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"Differential Equations" by Dr. Upton is a captivating journey through the mathematical landscapes of calculus, offering a rich exploration of historical context, first and second-order equations, systems, Laplace transforms, numerical methods, and real-world applications. With insightful content and advanced topics, this book inspires a deep understanding of complex concepts while providing practical applications in science and engineering.
This book aims to establish a systematic theory on the synchronization for wave equations with locally distributed controls. It is structured in two parts. Part I is devoted to internal controls, while Part II treats the case of mixed internal and boundary controls. The authors present necessary mathematical formulations and techniques for analyzing and solving problems in this area. They also give numerous examples and applications to illustrate the concepts and demonstrate their practical relevance. The book provides an overview of the field and offers an in-depth analysis of new results with elegant proofs. By reading this book, it can be found that due to the use of internal controls, more deep-going results on synchronization can be obtained, which makes the corresponding synchronization theory more precise and complete.Graduate students and researchers in control and synchronization for partial differential equations, functional analysis find this book useful. It is also an excellent reference in the field. Thanks to the explicit criteria given in this book for various notions of controllability and synchronization, researchers and practitioners can effectively use the control strategies described in this book and make corresponding decisions regarding system design and operation.
This official Student Solutions Manual includes solutions to the odd-numbered exercises featured in the third edition of Steven Strogatz's classic text Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos: With Applications to Physics, Biology, Chemistry, and Engineering.
The book concerns with solving about 650 ordinary and partial differential equations. Each equation has at least one solution and each solution has at least one coloured graph. The coloured graphs reveal different features of the solutions. Some graphs are dynamical as for Clairaut differential equations. Thus, one can study the general and the singular solutions. All the equations are solved by Mathematica. The first chapter contains mathematical notions and results that are used later through the book. Thus, the book is self-contained that is an advantage for the reader. The ordinary differential equations are treated in Chapters 2 to 4, while the partial differential equations are discussed in Chapters 5 to 10. The book is useful for undergraduate and graduate students, for researchers in engineering, physics, chemistry, and others. Chapter 9 treats parabolic partial differential equations while Chapter 10 treats third and higher order nonlinear partial differential equations, both with modern methods. Chapter 10 discusses the Korteweg-de Vries, Dodd-Bullough-Mikhailov, Tzitzeica-Dodd-Bullough, Benjamin, Kadomtsev-Petviashvili, Sawada-Kotera, and Kaup-Kupershmidt equations.
Dieses Buch beschreibt aus rein epidemiologischer Sicht, die Entstehung und Entwicklung einer Epidemie mit Hilfe von Differentialgleichungssystemen. Dabei wird die Bevölkerung in die bekannten Kompartimente oder Klassen aufgeteilt. Ausgehend vom einfachsten Modell werden in nachvollziehbaren kleinen Schritten die bestehenden Modelle erweitert, um Phänomene wie Rückfall oder Immunitätsverlust zu modellieren. Zudem werden in weiteren Schritten Kompartimente hinzugefügt, die mit der Berücksichtigung von Quarantäne und Impfung einhergehen. Jedes Modell wird vollständig analysiert und die Ergebnisse festgehalten. Danach folgt für jedes Modell mindestens ein vollständig gelöstes Zahlenbeispiel inklusive einer Darstellung für den jeweiligen Epidemieverlauf. Kern dieses Buches bilden die Simulationen und Prognosen für vier verschiedene Covid-Pandemiewellen in Zentraleuropa der letzten Jahre mit den erfassten Daten und unter Verwendung von 6 Modellen. Darüber hinaus werden Möglichkeiten zur Schätzung von Raten und Anfangswerten präsentiert, die für eine Vorhersage eines Epidemieverlaufs unerlässlich sind. Dieses Buch ist wegweisend für den Einstieg in die Modellierung von Pandemien und eignet sich auch als Nachschlagewerk.
This textbook is an introduction to the methods needed to solve partial differential equations (PDEs). Readers are introduced to PDEs that come from a variety of fields in engineering and the natural sciences. The chapters include the following topics: First Order PDEs, Second Order PDEs, Fourier Series, Separation of Variables, the Fourier Transform, and higher dimensional problems. Readers are guided through these chapters where techniques for solving first and second order PDEs are introduced. Each chapter ends with series of exercises to facilitate learning as well as illustrate the material presented in each chapter.
This book provides an alternative approach to time-independent perturbation theory in non-relativistic quantum mechanics. It allows easy application to any initial condition because it is based on an approximation to the evolution operator and may also be used on unitary evolution operators for the unperturbed Hamiltonian in the case where the eigenvalues cannot be found. This flexibility sets it apart from conventional perturbation theory. The matrix perturbation method also gives new theoretical insights; for example, it provides corrections to the energy and wave function in one operation. Another notable highlight is the facility to readily derive a general expression for the normalization constant at m-th order, a significant difference between the approach within and those already in the literature. Another unique aspect of the matrix perturbation method is that it can be extended directly to the Lindblad master equation. The first and second-order corrections are obtained for this equation and the method is generalized for higher orders. An alternative form of the Dyson series, in matrix form instead of integral form, is also obtained. Throughout the book, several benchmark examples and practical applications underscore the potential, accuracy and good performance of this novel approach. Moreover, the method's applicability extends to some specific time-dependent Hamiltonians. This book represents a valuable addition to the literature on perturbation theory in quantum mechanics and is accessible to students and researchers alike.
Kolmogorov equations are a fundamental bridge between the theory of partial differential equations and that of stochastic differential equations that arise in several research fields.This volume collects a selection of the talks given at the Cortona meeting by experts in both fields, who presented the most recent developments of the theory. Particular emphasis has been given to degenerate partial differential equations, Itô processes, applications to kinetic theory and to finance.
"This collection of four short courses looks at group representations, graph spectra, statistical optimality, and symbolic dynamics, highlighting their common roots in linear algebra. Aimed at researchers and beginning Ph.D. students, it includes copious exercises, notes, and references, leading the reader from the basics to high-level applications"--
Higher special functions emerge from boundary eigenvalue problems of Fuchsian differential equations with more than three singularities. This detailed reference provides solutions for singular boundary eigenvalue problems of linear ordinary differential equations of second order, exploring previously unknown methods for finding higher special functions. Starting from the fact that it is the singularities of a differential equation that determine the local, as well as the global, behaviour of its solutions, the author develops methods that are both new and efficient and lead to functional relationships that were previously unknown. All the developments discussed are placed within their historical context, allowing the reader to trace the roots of the theory back through the work of many generations of great mathematicians. Particular attention is given to the work of George Cecil Jaffé, who laid the foundation with the calculation of the quantum mechanical energy levels of the hydrogen molecule ion.
"Differential Equations" by Dr. Upton is a captivating journey through the mathematical landscapes of calculus, offering a rich exploration of historical context, first and second-order equations, systems, Laplace transforms, numerical methods, and real-world applications. With insightful content and advanced topics, this book inspires a deep understanding of complex concepts while providing practical applications in science and engineering.
This textbook introduces the study of partial differential equations using both analytical and numerical methods. By intertwining the two complementary approaches, the authors create an ideal foundation for further study. Motivating examples from the physical sciences, engineering, and economics complete this integrated approach.A showcase of models begins the book, demonstrating how PDEs arise in practical problems that involve heat, vibration, fluid flow, and financial markets. Several important characterizing properties are used to classify mathematical similarities, then elementary methods are used to solve examples of hyperbolic, elliptic, and parabolic equations. From here, an accessible introduction to Hilbert spaces and the spectral theorem lay the foundation for advanced methods. Sobolev spaces are presented first in dimension one, before being extended to arbitrary dimension for the study of elliptic equations. An extensive chapter on numerical methods focuses onfinite difference and finite element methods. Computer-aided calculation with Maple¿ completes the book. Throughout, three fundamental examples are studied with different tools: Poisson¿s equation, the heat equation, and the wave equation on Euclidean domains. The Black¿Scholes equation from mathematical finance is one of several opportunities for extension.Partial Differential Equations offers an innovative introduction for students new to the area. Analytical and numerical tools combine with modeling to form a versatile toolbox for further study in pure or applied mathematics. Illuminating illustrations and engaging exercises accompany the text throughout. Courses in real analysis and linear algebra at the upper-undergraduate level are assumed.
This monograph presents the most recent developments in the study of Hamilton-Jacobi Equations and control problems with discontinuities, mainly from the viewpoint of partial differential equations. Two main cases are investigated in detail: the case of codimension 1 discontinuities and the stratified case in which the discontinuities can be of any codimensions. In both, connections with deterministic control problems are carefully studied, and numerous examples and applications are illustrated throughout the text.After an initial section that provides a ¿toolbox¿ containing key results which will be used throughout the text, Parts II and III completely describe several recently introduced approaches to treat problems involving either codimension 1 discontinuities or networks. The remaining sections are concerned with stratified problems either in the whole space R^N or in bounded or unbounded domains with state-constraints. In particular, the use of stratified solutions to treat problems with boundary conditions, where both the boundary may be non-smooth and the data may present discontinuities, is developed. Many applications to concrete problems are explored throughout the text ¿ such as Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piskunov (KPP) type problems, large deviations, level-sets approach, large time behavior, and homogenization ¿ and several key open problems are presented.This monograph will be of interest to graduate students and researchers working in deterministic control problems and Hamilton-Jacobi Equations, network problems, or scalar conservation laws.
This book provides an introduction to the broad topic of the calculus of variations. It addresses the most natural questions on variational problems and the mathematical complexities they present.Beginning with the scientific modeling that motivates the subject, the book then tackles mathematical questions such as the existence and uniqueness of solutions, their characterization in terms of partial differential equations, and their regularity. It includes both classical and recent results on one-dimensional variational problems, as well as the adaptation to the multi-dimensional case. Here, convexity plays an important role in establishing semi-continuity results and connections with techniques from optimization, and convex duality is even used to produce regularity results. This is then followed by the more classical Hölder regularity theory for elliptic PDEs and some geometric variational problems on sets, including the isoperimetric inequality andthe Steiner tree problem. The book concludes with a chapter on the limits of sequences of variational problems, expressed in terms of ¿-convergence.While primarily designed for master's-level and advanced courses, this textbook, based on its author's instructional experience, also offers original insights that may be of interest to PhD students and researchers. A foundational understanding of measure theory and functional analysis is required, but all the essential concepts are reiterated throughout the book using special memo-boxes.
This book covers electrostatic properties of hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs), a fascinating class of metamaterials which combine dielectric and metal components. Due to the hyperbolic topology of the isofrequency surface in HMMs, the so-called resonance cone direction exists, and as a result, propagation of quasi-electrostatic waves, or more commonly, electrostatic waves close to the resonance cone with large wave vectors, is possible. However, the investigation of electrostatic wave properties in HMMs is largely overlooked in most works on the subject, and the purpose of this monograph is to fill this gap. This book gives a thorough theoretical treatment of propagation, reflection, and refraction of electrostatic waves in HMMs of various dimensions and geometries. It will be of interest to students and researchers who work on electrical and optical properties of metamaterials.
This contributed volume explores innovative research in the modeling, simulation, and control of crowd dynamics. Chapter authors approach the topic from the perspectives of mathematics, physics, engineering, and psychology, providing a comprehensive overview of the work carried out in this challenging interdisciplinary research field. The volume begins with an overview of analytical problems related to crowd modeling. Attention is then given to the importance of considering the social and psychological factors that influence crowd behavior ¿ such as emotions, communication, and decision-making processes ¿ in order to create reliable models. Finally, specific features of crowd behavior are explored, including single-file traffic, passenger movement, modeling multiple groups in crowds, and the interplay between crowd dynamics and the spread of disease.Crowd Dynamics, Volume 4 is ideal for mathematicians, engineers, physicists, and other researchers working in the rapidly growing field of modeling and simulation of human crowds.
The book is devoted to the qualitative study of differential equations defined by piecewise linear (PWL) vector fields, mainly continuous, and presenting two or three regions of linearity. The study focuses on the more common bifurcations that PWL differential systems can undergo, with emphasis on those leading to limit cycles. Similarities and differences with respect to their smooth counterparts are considered and highlighted. Regarding the dimensionality of the addressed problems, some general results in arbitrary dimensions are included. The manuscript mainly addresses specific aspects in PWL differential systems of dimensions 2 and 3, which are sufficinet for the analysis of basic electronic oscillators.The work is divided into three parts. The first part motivates the study of PWL differential systems as the natural next step towards dynamic complexity when starting from linear differential systems. The nomenclature and some general results for PWL systems in arbitrary dimensions are introduced. In particular, a minimal representation of PWL systems, called canonical form, is presented, as well as the closing equations, which are fundamental tools for the subsequent study of periodic orbits.The second part contains some results on PWL systems in dimension 2, both continuous and discontinuous, and both with two or three regions of linearity. In particular, the focus-center-limit cycle bifurcation and the Hopf-like bifurcation are completely described. The results obtained are then applied to the study of different electronic devices.In the third part, several results on PWL differential systems in dimension 3 are presented. In particular, the focus-center-limit cycle bifurcation is studied in systems with two and three linear regions, in the latter case with symmetry. Finally, the piecewise linear version of the Hopf-pitchfork bifurcation is introduced. The analysis also includes the study of degenerate situations. Again, the above results are applied to the study of different electronic oscillators.
This study guide is designed for students taking a Calculus III course. The textbook includes examples, questions, and practice problems that will help students to review and sharpen their knowledge of the subject and enhance their performance in the classroom. The material covered in the book includes linear algebra and analytical geometry; lines, surfaces, and vector functions in three-dimensional coordinate systems; multiple-variable functions; multiple integrals and their applications; line integrals and their applications. Offering detailed solutions, multiple methods for solving problems, and clear explanations of concepts, this hands-on guide will improve students¿ problem-solving skills and foster a solid understanding of calculus, which will benefit them in all of their calculus-based courses.
This book aims to introduce graduate students to the many applications of numerical computation, explaining in detail both how and why the included methods work in practice. The text addresses numerical analysis as a middle ground between practice and theory, addressing both the abstract mathematical analysis and applied computation and programming models instrumental to the field. While the text uses pseudocode, Matlab and Julia codes are available online for students to use, and to demonstrate implementation techniques. The textbook also emphasizes multivariate problems alongside single-variable problems and deals with topics in randomness, including stochastic differential equations and randomized algorithms, and topics in optimization and approximation relevant to machine learning. Ultimately, it seeks to clarify issues in numerical analysis in the context of applications, and presenting accessible methods to students in mathematics and data science.
This textbook, based on the author¿s classroom-tested lecture course, helps graduate students master the advanced plasma theory needed to unlock results at the forefront of current research. It is structured around a two semester course, beginning with kinetic theory and transport processes, while the second semester is devoted to plasma dynamics, including MHD theory, equilibrium, and stability. More advanced problems such as neoclassical theory, stochastization of the magnetic field lines, and edge plasma physics are also considered, and each chapter ends with an illustrative example which demonstrates a concrete application of the theory. The distinctive feature of this book is that, unlike most other advanced plasma science texts, phenomena in both low and high temperature plasma are considered simultaneously so that theory of slightly ionized and fully ionized plasmas is presented holistically. This book will therefore be ideal as a classroom text or self-study guide for a widecohort of graduate students working in different areas like nuclear fusion, gas discharge physics, low temperature plasma applications, astrophysics, and more. It is also a useful reference for more seasoned researchers.
This book gathers peer-reviewed contributions submitted to the 21st European Conference on Mathematics for Industry, ECMI 2021, which was virtually held online, hosted by the University of Wuppertal, Germany, from April 13th to April 15th, 2021. The works explore mathematics in a wide variety of applications, ranging from problems in electronics, energy and the environment, to mechanics and mechatronics. Topics covered include: Applied Physics, Biology and Medicine, Cybersecurity, Data Science, Economics, Finance and Insurance, Energy, Production Systems, Social Challenges, and Vehicles and Transportation.The goal of the European Consortium for Mathematics in Industry (ECMI) conference series is to promote interaction between academia and industry, leading to innovations in both fields. These events have attracted leading experts from business, science and academia, and have promoted the application of novel mathematical technologies to industry. They have also encouraged industrial sectors to share challenging problems where mathematicians can provide fresh insights and perspectives. Lastly, the ECMI conferences are one of the main forums in which significant advances in industrial mathematics are presented, bringing together prominent figures from business, science and academia to promote the use of innovative mathematics in industry.
This book provides a comprehensive yet informal introduction to differentiating and integrating real functions with one variable. It also covers basic first-order differential equations and introduces higher-dimensional differentiation and integration. The focus is on significant theoretical proofs, accompanied by illustrative examples for clarity. A comprehensive bibliography aids deeper understanding. The concept of a function's differential is a central theme, relating to the "differential" within integrals. The discussion of indefinite integrals (collections of antiderivatives) precedes definite integrals, naturally connecting the two. The Appendix offers essential math formulas, exercise properties, and an in-depth exploration of continuity and differentiability. Select exercise solutions are provided. This book suits short introductory math courses for novice physics/engineering students. It equips them with vital differentialand integral calculus tools for real-world applications. It is also useful for first-year undergraduates, reinforcing advanced calculus foundations for better Physics comprehension.
This book provides a comprehensive analysis of time domain boundary integral equations and their discretisation by convolution quadrature and the boundary element method.Properties of convolution quadrature, based on both linear multistep and Runge-Kutta methods, are explained in detail, always with wave propagation problems in mind. Main algorithms for implementing the discrete schemes are described and illustrated by short Matlab codes; translation to other languages can be found on the accompanying GitHub page. The codes are used to present numerous numerical examples to give the reader a feeling for the qualitative behaviour of the discrete schemes in practice. Applications to acoustic and electromagnetic scattering are described with an emphasis on the acoustic case where the fully discrete schemes for sound-soft and sound-hard scattering are developed and analysed in detail. A strength of the book is that more advanced applications such as linear and non-linear impedance boundary conditions and FEM/BEM coupling are also covered. While the focus is on wave scattering, a chapter on parabolic problems is included which also covers the relevant fast and oblivious algorithms. Finally, a brief description of data sparse techniques and modified convolution quadrature methods completes the book.Suitable for graduate students and above, this book is essentially self-contained, with background in mathematical analysis listed in the appendix along with other useful facts. Although not strictly necessary, some familiarity with boundary integral equations for steady state problems is desirable.
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