapters 2 and 3 find use in Chapter 4, which introduces distributions. The Linear Functional Analysis basic triplet makes up Chapter 5, followed by Chapter 6, which introduces the concept of compactness. Chapter 7 brings a generalization of the concept of derivative for functions defined in normed spaces, while Chapter 8 discusses basic results about Hilbert spaces that are paramount to numerical approximations. The last chapter brings remarks to recent bibliographical items. Elementary examples included throughout the chapters foster understanding and self-study. By making key, complex topics more accessible, this book serves as a valuable resource for researchers, students, and practitioners alike that need to rely on solid functional analysis but don't need to delve deep into the underlying theory.
This monograph provides a state-of-the-art, self-contained account on the effectiveness of the method of boundary layer potentials in the study of elliptic boundary value problems with boundary data in a multitude of function spaces. Many significant new results are explored in detail, with complete proofs, emphasizing and elaborating on the link between the geometric measure-theoretic features of an underlying surface and the functional analytic properties of singular integral operators defined on it. Graduate students, researchers, and professionals interested in a modern account of the topic of singular integral operators and boundary value problems - as well as those more generally interested in harmonic analysis, PDEs, and geometric analysis - will find this text to be a valuable addition to the mathematical literature.
This book offers a primer on the fundamentals and applications of the Geroch-Held-Penrose (GHP) calculus, a powerful formalism designed for spacetimes that occur frequently in the teaching of General Relativity. Specifically, the book shows in detail the power of the calculus when dealing with spherically symmetric spacetimes. After introducing the basics, a new look at all the classical spherically symmetric black hole solutions is given within the GHP formalism. This is then employed to give new insights into the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations for stellar structure, including a derivation of new exact anisotropic fluid solutions. Finally, a re-writing of some essential features of black hole thermodynamics within the GHP formalism is performed. The book is based on the authors' lecture notes, used in their undergraduate and graduate lectures and while supervising their upper undergraduate and graduate students. To fully benefit from this concise primer, readers only need an undergraduate background in general relativity.
This monograph is devoted to developing a theory of combined measure and shift invariance of time scales with the related applications to shift functions and dynamic equations. The study of shift closeness of time scales is significant to investigate the shift functions such as the periodic functions, the almost periodic functions, the almost automorphic functions, and their generalizations with many relevant applications in dynamic equations on arbitrary time scales.First proposed by S. Hilger, the time scale theory-a unified view of continuous and discrete analysis-has been widely used to study various classes of dynamic equations and models in real-world applications. Measure theory based on time scales, in its turn, is of great power in analyzing functions on time scales or hybrid domains. As a new and exciting type of mathematics-and more comprehensive and versatile than the traditional theories of differential and difference equations-, the time scale theory can precisely depict the continuous-discrete hybrid processes and is an optimal way forward for accurate mathematical modeling in applied sciences such as physics, chemical technology, population dynamics, biotechnology, and economics and social sciences.Graduate students and researchers specializing in general dynamic equations on time scales can benefit from this work, fostering interest and further research in the field. It can also serve as reference material for undergraduates interested in dynamic equations on time scales. Prerequisites include familiarity with functional analysis, measure theory, and ordinary differential equations.
This comprehensive textbook on linear integral equations and integral transforms is aimed at senior undergraduate and graduate students of mathematics and physics. The book covers a range of topics including Volterra and Fredholm integral equations, the second kind of integral equations with symmetric kernels, eigenvalues and eigen functions, the Hilbert¿Schmidt theorem, and the solution of Abel integral equations by using an elementary method. In addition, the book covers various integral transforms including Fourier, Laplace, Mellin, Hankel, and Z-transforms. One of the unique features of the book is a general method for the construction of various integral transforms and their inverses, which is based on the properties of delta function representation in terms of Green¿s function of a Sturm¿Liouville type ordinary differential equation and its applications to physical problems. The book is divided into two parts: integral equations and integral transforms.Each chapter is supplemented with numerous illustrative examples to aid in understanding. The clear and concise presentation of the topics covered makes this book an ideal resource for students, researchers, and professionals interested in the theory and application of linear integral equations and integral transforms.
This monograph presents a comprehensive, self-contained, and novel approach to the Divergence Theorem through five progressive volumes. Its ultimate aim is to develop tools in Real and Harmonic Analysis, of geometric measure theoretic flavor, capable of treating a broad spectrum of boundary value problems formulated in rather general geometric and analytic settings. The text is intended for researchers, graduate students, and industry professionals interested in applications of harmonic analysis and geometric measure theory to complex analysis, scattering, and partial differential equations.The ultimate goal in Volume V is to prove well-posedness and Fredholm solvability results concerning boundary value problems for elliptic second-order homogeneous constant (complex) coefficient systems, and domains of a rather general geometric nature. The formulation of the boundary value problems treated here is optimal from a multitude of points of view, having to do with geometry, functional analysis (through the consideration of a large variety of scales of function spaces), topology, and partial differential equations.
This book presents a machine-generated literature overview of quaternion integral transforms from select papers published by Springer Nature, which have been organized and introduced by the book¿s editor. Each chapter presents summaries of predefined themes and provides the reader with a basis for further exploration of the topic. As one of the experimental projects initiated by Springer Nature for AI book content generation, this book shows the latest developments in the field. It will be a useful reference for students and researchers who are interested in exploring the latest developments in quaternion integral transforms.
¿This book discusses the process by which Ulam's conjecture is proved, aptly detailing how mathematical problems may be solved by systematically combining interdisciplinary theories. It presents the state-of-the-art of various research topics and methodologies in mathematics, and mathematical analysis by presenting the latest research in emerging research areas, providing motivation for further studies. The book also explores the theory of extending the domain of local isometries by introducing a generalized span.For the reader, working knowledge of topology, linear algebra, and Hilbert space theory, is essential. The basic theories of these fields are gently and logically introduced. The content of each chapter provides the necessary building blocks to understanding the proof of Ulam¿s conjecture and are summarized as follows: Chapter 1 presents the basic concepts and theorems of general topology. In Chapter 2, essential concepts and theorems in vector space, normed space, Banach space, inner product space, and Hilbert space, are introduced. Chapter 3 gives a presentation on the basics of measure theory. In Chapter 4, the properties of first- and second-order generalized spans are defined, examined, and applied to the study of the extension of isometries. Chapter 5 includes a summary of published literature on Ulam¿s conjecture; the conjecture is fully proved in Chapter 6.
Dieses Buch seziert die Art und Weise, wie wir unseren Alltag ausmessen, abwägen und bewerten, um die eigene, ganz persönliche Welt klarer zu sehen und die wertvollen Ressourcen Zeit, Geld und Aufmerksamkeit für ein erfüllteres Lebens einzusetzen. Dafür stehen sechs Methoden zur Verfügung: Messen, Zählen und Wiegen sowie Schätzen, Vergleichen und Abhaken von Checklisten. Dabei fällt die Auswahl der Bewertungskriterien ebenso subjektiv aus wie die eigenen Bewertungen.Dieses Buch stellt diese Messmethoden an alltäglichen Beispielen vor und erläutert die geeigneten Methoden, um zu guten Alltags- und Lebensentscheidungen zu gelangen. Wahrnehmungsverzerrungen und (Selbst-) Manipulationen werden ebenso berücksichtigt wie die Frage, wie sich Unsicherheiten integrieren lassen.
Wissen Sie noch, was Vektoren sind und wie man mit ihnen rechnet? Wie man Gleichungssysteme löst oder eine Ebene im Raum beschreibt?Mit diesem Buch können Sie Ihr Wissen aus dem Mathematikunterricht der Oberstufe auffrischen und sich so auf ein Studium vorbereiten, in dem solide Grundkenntnisse der Schulmathematik benötigt werden. Durch die anschauliche Darstellung sowie die vielen Beispiele eignet sich das Werk aber auch hervorragend als Begleitmaterial zu einer einführenden Mathematikvorlesung.Neben ausführlichen, aber klaren Herleitungen erleichtern besonders die zahlreichen Übungsaufgaben mit Lösungen das Lesen und Lernen: Statt trockener Theorie steht hier immer das Üben und Verstehen im Vordergrund. Sie können die Lösungen zu den Übungsaufgaben bequem online auf SpringerLink finden.Beweise und zusätzliche Erklärungen gehen außerdem teilweise über den Schulstoff hinaus, sodass Sie gleichzeitig behutsam an den hochschultypischen Lehr- und Lernstil herangeführt werden.In Band 1 liegt der Fokus auf Inhalten, die typischerweise im Mathematikunterricht der Abiturstufe behandelt werden: Lineare Gleichungssysteme, Vektoren, Geraden und Ebenen. Nach sorgfältiger Durchsicht der Erstauflage steht jetzt die vorliegende zweite verbesserte Auflage zur Verfügung.
This book contains plenary lectures given at the International Conference on Mathematical and Computational Modeling, Approximation and Simulation, dealing with three very different problems: reduction of Runge and Gibbs phenomena, difficulties arising when studying models that depend on the highly nonlinear behaviour of a system of PDEs, and data fitting with truncated hierarchical B-splines for the adaptive reconstruction of industrial models. The book includes nine contributions, mostly related to quasi-interpolation. This is a topic that continues to register a high level of interest, both for those working in the field of approximation theory and for those interested in its use in a practical context. Two chapters address the construction of quasi-interpolants, and three others focus on the use of quasi-interpolation in solving integral equations. The remaining four concern a problem related to the heat diffusion equation, new results on the notion of convexity in probabilistic metric spaces (which are applied to the study of the existence and uniqueness of the solution of a Volterra equation), the use of smoothing splines to address an economic problem and, finally, the analysis of poverty measures, which is a topic of increased interest to society. The book is addressed to researchers interested in Applied Mathematics, with particular reference to the aforementioned topics.
This book provides readers with a deep understanding of the use of objective algorithms for integration of constitutive relations (CRs) for Hooke-like hypoelasticity based on the use of corotational stress rates. The purpose of objective algorithms is to perform the step-by-step integration of CRs using fairly large time steps that provide high accuracy of this integration in combination with the exact reproduction of superimposed rigid body motions. Since Hooke-like hypoelasticity is included as a component in CRs for elastic-inelastic materials (e.g., in CRs for elastic-plastic materials), the scope of these algorithms is not limited to hypoelastic materials, but extends to many other materials subjected to large deformations. The authors performed a comparative analysis of the performance of most currently available objective algorithms, provided some recommendations for improving the existing formulations of these algorithms, and presented new formulations of the so-called absolutely objective algorithms. The proposed book will be useful for beginner researchers in the development of economical methods for integrating elastic-inelastic CRs, as well as for experienced researchers, by providing a compact overview of existing objective algorithms and new formulations of these algorithms. The book will also be useful for developers of computer codes for implementing objective algorithms in FE systems. In addition, this book will also be useful for users of commercial FE codes, since often these codes are so-called black boxes and this book shows how to test accuracy of the algorithms of these codes for integrating elastic-inelastic CRs in modeling large rotations superimposed on the uniform deformation of any sample.
This monograph is part of a larger program, materializing in five volumes, whose principal aim is to develop tools in Real and Harmonic Analysis, of geometric measure theoretic flavor, capable of treating a broad spectrum of boundary value problems formulated in rather general geometric and analytic settings.Volume II is concerned with function spaces measuring size and/or smoothness, such as Hardy spaces, Besov spaces, Triebel-Lizorkin spaces, Sobolev spaces, Morrey spaces, Morrey-Campanato spaces, spaces of functions of Bounded Mean Oscillations, etc., in general geometric settings. Work here also highlights the close interplay between differentiability properties of functions and singular integral operators. The text is intended for researchers, graduate students, and industry professionals interested in harmonic analysis, functional analysis, geometric measure theory, and function space theory.
Integrals and sums are not generally considered for evaluation using complex integration. This book proposes techniques that mainly use complex integration and are quite different from those in the existing texts. Such techniques, ostensibly taught in Complex Analysis courses to undergraduate students who have had two semesters of calculus, are usually limited to a very small set of problems.Few practitioners consider complex integration as a tool for computing difficult integrals. While there are a number of books on the market that provide tutorials on this subject, the existing texts in this field focus on real methods. Accordingly, this book offers an eye-opening experience for computation enthusiasts used to relying on clever substitutions and transformations to evaluate integrals and sums.The book is the result of nine years of providing solutions to difficult calculus problems on forums such as Math Stack Exchange or the author's website, residuetheorem.com.It serves to detail to the enthusiastic mathematics undergraduate, or the physics or engineering graduate student, the art and science of evaluating difficult integrals, sums, and products.
"The second of two volumes builds on the foundational material on ergodic theory and geometric measure theory provided in Volume I, and applies all the techniques discussed to describe the beautiful and rich dynamics of elliptic functions. The text begins with an introduction to topological dynamics of transcendental meromorphic functions, before progressing to elliptic functions, discussing at length their classical properties, measurable dynamics and fractal geometry. The authors then look in depth at compactly non-recurrent elliptic functions. Much of this material is appearing for the first time in book or paper form. Both senior and junior researchers working in ergodic theory and dynamical systems will appreciate what is sure to be an indispensable reference"--
"The second of two volumes builds on the foundational material on ergodic theory and geometric measure theory provided in Volume I, and applies all the techniques discussed to describe the beautiful and rich dynamics of elliptic functions. The text begins with an introduction to topological dynamics of transcendental meromorphic functions, before progressing to elliptic functions, discussing at length their classical properties, measurable dynamics and fractal geometry. The authors then look in depth at compactly non-recurrent elliptic functions. Much of this material is appearing for the first time in book or paper form. Both senior and junior researchers working in ergodic theory and dynamical systems will appreciate what is sure to be an indispensable reference"--
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